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Music therapy for depression

Music therapy for depression

Music Drpression Facts. Gluten-free gym supplements active music tyerapy, the Music therapy for depression actually Diuretic effect on liver in the process of creating music. In Gherapy context of the clear distinction between these two major categories, it is clear that to evaluate the effects of music therapy and other music-based intervention studies on depression can be misleading. In IIMT, improvising is primarily understood both as a symbolic representation of abstract mental content, and as an expressive medium able to evoke emotions, images, and memories Erkkilä et al.

Music therapy for depression -

Mental health is an important part of our total health. Certain mental health conditions, specifically anxiety and depression, are two common conditions that continue to grow in prevalence year after year. Even the World Health Organization WHO is concerned since these conditions affect around million people around the world.

Anxiety and depression can both be debilitating and create issues in daily life for people struggling with them, such as interference in school, work, and relationships. Fortunately, emerging treatments, such as music therapy, can provide non-invasive and cost-effective options for individuals with these disorders.

This article aims at providing some insights into the value of music therapy in mental health, including the mechanism of action and how this therapy is implemented as music can be a hopeful treatment choice. Anxiety is a feeling of unease, fear, and apprehension.

It can cause various symptoms, such as sweating, rapid heart rate, hyperventilation, feeling weak or tired, nervousness, and difficulty concentrating.

Depression is another mental health condition affecting how someone feels and thinks. For example, it can affect their life activities such as personal relationships, work, and even enjoying different parts of life. This medical condition is characterized by a persistent loss of interest in daily activities and decreased mood, significantly impacting overall everyday life.

It can present in various persistent symptoms such as sleep disturbances, appetite changes, chronic fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.

It can also lead to increased thoughts of self-harm. There are an estimated 25 million adults and teens in the US that have this disorder annually. Music therapy , as defined by AMTA American Music Therapy Association , uses evidence-based music interventions in the clinical setting.

These interventions should be completed by an approved credentialed professional. The elements of their therapy include establishing a therapeutic relationship with individuals and accomplishing their specific goals. This therapy can be applied to the mental health setting and impact emotions through promoting wellness, managing stress, improving memory and communication, and expressing feelings.

A meta-analysis of studies indicated that music therapy can be used to reduce anxiety symptoms and depression in adults. This analysis revealed that music therapy helped with physical and mental relaxation, promoting overall well-being.

This therapy allows patients to get in touch with their emotions and encourages interpersonal relationships with their therapists. It can provide distraction and improve communication to overcome barriers and limitations, making music therapy effective in managing anxiety.

A meta-analysis of music therapy and depression revealed that music can be beneficial in alleviating depressive symptoms. Music therapy was a valuable tool in conjunction with treatment as usual TAS in modulating moods and emotions.

It also showed that it effectively improved functioning and anxiety levels in people with depression. In a cancer study , music therapy demonstrated a reduction in depression and anxiety as a non-invasive method. Medications are often used in cancer patients with depression.

However, they can come with many side effects on the patient's mind and can create drug dependence. Therefore, music therapy shows promising benefits as a non-drug method in cancer patients to alleviate symptoms of depression.

There is increasing evidence that the use of clinical musical therapy can have beneficial effects on the brain. The neurological and physiological impact includes engaging the brain centers involved in emotion, motivation, cognition, and motor functions.

This therapy can improve socialization, emotional and neuromotor functioning. Music therapy can activate the limbic system, the reward and pleasure centers of the brain, thus positively impacting mood and promoting social cohesion, communication, and relationships.

This therapy can improve the psychosocial aspects of people struggling with mental health disorders and effects their overall emotional well-being by activating these various brain processes. Qualified music therapists will utilize various effective techniques in their sessions with people with anxiety and depression.

Firstly, they must assess each individual's needs and strengths, including discussing their emotional well-being, physical health, social functioning, communication abilities, cognition, trauma history, and physiological responses.

They may also discuss whether the patients have musical backgrounds and preferences. The music therapy to be offered is based on the ideas and principles of improvisational music therapy [ 21 , 22 ], and the application of the ideas of Priestley's [ 36 ] analytical music therapy.

The practical application of the clinical improvisation method has been developed during the training of therapists involved in this research project at JYU Music Therapy Clinic for Research and Training.

The basic principle of the intervention is to encourage and engage a client in expressive musical interaction. The starting point for improvisation may be either free or referential.

The shared experience is discussed, and the therapeutic process is based on the mutual construction of meaning of emerging thoughts, images, emotional content, and expressive qualities as reflected and understood within the context of the psychodynamic framework.

All improvisations are recorded to computer, and they may be listened to during the same session or afterwards for further processing and discussion. Other than this, no music listening is used as a method; the main focus is on active expressive music making with verbal processing of the experience.

Instrumentation is restricted to the use of mallet midi controllers, midi-percussion and modified Djembe-drums to meet the special needs of data collection in this research project.

Every therapy session will be video recorded for data collection and supervision. The music therapy clinicians who have committed to the study have professional training in music therapy.

In addition, they have been specifically trained in the clinical method and it's theoretical basis. The aim of the training was to achieve more common understanding about theoretic-clinical questions between therapists, and also to develop the therapeutic expertise needed in the improvisational approach of psychodynamic music therapy.

Real-time peer observation and reflective group work was used as a primary training method. All the experiential demonstration sessions during the training were video recorded, and were used as reference material for supervision and further processing of emerging themes.

In addition to the training, adherence to the method and competence in it's application will be monitored and maintained through professional supervision of a psychiatrist and a music therapy supervisor, utilizing the therapists' clinical notes and video- and audio-recorded therapy sessions.

Patients will continue to receive treatment as usual while receiving music therapy. Standard care may consist of medication antidepressants and psychiatric counselling. The psychiatrist in charge of the patient's treatment will monitor dose and frequency of treatment they receive before randomisation and after 3 and 6 months.

Patients will receive treatment as usual during the study period. As in the experimental group, standard care may consist of medication antidepressants and psychiatric counselling, which will be monitored in the same way as described above for the experimental group.

A power calculation was carried out for the primary outcome depressive symptoms and secondary outcomes general symptoms, functioning. The following assumptions were used in the calculation:. The target number of sessions in this study is As a conservative estimate, it is assumed that participants will attend at least 15 sessions on average.

Based on these assumptions, the power of a t-test was calculated using R package pwr [ 37 ]. This is a conservative estimate because it does not take into account pretest scores. As depression will be the primary outcome, the intended sample size will be sufficient for an exploratory trial.

After inclusion in the study and pretest assessment, the participants will be allocated to conditions using a computerised randomisation procedure. This will be done by the external expert that has no direct contact with the patients in order to conceal the allocation from the involved clinicians.

The study will use blind ratings and standardised instruments with demonstrated validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. In addition, objective physical measurements as described below will be used. Symptoms of depression will be measured with the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale MADRS [ 38 ].

The MADRS consists of 10 items, and the total score varies between 0 and High joint reliability 0. Predictive validity for major depressive disorder has been demonstrated, and cut-off scores have been defined for severe, moderate, and mild forms of depression [ 39 ].

The anxiety subscale HADS-A of this widely used, valid and reliable questionnaire [ 41 , 42 ] consists of 7 items. Scores can range from 0 to 21, and higher scores indicate more anxiety.

The HADS is fast and easy to use, and internal consistency of the Finnish version has been demonstrated [ 43 ] for Cronbach's alpha. Consistency normally ranges from.

The GAF is probably the most often used global assessment instrument. Validity in the severely mentally ill population has been demonstrated through high correlation between clinical support and medication levels [ 45 ].

The modified GAF, which will be used in this study, has shown high interrater reliability 0. The modified GAF has also been found to be less sensitive to amount of training and variety of employment backgrounds of raters.

It maps well-being and functioning on eight dimensions. In a Finnish study, discrimination validity of the questions were supported by the results, after which the correlations of the questions with foreign scales were mostly lower than with specially designed scale.

Validity and reliability of the Finnish version of the RAND have been found to be adequate Cronbach's alpha for all the sub-scales not less than. Alexithymia will be evaluated with the TAS, which is a self-report questionnaire for the assessment of alexithymia [ 48 ]. Adequate internal validity of translated versions of the TAS has been demonstrated Cronbach's alphas ranging from.

Alexithymia is considered in this study because, despite previous suggestions to the contrary, alexithymia seems not to be only a trait related, but a state related disorder as well, typically occurring with depression.

In addition, the BDI scores increased or decreased proportionately with the change in TAS score in both groups. All the improvisations created in the therapy sessions will be recorded either as MIDI-data mallet midi-controllers and midi-percussion or as digital audio Djembe drums.

For the analysis of MIDI-data, a computational method called MTTB Music Therapy Toolbox , specifically developed for the analysis of music therapy improvisations in MIDI-format, will be employed.

The MTTB-method enables the automatic extraction of various musical features from an improvisation, as well as the examination of certain aspects of the therapist-client interaction.

The method has been successfully utilized in the analysis of clinical improvisations by people with mental retardation [ 54 , 55 ].

For the analysis of digital audio data, a computational method called MIR Music Information Retrieval will be employed [ 56 ]. Like the MTTB, MIR also enables the extraction of specific musical features from the music, and the examination of musical interaction between therapist and client.

MIR has not been utilized in a clinical context before. Video recordings will be used as a resource for the interpretation of results, and for studying the therapy process. Masters and post-graduate students will perform qualitative and quantitative content analyses on this data. Focused microanalysis will be used for specific process-related issues, and for studying emotional transitions during the micro- and macro-level processes [ 57 ].

EEG measurement will be conducted based on the findings of earlier research on depression. Because of it's time-locked correlations, EEG has become the measure of choice for music and brain research; brain imaging techniques that provide distinct spatial information such as fMRI and PET , for example, lack time and event-related correlations [ 58 , 59 ].

Depression has been found to be correlated with a hypoactivation of left brain activity [ 14 ], and this may be improved after treatment [ 11 , 16 ].

Secondly, a more distinct and variable spectral EEG pattern according to personality [ 60 ], and specific reactions of theta variables [ 61 ] in the treatment and control group, are expected as mediators of change. Analysis of the EEG will focus on topographic distribution of spectral power and percentage of EEG frequencies.

Ordered, but randomly allocated sets of short pieces of instrumental music characterising 5 basic emotions tenderness, anger, fear, sadness, happiness. A randomised order of short pieces of instrumental music comprising excerpts of film soundtracks previously rated and categorised according to the emotional dimensions of valence, tension, and energy [Eerola T: Mapping Musical Features to Perceived Emotions sing Partial Least Squares Regression [Submitted].

In The 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition. Sapporo, Japan: The Center for Research and Development in Higher Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; ]. The EEG data will be correlated with the results of the behavioural test for emotional qualities of music see below , which will contain the same two data sets.

This test will be administered after the EEG investigation. To avoid repetition, the excerpts in both sets will be presented in another random order. In these behavioural experiments, participants will listen to two sets of music excerpts and self-rate them based on emotional qualities and characteristics of music.

The music excerpts will be 15 seconds long. The first set of excerpts has been chosen based on basic emotions [ 62 — 65 ]. The second set is based on the three-dimensional model [ 66 ] of musical emotions.

All stimulus examples have been tested and validated with a non-clinical population [Eerola T: Mapping Musical Features to Perceived Emotions sing Partial Least Squares Regression [Submitted].

In the experiments, participants will listen to excerpts in a randomized order, and use a computer and specially-written software to rate them.

Mediator processes will be examined using structural equation modelling. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy in the treatment of depression.

The few existing properly conducted RCTs in this context suggest that music therapy may be of benefit, but leave many open questions. For instance, little is known about the effect of music therapy in particular client populations, or about the role of a particular music therapy model or technique in the effect.

In addition, more research is needed in order to tease out the possible domain specific benefits of music therapy as compared to other forms of therapy. Taking these premises into consideration, we have arrived at certain definitions and methodological solutions.

Primarily, we hope to clarify the benefit of music therapy for working age people with depression. We also want to examine whether active music therapy techniques are effective, as could be assumed based on clinical experience.

A specific emphasis will be given to mediating agents such as musical expression and interaction within the therapy sessions, and how they reflect and contribute to possible recovery.

To clarify that, we will use music-specific, computational analysis methods with particular motivation to find out how useful they are in detecting therapeutically-relevant musical phenomena, and their significance in interpreting the possible outcome.

In addition to traditional outcome measures in psychiatry, we will employ an EEG-method, utilising musical stimuli selected on the basis of the latest knowledge concerning the emotional meaning of music.

When planning the principles and instrumentation for the therapy sessions according to the above-mentioned research goals, we have had to assent to some deviations from the traditional clinical practice that may be considered as limitations. To examine the effect of improvisational music therapy, we will not apply any other clinical techniques, such as listening to composed music, in the research therapy sessions.

This may, on occasion, prevent spontaneous and intuitive work with mixed therapy techniques. Furthermore, for effective data collection and therapy fidelity reasons, a limited musical instrumentation will be used in the sessions.

In some cases, this may restrict one's search for optimal expressive capacity. Level of medication may be adjusted during a participants' involvement in the trial. This has to be taken into account concerning the comparison of music perception, and when analysing the expressivity of improvised music.

The strengths of this study are undoubtedly its methodological strictness and the work done for treatment fidelity as well as clearness of the clinical technique.

Furthermore, a unique combination of outcome measures is utilized, offering the possibility to make profound interpretations if music therapy is found to be effective. The combination of brain imaging and self-rating methods based on musical stimulus, computational music analysis methods, and psychiatric assessment, results in a complementary and many-sided set of measures allowing access to various underlying determinants of a treatment.

If improvisational music therapy turns out to be effective it offers an alternative form of therapy with some unique contents.

For those clients who do not benefit from verbal psychotherapy, music therapy — by its nonverbal ways of expressing and interacting — might offer an appropriate option.

In addition, evoking and dealing with emotions is often associated with music therapy, which supposedly fits well to the treatment of emotional disorders such as depression.

In addition to gaining an insight into the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy, we also aim to test and further develop new kinds of analysis methods for research and clinical purposes.

Our study is without doubt an ambitious project, and represents the first time in music therapy research that such a diverse combination of methods has been used to investigate the manifestation of, and recovery from, illness.

At its best, in addition to filling gaps in discipline-specific knowledge, we hope that the study will provide useful information regarding the embodiment and treatment aspects of depression in general.

EPSHP: Depression alueellinen hoito-ohjelma Etelä-Pohjanmaan sairaanhoitopiiri. Google Scholar. Tuulakari J, Aromaa E: Pohjalainen masennus. Helsinki: Kansallinen mielenterveys- ja päihdehankkeiden yhteistyöseminaari Lehtinen V: Depression epidemologia.

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CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Allen JJB, Kline JP: Frontal EEG asymmetry, emotion, and psychopathology: the first, and the next 25 years. Biol Psychol. Maletic V, Robinson M, Oakes T, Iyengar S, Ball SG, Russell J: Neurobiology of Depression: An Integrated View Of Key Findings.

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Music can have an influence on mood as well as thoughts and behaviors. Music therapy is an intervention that can be utilized to promote emotional health and create coping mechanisms used to deal with disorders such as depression.

Music therapy uses music in both a vocal and instrumental form to treat people with mental health needs. The emotional aspect of music is used in music therapy as a neurological stimulator that incites reactions of a non-musical nature.

Music healing is in the name. Music healing is healing through the power of music, also known as music therapy. This healing comes from decreasing symptoms of depression as well as improving the physical and psychological aspects that come along with having a depressive disorder.

Incadence is a music therapy and technology firm that provides music therapy assistance and services via internet video calls. Incadence does not discriminate and is welcoming to individuals of all ages and backgrounds. They have a wonderful staff of board certified music therapists that are dedicated in helping you heal from many things.

Music therapy helps individuals with autism meet sensory, motor and emotional needs. Music therapy also provides couples therapy in a unique way.

Finally, music therapy can help with a variety of mental health needs. These include anxiety, depression, or any other disorder. Music therapy is a valid and effective treatment option and is highly recommended for individuals who have found no success in other treatments.

The opportunity to grow and heal is given to you through song-writing, music listening, and discussion. Need help feeling better and want to try something unique?

Call Incadence to be paired with a music therapist today. Incadence is transforming the health care industry. By joining our team, you can be a part of this revolution and a leader in health care.

About Us FAQ Contact Us Who We Serve Blog. Music Therapy for Depression How Does Music Affect the Cognitive Function of Individuals Suffering From Depression?

This article will discuss: The definition of depression and its symptoms How music affects the cognitive function of people suffering from depression The benefits of music therapy What services Incadence offers for individuals with mental disorders Depression What is Depression?

Symptoms During depressive episodes, a person may experience loss of interest and enjoyment of daily activities as well as loss of appetite. Cognitive Functioning How Does Music Affect the Cognitive Function of People Suffering from Depression?

It can decrease depressiob and improve Music therapy for depression. Music has powerful effects on depresaion mind. Making Tor can also be as beneficial as listening to Spicy cauliflower bites, and music therapy encourages people to actively create the music they find helpful to them. This article explains what music therapy is, how it can help improve mental healthand its effects on different mental health conditions. It is an alternative to other types of therapy, such as counseling or cognitive behavioral therapy CBT. Is music therapy an effective treatment for depression? Deptession there Gluten-free gym supplements between the various types of Musjc therapy? Depression is a common depression marked Focus and concentration supplements mood changes and loss of interest and pleasure in normal activities. Inan estimated Music affects a patient's emotional state by increasing dopaminergic activity, downregulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system. Both treatments use trained music therapists and may include self-reflection time. Music therapy for depression

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