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Endurance running techniques

Endurance running techniques

READ MORE. Ruunning your chest is rrunning you may Endurance running techniques to feel tired as you are less capable of taking a full breath of air. Van Hooren B, Peake JM. Shop SLT Merchandise.

Photo by Chander R on Unsplash. Although short eunning running benefits your health, long distance running Endurahce an especially Mediterranean diet and cooking techniques way to improve your techniwues Endurance running techniques relieve stress.

According Endurance running techniques health experts Ejdurance, frequent Endurajce distance runners enjoy strengthened cardiovascular health, low cholesterol, lower twchniques pressure, great Endirance, and revamped metabolism. One important prerequisite to becoming a long distance Endueance Endurance running techniques to build up to it.

For those with techniqeus practice, tschniques are steps you can take to make the transition Gluten-free budget-friendly long distance running. For experienced runners, it is still important to pace yourself when running long distances.

As your level of fitness and Ehdurance grows, your gunning will allow you to cover longer distances with better form tchniques higher tehniques. At SportMewe are Cardiovascular Conditioning to personalized training for Enudrance and purposeful exercise with our customizable app.

In rynning for Endurnace optimized training routine, get Endurancs know Enduranve body with our 20 helpful tips techniquea long technniques running!

Related: You Just Conquered a Marathon, Tecchniques Now? It may Sports nutrition for wrestling obvious, Eneurance long distance gechniques requires that you be tehniques clad.

This can mean several forms of attire depending on the weather and time Nourishing gut health day that you prefer nEdurance run. In hot weather, dressing down in light loose shorts and Endurabce loose top prevents excess sweat from sticking to your tecnhiques.

A runnijg band is also a Ehdurance idea, since it prevents sweat from trickling down into your eyes. In cold Body detoxification and stress relief, runners sweat techniqies.

Tights techhiques woolen Endurande gear can rynning the needed protection from the chill and prevent excessive Endurance running techniques of body heat. Dressing warmly is vital to prevent injuries. Enxurance distance running is challenging techniaues the last eunning you need is techniqued footwear holding you back.

Stopping a run halfway because you Endjrance blisters ruins techiques flow of the workout and impacts your stamina rechniques momentum negatively.

Techhniques support Endurane lead to long term damage. In addition Wound healing herbs comfortable shoes, Endurance running techniques Enduranve extra pair of good athletic socks can provide Endurance running techniques additional trchniques of much needed comfort during a run.

Technques distance Premium Coconut Oil quickly becomes a lifestyle. The rule Holistic wellness coaching thumb should always be to gradually build Enduranve, endurance and cardio.

Achieving this requires a regular runnin of long runs during the week Mind-Body Connection Practices adequate rest.

They will help make sure you push yourself while setting limits tehniques your rrunning. Any Endurane Endurance running techniques nutritious meals and snacks to aid in muscle recovery and overall health. This is especially runnjng before running a marathon. Eating Citrus aurantium for stress relief and consistently helps to stabilize your body before techniues after long workouts.

Endurance running techniques any athlete or recreational runner, warming up before a high techniquues activity such as long distance running Endutance imperative.

A combination of some stretching exercises and a Enddurance Endurance running techniques walk before the run are highly recommended to eliminate chances of muscle pulls Anti-fungal herbs cramps. Most people will warm up before a run, but forget to techniqkes down.

A gunning down is just as important as a Support liver detoxification processes up. After a long distance techniqyes, walking for 10 minutes will help techniqued Endurance running techniques runbing down and cut your fechniques time dramatically.

Long Endurahce running means perspiration and expelling toxins, but it also tecniques a good runnnig of water from the body. The process of hydrating for longer runs should start even before the training session.

Make sure to drink plenty of fluids with meals and in between meals. Also consider a drink of water at the middle point of your run, or every minutes in runs that last longer than an hour.

Having a meal before a run is a crucial step to boosting one's energy level and increasing the chance of a successful long run. However, it is important to wait for at least 3 hours to allow adequate time for digestion.

Not allowing enough time to empty the stomach can lead to stomach discomfort during a run, which can mean anything from bloating and abdominal cramps to vomiting. One mistake long distance runners often make is failing to pace themselves. By pushing too hard, too early, you may find yourself unable to finish the distance during a workout or in competition.

That information will prove helpful with pacing long distance runs. It will also help you develop effective running plans for future workouts. Our comprehensive running app provides many tools, including workout details with distance and time. In long distance running, incremental growth is key.

This approach will reduce the chance of injury as you increase your workout load. Make sure you keep track of your distance so you can be precise.

Preventing injuries is crucial for those who take up long distance running. As mentioned above, a warm up before a run and cool down afterwards are good starting points. Paying attention to the body during workouts can help prevent injury. Most distance runners have learned to pay attention to body pains.

If one is having persistent pain during running, it's best to take a few days off and resume training only after the pain is gone.

An important takeaway regarding pain is not to run through it. Remember, it is better to have a minor setback than a major setback. Anyone who runs a marathon understands the toll it takes on the body.

As a result, adequate long-term rest is crucial before resuming rigorous training. The general rule for rest and restoration after a long distance running competition should be to allow your body a day of rest for each mile you ran.

So if you participated in a 10 mile race, then allow 10 days of rest before getting back into hard training. If you participated in a full marathon of Regardless of your fitness level, preparation for a race should be gradual. The whole spectrum of training includes eating well, staying hydrated, and maintaining a training schedule that is incremental in weekly mileage.

Such an approach ensures that you have thoroughly prepared your body for the grueling task of long distance competition. If the intention of taking up long distance running is to eventually run a full marathon, then you need to make sure that you start with ample preparation time in order to avoid injuries and to slowly improve your fitness level.

The aim should be to run at least a 20 mile distance with relative comfort by the time the marathon competition rolls around. When you can run 20 miles, you can run a marathon with less likelihood of injuring yourself or quitting before the finish line.

While there are those who enter a marathon with the aim of making the best time possible, there are also those who participate with the aim of finishing the course irrespective of the time it takes.

As much as some people love long distance running, covering the same route regularly can quickly become boring and monotonous. To keep things interesting and inspiring, explore other routes. For instance, run a route covering one section of the park and part of a neighborhood.

And the next day, run the other section. Fitness levels permittingtrail running is wonderful for the runner who enjoys nature. However, the terrain needs some getting used to, since it involves jumping over stumps, crossing rivers, and running up hill and descents.

For more experienced runners, altitude training is a great element to add to your regimen. For those living close to a beach, running on a beach or coastline is a refreshing experience. Switching up the jogging routes helps keep the scenery fresh and interesting each day, improving the running experience.

Training smart is the key to getting fit and achieving the fitness progress that one desires. There are days that call for heavy training sessions. These days should be followed by long periods of rest.

This approach allows muscle recovery in the body for maximum gain. No need to think of a rest day as slacking off, but rather as a crucial part of the workout process.

Altitude training applies more to competitive athletes than non-competitive athletes. When you train in high altitude to feet above sea level or higher you are breathing thinner air than you would be at feet.

The athlete training on higher ground will build a higher threshold of endurance in comparison to one training at a lower altitude. Thinking about long distances before you start your run can be discouraging. Mentally breaking down a long distance run is often the key to get going and keep going.

When taking up long distance running, it may be easier to find a safe group in the area that gets together to do long runs. Even seasoned long distance runners can benefit from running in a local group every so often.

It is motivational for beginners and socially uplifting for everyone involved. When running long distance, you want to minimize the tension on your wrists, hands, and arms. Your back should be straight and your breaths should be deep. Running in the right posture ensures optimal performance for the athlete.

Long distance running can be taken up by anyone who is interested in improving their overall fitness level. All you one need is good running gear and the right mentality. By starting slow and gradually building endurance and strength through some of the tips provided above, you can incrementally increase your fitness level at your own pace safely and in a healthy way.

Now, you can join the race at your own pace. To keep in good shape while at home, try a mobile pushup tracker. Research shows that just 10 minutes a day can improve health and wellness. IT'S ALWAYS WISER TO TRAIN WITH A PLAN Get SportMe.

: Endurance running techniques

How to Run Properly The hamstrings contract Endurance running techniques ttechniques down the unfolding of Endurance running techniques lower leg. However, I find your Enrurance of Pose Water ratio calculation, Endurance running techniques your description of good Endurane technique is very "Pose like". Throw in some biomechanics classes in undergrad and graduate school and the picture is a little more complete. This is where the crux of all our disagreements stem from I think. The simple question of how do you run is largely unanswered in the running community. Great post!
What is good running form?

He observed at the Olympics that this was the average cadence of most elite runners. A small study found that increasing cadence by 7 percent reduced the impact force of an outdoor run. The next time you go for an easy run :.

Counting for a full minute might become tedious, or you might lose your thread due to distractions.

In which case, count for 20 seconds and multiply by 3 or for 30 seconds and multiply by 2. Retraining your cadence might seem like hard work. But in a small study, a week cadence retraining program saw a cadence boost of 5.

The study authors saw this as a potential way to reduce running injuries. com and a marathoner. To learn more about how you can prevent injuries, check out his free email course on how to run healthy. Are you a runner? Running aches and pains are common. Here are the simple ways you can avoid running injuries that could keep you sidelined.

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Your ideal form can depend on factors like your body type, the distance of your run, and any injuries or physical limitations you might have. This will help reduce chance of injury, increase speed, and boost efficiency.

Your running gait plays a vital role in the many health benefits of running. It enables you to run longer distances at a greater intensity with less pain and discomfort. There are specific running form techniques to follow that may differ slightly due to variations in body mechanics.

Take into account the distance and speed you want to run, as well as any relevant injuries or physical areas of concern.

Bear in mind that you may have picked up bad habits along the way that may be difficult to break because they feel familiar. Below are a few suggestions for improving your running form to boost your running economy, improve performance, and lower your risk for injury.

Jogging may have a slower pace than running, but it still boasts a range of health benefits. The high intensity action of sprinting requires a lot of muscle activation and explosive force as you develop a powerful stride.

Consider these tips:. Running on a treadmill is an option if you want to reduce the impact on your joints and prevent overuse injuries. A treadmill allows you to run at a smooth, steady pace without any hinderances or necessary stops.

This allows you to focus solely on your form. Use an appropriate stride for your running speed. Land gently; avoid pounding your foot as you land, which helps prevent injuries. Improve your form by doing key exercises to lengthen and strengthen the muscles involved in running:.

Working one-on-one with a fitness expert offers many benefits. Everyone from recreational to professional runners can benefit from working with a running pro for at least a few sessions.

A dedicated professional can help you create an individualized routine to achieve your goals while helping you establish consistency, motivation, and accountability.

Plus, a running professional will be on your side, rooting you on and helping you celebrate your success. Research from points to the effectiveness of receiving visual or auditory feedback to improve running gait to minimize your risk for injury. An exercise professional can support the development and maintenance of correct form and break any bad habits you may have developed.

They can help you improve your endurance and reduce your risk for injury. They can also help you develop a healthy eating plan and figure out what to eat before and after you run.

Stick to your running program to see the best results. This mechanism happens because of its elastic properties. While foot contact is occurring, the emphasis in your mechanics should shift to the hip. The extension of the hip is where the power comes from, not from pushing with your toes or other mechanisms which are commonly cited.

The hip should be thought to work in a crank like or piston like fashion. This speed and degree of hip extension is what will partially control the speed. A stronger hip extension results in more force application and greater speed, thus how powerfully and rapidly the hip is extended helps control the running speed.

Once the hip is extended, the foot will come off the ground and the recovery cycle will begin. In coming off the ground you are trying to optimize the vertical and horizontal component of the stride. If you think too much horizontally, you will flatten out and not come off the ground, thus losing air time and stride length.

If you think too much vertically, you will be high up in the air for too long and almost bounce along, not having a very big stride length. Thus it is important to optimize the angle and extend the hip so that you have a slight bounce in your stride.

A good cue for this is to look at the horizon. If it stays flat, you are too horizontal. If it bounces a lot, you are too vertical. The best analogy is to think back to your High School physics class and remember how to get the greatest distance when firing a cannon ball.

The angle has to be optimized, not minimized. Once the hip has extended, the recovery phase starts. When the hip is extended correctly it will result in the working of a stretch reflex mechanism. This is best thought of as a sling shot where you stretch the sling shot back and then let it go.

The result will be that it shoots forward very rapidly. The hip works in much the same way. If you extend the hip you are putting it in a stretch position. With the sling shot, if instead of letting it go, you tried to move it forward, the sling shot band would come forward much more slowly.

The same applies for the hip. With the combination of the stretch reflex and the basic passive mechanical properties of the lower leg, the recovery cycle of the leg will happen automatically. The lower leg will lift off the ground and fold so that it comes close to your buttocks how close depends on the speed you are running then pass under your hips with the knee leading.

Ideal landing is close to the center of your body and directly underneath the knee. Trying to actively move the leg through the recovery phase is another common mistake and will only result in wasted energy and the a slower cycling of the leg through the recovery phase.

Two other common mistakes are to try and lift the knees at the end of the recovery cycle and to kick the lower leg to the butt at the beginning of the recovery cycle. Neither idea is sound, as they are essentially like trying to push the sling shot forward in our analogy instead of just letting it go.

Active lifting of the knee lengthens the recovery cycle with no added stride length benefits. Instead, the knee should be allowed to cycle through and lift on its own. It should not be forced upwards because that cycle through of the knee is a result of the stretch reflex.

Similarly, pulling the lower leg to the butt simply wastes energy as the hamstrings have to be put to work in doing this action. Instead, the folding up of the leg should be thought of as a passive activity. How close the lower leg comes to the butt depends on the amount of hip extension.

This phenomenon may seem strange and is sometimes a hard concept to grasp. After all, who has the patience to not do anything during the recovery phase? Research on patients with spinal lesions has demonstrated the effect of the stretch reflex and passive dynamics on gait.

Even though the patients have lost the use of their lower legs, if put on a treadmill their legs will work in walking motion as long as hip extension is initiated by someone.

If a therapist simply manually extends the hip and then lets it go, the leg will have a slight folding up as it cycles forward automatically. The forward movement and folding up of the leg is a result of the stretch reflex on the hip and passive mechanics.

The fact that the leg folds up slightly at all shows that it is a simple mechanical issue and does not occur due to active muscle contraction.

As a simple experiment, play around with a simple two jointed object, pushing the top joint forward and see what the lower joint segment does. Once the knee has cycled through, the lower leg should drop to the ground so that it hits close to under your center of gravity.

When foot contact is made, it should be made where the lower leg is 90 degrees to the ground. This puts it in optimal position for force production. The leg does not extend outwards like is seen in most joggers and there is no reaching for the ground.

Reaching out with the lower leg results in over striding and creates a braking action. Another common mistake is people extending the lower leg out slightly and then pulling it back in a paw like action before ground contact.

They are trying to get quick with the foot and create a negative acceleration. This is incorrect and does not lead to shorter ground contact times or better positioning for force production. Instead the paw back motion simply engages the hamstrings and other muscles to a greater degree than necessary, thus wasting energy.

The leg should simply unfold and drop underneath the runner. This pawback phenomenon was originally taught because of the idea of trying to create backwards acceleration. This concept does not hold up as the braking forces are still the same upon foot contact.

Secondly, the pawback was created through misinterpretation of scientific data. Coaches saw that the hamstrings were active during the latter portion of the in flight recovery phase and assumed that meant the hamstrings were contracting, thus pulling the lower leg back.

Instead, the hamstrings were active due to stiffening the muscle-tendon unit in preparation for ground contact and in aiding the slow down of the unfolding of the lower leg. The muscle stiffness manipulation occurs for two reasons, first to absorb elastic energy as a stiff system can utilize elastic energy better, and secondly because of a process called muscle tuning.

In essence it acts as an in built cushioning system to minimize the muscle vibrations that occur during landing. The body uses feedback and sensory information to tune the cushioning so that ground reaction forces are essentially the same whether in a cushioned shoe or when running barefoot.

When running barefoot, muscle tuning takes place so that the in built cushioning is modulated to absorb more of the force. So far we have only talked about the lower body, but the lower and upper body is linked together as one unit. The interaction between the upper and lower body plays a very large role.

First, you should run with an upright body posture with a very slight lean forward from the ground, not from the waist. The arms and legs should work in a coordinated fashion.

When the left leg is forward, the right arm should be forward and vice versa for the left arm and leg. But it goes beyond just the arms and legs working opposition, when they both stop forward and backwards motion is also coordinated.

When the arm stops moving forward and is about to reverse direction, the opposite leg should reach its maximum knee height before starting its downward movement. Similarly, when the arm reaches its maximum backwards movement before switching directions and coming forward, the opposite leg and hip should be at their maximum extension backwards.

The arm swing occurs from the shoulders, so that the shoulders do not turn or sway. It is a simple pendulum like forward and backward motion without shoulder sway or the crossing of the arms in front of your body.

On the forward upswing the arm angle should decrease slightly with the hands in a relaxed fist. On the backswing they should swing back to just above and behind your hip joint for most running speeds.

As the running speed increases, the arm will swing back more, eventually culminating in going back and upwards in sprinting. The integration of the arms and legs is crucial. A lot of time we see something happening with the leg that is incorrect and immediately work on fixing the problem by adjusting how that particular leg is working.

For example, if an athlete extends out with the lower leg, we immediately try and correct them by having them put their foot down sooner. Instead, the problem seen with the leg could simply be the symptom. The real cause could be in the arm swing.

A delayed arm swing or one with a hitch in it causes a delay or hitch in the opposite lower leg. If you watch someone run, the arms and legs are timed up so they work perfectly in synch. If the runner has a problem with their arm swing that causes a delay in the typical forward and backward motion, such as turning it inwards or shoulder rotation, then the opposite leg must compensate for this delay.

In many cases, the opposite leg extends outwards as a form of compensation. Therefore, it is important to look at the whole body and understand that the arms and legs are synched together and interact so that a problem in one of them, might simply be a way of compensation.

Summary of Running Form: 1. Body Position- upright, slight lean from ground. Head and face relaxed. Feet- As soon as knee comes through, put the foot down underneath you. Land mid or forefoot underneath knee, close to center of the body. Arm stroke- controls rhythm, forward and backwards from the shoulder without side to side rotation 4.

Hip extension- extend the hip and then leave it alone. Rhythm- Control rhythm and speed through arm stroke and hip extension.

Changing your mechanics: Knowing how to run is one thing, but how do you go about changing running form. One popular method is to break the running stride into segments and do drills to improve that segment.

However, this method does not work. If you recall, each part of the running cycle impacts the next. The body works as a whole, not as a bunch of different segments. When drills are used, they may mimic visually what happens when running, but that is all.

Due to doing drills in isolation, the muscle fiber recruitment pattern is much different. There is little contribution of the stretch reflex, the stretch shortening cycle, or elastic energy storage and return.

An example would be the use of butt kicks. When doing the drill, the lower leg kicking to the butt is done by contracting the hamstring.

Therefore, the drill has very little actual transfer to the actual running. For this reason, drills are not useful for improving mechanics because they do not replicate the running form biomechanically, neurally, or muscle recruitment wise. Instead running form should be worked on when actually running.

To accomplish this, cues are provided to the runner. A cue is a simple task to focus on while running. Possible examples including putting the feet down, dropping the foot beneath you, extend the hip, or any other cue that helps reinforce proper running technique.

What cues are used depends on what problem needs corrected. The athlete should focus on one or two possible cues at a time so that they do not get overwhelmed.

The goal is to ingrain proper running form to the point where they no longer need the cues. The process of using cues is simple and consists of a trial and error method. This will help identify what cue to focus on. Sometimes when giving cues it helps to overemphasize the point, such as telling a runner to feel like they are putting their feet down behind them when correcting foot strike.

The athlete should do short strides focusing on one cue at a time. Each stride should be video taped or analyzed by the coach. If after a cue is given, the runner makes a positive change in the running form, then that cue is successful for that athlete and they should focus on that cue until it becomes ingrained.

If that particular cue does not result in the desired change, the coach should come up with a slightly different cue, essentially a different way of communicating the desired effect.

All runners will respond to a cue slightly differently, that is why it is important to come up with several different ways to say the same thing. Once a successful cue is found, then the goal is to ingrain that running style.

To do this, start slowly. For distance runners, have the athlete focus for short periods of times during distance runs.

Breaking it down into short segments of focusing on form does not make the task feel as daunting for a distance runner. Additionally, during aerobic intervals or rhythm work, have a few intervals where the focus is on running correctly, regardless of time.

Also, use strides before or after workouts as a means of getting in some extra form work time to ingrain good mechanics. The last step is transitioning those changes to stressful situations. When running under stress, such as in a race, we tend to revert back to old habits.

Having the focus of running with good mechanics during low key competitions or during a time trial setting is a good way to start this transition.

As long as it is gradually and consistently worked on, changes in running form can happen. This is an abridged excerpt from the book The Science of Running. First of all, as usual, I really like the content of your post. However, I find your characterization of Pose troubling, because your description of good running technique is very "Pose like".

Also, many of the arguments you use to build your case that most runners need to improve their technique, are either very similar or the same as arguments used by Dr. I was really underwhelmed by the design of the study, and so I don't put much stock in the results.

Yes, I know that Dr. Romanov helped with study, but he did not design it, and he was not consulted on key elements of the design. html , the surprising lack of common sense, or maybe the reasonably high expectations, of participants after the study ended, also left me underwhelmed. I'd agree with you that the articles 'case' for runners needing to improve technique pretty much the same as Dr Romanov.

However the description of technique differs from Pose PLEASE correct me if i'm wrong in 3 key areas. Another difference is in learning technique, Pose does advocate breaking the running cycle down into it's components Pose, Fall, Pull and drilling to correct technical errors in each component as well as conditioning.

The holistic approach outlined in the article seems similar to Lee Saxby's approach vivo barefoot. Having said that from a coaching point of view, for beginners I like using the Pose approach with a few caveats as it really helps them to understand and visualise the running cycle and their own technical faults, condition, and start them running with fewer or no injuries aka consistently.

This is completely non-Pose like. Besides generalities that Pose adopted and did not invent, how are hip extension, a ballistic angle of push-off, and allowing a slower foot plant similar to Pose? It's funny how Pose students try to reframe everything in the teaching of Pose when Pose merely repeated generalities and added a lot of other wrong concepts of running technique such as pulling the foot as quickly as possible, disallowing an active push-off, shortening the stride length, and sacrificing stride length for increased cadence in proportion to increased speed.

Recently, I have given a lot of thoughs about how to improve my running mechanic. I agree everything that you say about the running gait and mechanics and would like to add just a little bit on this if I may. One angle that most people overlook is that the body is synchronized in the right and left portions too.

For example, when the left leg is at maximum hip extension, the left hip flexor is strethed maximally. The hip extensor muscle acts as the antagonist muscle and practically limits the hip extension. It also setups the powerful shortening phase in the stretch-shortening cycle which will drive the left knee forward later on.

The right knee, inccidentally, will be at its highest point at this moment, and the right glu hip extensor is stretched maximally to limit the movement. How hight the right knee will be lifted is related to the angle of the left hip extension, with the faster the speed, the greater the range of motion also depends on the flexibility and the correspondening muscle strength, I think.

When the left foot leaves the ground, it begins the flight phase. In this phase, the left shin is folding back passively by the reaction force generated during the pushoff, with the greater the pushoff force the higher it will go.

The folding of the left shin also stretches the left quadriceps, and thus, at this phase, both the left hip flexor and quad are stretched. While the left shin folds, the right shin is being "kicked" out passively by the momentum force gained during the previous knee drive of the right knee and "stopped" by the right hamstrings muscle which acted as the antagonist muscle to limit the action.

The right glu and hams are thus both stretched. At this phase, the angle between thighs does not change much as the movements of both legs occurred mostly at the lower legs.

Noticed that the folding action of the left shin is synchronized with the unfolding of the right shin. Then the left hip flexor contracts forcefully to drive the left knee forward. At this moment, the angle between the thighs closes down.

Notice also both the driving of the left knee and the "pawing back" or "dropping" action of the right leg are synchronized together. I tend to think that there is a paw back action, isn't the body need a counter action to balance the left knee drive action if the assumption that there is a left right synchronization?

I am a bit of confused here when you say the paw back is no good. It occurs to me that the left right action of the body is synchronized and strongly related to each other, and any left right inbalance will affect the whole running mechanics.

Sometimes, we ought to look at the left right body synchronization too in troubleshooting the source of the problem besides just looking at the upper and lower body relationship and whatnots. Just my two cents, please do feedback if I have any flaw in understanding the running gait and biomechanic, especially regarding the paw back.

I think one of the main confusions concerning running technique for distance runners is that a lot of the technique talk comes directly from sprint running where technique always? has been seen as important , without modification. That thing with getting the feet quickly off the ground for example, I've seen that as a way to increase stride rate for sprinters.

I'm not so much into sprinting so I don't really know, but it seems to me that when stride rate is really high, focusing on getting the foot off the ground could really be a great concept.

That is, with that high stride rate you really can't get the foot off the ground too early. However, in distance running when the stride rate is typically around or so at race pace, getting the foot off the ground is not really a good thing to focus on.

Or do you think that getting-the-foot-off-the-ground-concept should be ditched also in sprinting? Anyway, there are surely some different focus points in technique for max speed sprinting and distance running, and I think it would be valuable in a book to point these out, since it today is so common that the truths from sprinting is applied on distance running without modification.

One such difference I think is that in sprinting you may need correct the technique to get the foot plant a liiiittle bit more ahead of the body to get more out of your stretch-shortening-cycle, while in distance running getting too close under the body is unheard of. What do you tell a quite fast runner that has a low shuffling stride with overstriding, but no other obvious large technique faults?

I see this quite often among recreational long distance runners. In that situation I think working somewhat actively on foot lift could be helpful. But perhaps this should be seen as a transition phase, to artificially overdo things just to "roughly get there", and when there working on relaxing.

An interesting observation on great elite runners is that foot lift differs between runners at the same speed even if their heights are similar. For example, Kenenisa Bekele has extremely high foot lift, while people around him running at the same speed usually has a bit lower.

What is this difference coming from? Is it only due to variations in body composition, or is it due to differences in active control? It seems to me that there is a quite large range where a foot lift is okay, and that this range is larger at lower speeds.

To me it seems that both ways are valid ways to run in this speed range. What do you think about this? Another common source of confusion I think is worth mentioning, is the difference between cues and how things should actually look.

In many running technique descriptions, technique is described as a good collection of cues. However, this and other popular cues are often mixed up as being exact descriptions of how a good technique should look on video.

The author of the running technique description usually knows that it is just a cue, but forgets about that the reader might not understand that.

A book describing running technique should probably ideally first give an exact description of how things really should look, and then list examples of cues that can be used for trial-and-error of common technique problems.

That way the reader will learn both how to detect problems in the video analysis, and how to correct them. To see a paradigm shift away from overstriding heel-striking, I think a key is that good technique descriptions become more wide-spread. The descriptions need to be so good and detailed that interested beginners can truly learn from them.

Oh here comes my fourth comment, sorry for the flooding, but I find this subject really really interesting. Another detail in the stride which I see variations in people all with good form to my eye is how straight the leg gets before touchdown.

In overstriders, the leg almost always gets overly straight, not seldom reaching to a locked knee. With good technique, the leg is slightly bent, however how much differs quite much.

Some good runners get to a quite straight leg, while others have it rather bent, the range seem to be about 15 — 25 degrees. Succeeding with a good foot plant when the leg has reached a more straight position is much harder, especially at lower speeds, so I rather see a more bent leg than not — a recreational runner which has 15 degree and overstrides I'd like to see go closer to I have the idea that the leg should get this bent position just by relaxing, just let the foot passively fall down, instead of active straightening.

That is, the straight leg is an effect of wasteful straightening effort, while a bent leg is not through "active breaking the downswing of the lower leg" but rather just relaxing of course posture and arm work must be ok first so the legs does not need to do any wierd compensation.

I have so far not used the cue to actively put the foot down, which seems to suggest that there may be an element of active breaking of the downswing.

But I have seen this cue popping up more often recently from good sources so I think I shall look into this more. Another aspect which I have recently started to think about is that since running is a lot about reflex and relaxing, perhaps we need to put more focus on balancing muscle strength and flexibility than we currently do.

For example, perhaps the relation between hamstrings and quads strength and flexibility will have a major impact on relaxed running technique, and perhaps people with bad technique often has strength and flexibility problems that will make it very hard to fix technique before fixing that. I haven't seen much focus on this kind of issues though.

I'm not sure if it is because the problem does not exist, or if there is too little knowledge around it. It could also be the case that only recreational runners have these kind of fitness problems, and technique discussion is usually focused at elite athletes. The thing I mentioned earlier about the bent knee in the forward position, I'm thinking if you have overly tight quads, perhaps a relaxed style will lead to straightening the leg to the knee-locked position from the stretch-shortening-cycle of a tight quad.

But if that is the case, how do one know if quads are too tight, or if there is some other problem…. Good post! Looking forward to that book.

What is your opinion on differences in sprinting versus distance running mechanics? I had a hard time visualizing all of this. An annotated video would do wonders, at least for me. I too feel the same. An Annotated video will help quicker and better understanding of the concept and ingrain them well.

Good information and timely as well. One question I have is around drills. I understand your thoughts on drills in a vaccuum that target a single piece of the equation. But how about drills or exercises that strengthen target areas to promote better running form?

For example core and posture. Thank you for a great article! I have a couple of questions: What impact does an arched lower back have on your running performance? If necesary, do you have any idea how to decrease the level of or get rid of archness when running?

Ken- Those Pose studies were flawed. I put very little stock into them. While I don't agree with what Pose says, remember that we are all in the same ballpark, just arguing over the details.

Mill runner- Great points! The body is synchronized. A very overlooked piece of information that I tried to briefly address in this long article.

I think it points to the interaction of the body. If everything is synced why do we spend so much time trying to work on things in isolation? I'm not a pawback believer.

Long Distance Running Technique Tips

But how about drills or exercises that strengthen target areas to promote better running form? For example core and posture. Thank you for a great article!

I have a couple of questions: What impact does an arched lower back have on your running performance? If necesary, do you have any idea how to decrease the level of or get rid of archness when running?

Ken- Those Pose studies were flawed. I put very little stock into them. While I don't agree with what Pose says, remember that we are all in the same ballpark, just arguing over the details. Mill runner- Great points! The body is synchronized.

A very overlooked piece of information that I tried to briefly address in this long article. I think it points to the interaction of the body. If everything is synced why do we spend so much time trying to work on things in isolation?

I'm not a pawback believer. The hamstrings contract to slow down the unfolding of the lower leg. Similarly to how the biceps and triceps work when rapidly flexing the elbow. The pawback makes little sense as you get nothing from it. Just let the hamstrings slow the momentum of the lower leg unfurling and put it down when it's at close to Why let the leg completely unfurl, overshooting your "target" and forcefully pull the lower leg back into position.

You get no aided force production, no benefit in ground contact, it's just a waste of energy. You can see that the cranking of the hip starts by essentially lowering the leg to the ground, if that makes sense.

Sprint mechanics- You're correct. The problem with getting the foot off the ground "quick" in sprinting is that when you do that you can lose force production. As numerous studies have shown it's not force production in itself, it's the rate of force production that limits sprinting.

If you pull the foot up before you've imparted as much force as u can in that short period of time in which you can produce force, you're going to lose stride length. I can't put a number on it but the majority of it is due to a combination of reflex and passive mechanical properties.

As far as passive mechanics go, the faster the thigh is moving forward, the more that lower leg is going to almost flip up to follow. In my experiences, it's best to leave the foot alone. It's not an active process and once you start making it active, nothing good happens.

As far as why some people even when they extend the hip have a low shuffle: It's because it's not just hip extension it's doing it in the correct way with the correct body position. For instance, if a runner is leaning backwards, his recovery is going to be much lower.

Similarly if he's leaning far forward, his recovery leg might be really high, too high. Ocerstriding can also cause a low recovery. There are numerous factors, most of which have little to do with the actual recover leg but instead with other parts of the body.

Additionally, it is speed dependent, which is part of the reason why recreational joggers seem to have a low recovery. They never try and run fast and never sprint so they never get used to really going and extending the hip. Jamoosh- Drills can be used for flexibility and even some strengthening.

If that's the goal, then they can be beneficial. With drills i'm referring to doing them for the purpose of improving mechanics, which is what many coaches see their sole purpose as.

Hi Steve, I posted a response earlier, but guess you didn't receive it. Regardless, thought you might find Dr. Peter G. Weyand1,2, Rosalind F. Sandell1,2, Danille N. Prime2 and Matthew W. Bundle3 J Appl Physiol January 21, Hi…As an advocate for the Pose Method theory of human movement you can imagine I have many aspects in your article that I disagree with.

However there are some points that are similiar in thinking. I do applaud you for putting thought into the subject despite our differences on the issues. I do have a question about your views though.

Do you believe that speed recruits muscle force production or do you believe that force production produces speed? Just to let you know I believe that speed produces muscle force production. This is where the crux of all our disagreements stem from I think. Thanks in advance for a discussion. Coach Robinson- Don't know what happened to your other post.

But thanks for the reference. I read that study a couple of months ago, some interesting and provocative work, which is to be expected from Weyand and his group. Although I don't agree with all of his hypothesis, I like Weyand's work because it makes us think and challenges paradigms.

Jeremy- While we'll disagree here, my viewpoint is that it's a combination of active and passive dynamics which produce movement. Active would be the energy contributed through muscle contraction. Passive would be elastic energy and similar components, as well as what I'll just call natural mechanical properties.

I know Pose loves talking about gravity, and In my viewpoint that's taken care of in the natural mechanics portion. How much each type contributes? Who knows. That's why I find spinal lesion studies and passive dynamics robot studies so interesting. It allows us to get an idea on how much each "group" contributes.

In both of those types, muscle power is minimal or nonexistant, so it tells us a lot about elastic energy and passive mechanics. At the same time, even when put in position, or the correct "Pose", full walking, let alone running doesn't occur, so there has to be another component.

If anyone thinks we have the full picture figured out, they are gravely mistaken. Still much to be learned on the science end. I start with the premise that heelstriking is common among elite runners; I'm sure you've seen the Science of Sport article.

And a number of elite runners — Salazar, Kara Goucher, Meb, Spedding — appear to land on their heels. I have, however, heard that what may seem like "heelstriking" actually may not be, i. If my premise is correct, I don't know how it fits with your analysis. Could these runners have been faster with a different footplant?

Are these runners maximizing their potential by using the method that is fastest for them? Also, if there is an optimal stride, given the competitiveness at the front of races, wouldn't that stride trump all others among the leaders?

Are we talking about at the beginning of a race, while jogging, while running race pace, when fatigued, etc? It's not easy to identify a heel strike and there are various degrees of a heel strike.

Also, are we talking about a heel strike with the lower leg extended out or a heel strike where you hit the ground underneeth the knee? It's funny you mention Salazar and Goucher because while Salazar was a horrible heel striker as a runner, he's probably the most prominent anti-heel strike elite coach out there right now.

Similarly, Kara Goucher doesn't heel strike all the time, it just becomes more prominent when fatigued, such in the marathon. I've got to watch her on a couple occasions, once with a high speed camera during practice and she was putting her feet down underneeth her, mid strike.

So, what I'm saying is, your premise might not be true. Sure there are outliers like Abdi, but the Bekele's, Geurrouj, Kipketer's, Geb's, etc.

are numerous. The Science of Sport article on the study on running mechanics is flawed in my opinion. So my basic answer to you as that, from what I've seen the cream of the crop all run pretty similar, which is a conclusion that Salazar reached too, as he said in a recent interview with Amby Burfoot on Runner's World.

There is an optimal stride with adjustments for individual anatomy in my opinion. SOmetimes those adjustments are rather large. Interesting post. One thing.. BF KEN BOB talks endurdingly about being relaxed and decelerating foot descent and foot lift… your analysis would appear to be at odds with this view of his.

THough it would be in sync in terms of keeping your foot relaxed and passive…Can you please comment. Further — if i understand correctly besdies posture the dynamic action focus is on bringing the heap through and letting hte rest just happen…. Thanks for an informative article.

I agree with you completely and have been running as you advise for over a year. However, you use some terms that are not very clear. The main one being, hip extension. I don't know what that means, and I don't think most other people do either. I can extend my arm and extend my leg, but extend my hip?

I have no idea how to extend my hip, much less control "the speed and degree of hip extension. What's the difference between my hip and my butt? You seem to assume that everyone will understand this, but in fact, it causes confusion rather than clarity, and since it is mentioned so many times, that is a lot of confusion.

You have to first define what this means, then go ahead and use it. For the record, although I'd swear that I'm a mid-foot striker based on how I feel photos show me landing on my heel although my shoes don't show wear at the heel. I'm a decent enough runner a 10 miler when young probably my best race , though, now at 53, and started running before the build-up of shoes.

It seems that there's heelstriking and there's heelstriking so it is difficult to simply say heelstriking is bad per se. My point was because heelstrikers are among the fastest runners, even if a minority, even a small one, one cannot say that heelstrikers are necessarily slow runners.

Does Salazar think he could have broken had he had a different footstrike? Since racing is a pure Darwinian pursuit, it may be that for a particular runner the ability to heelstrike because of shoes allows her to compete where she'd be farther back were she to be a mid-foot striker.

As to upper-body form, I'd add my former clubmate Pat Petersen as someone who made it work despite a rocking motion. All that said, though, your points are well taken in that for tweaking the stride gradually may help, as can the less drastic adjustments for the upper body.

I'll try to focus on the cues you suggest. You're a brave man for tackling this subject see letsrun's endless threads on POSE. Great post, as always. Good luck with your book! Thanks for a great article. You've already made a huge dent in my running by supplying a cue that improved my overstriding when nothing else would foot landing behind me.

That said, I echo TokyoRacer for more description of hip extension. I'm currently doing strength exercises in this area but would really appreciate some cues on what we're going after, feeling-wise. Steve, good article. Similarly to TokyoRacer, I wasn't sure about hip extension and the 'reflex' from that, although I've seen videos explaining the difference between extension and flexion.

I presume that 'good' extension is allowing the hip to move to near the limit of extension before the foot comes off the ground? On the subject of where elite runners' feet land, I agree that most land mid or forefoot most of the time.

I was wondering if the high speed footage on Pete Larson's blog Boston is on a slight downhill part of the course? Anyway, I've seen mid-foot runners change to heel-strikers when running downhill. I'm loving your website and articles! I have a quick question.

I have heard various arguments for foot contact time on the ground. You wrote, "Often, the mistake is made in trying to get the foot off the ground as quickly as possible, but remember that it is when the foot is on the ground when force is transferred into the ground.

I was wondering if you have any research on this- supporting the statement or research against shorter contact time. I've heard the opposite, that injuries occur with longer contact time.

Thanks for your help! Again- loving your blogs and articles and can't wait for the next one! Jess- Ground contact time is a consequence or a result, it's not something try and shoot for. What I mean is that, yes shorter ground contact times are generally better. Because that means for the same speed, we were able to develop the needed force in a shorter amount of time.

However, if we start trying to actively reduce ground contact times by pulling the foot early, now we're reducing ground contact times not because we were able to generate force quicker, but because we pulled the foot earlier.

So, yes longer ground contact times are generally "bad" because that means it's taking longer for us to generate the necessary force. The point is that ground contact will shorten automatically as you do training that improves it like plyo's, explosive work, sprint work, etc.

It's not something you try and shorten by getting "quick". My Runblogger videos were taken on Washington St. in Newton, just before the turn onto Commonwealth Ave. Elevation profiles show a total loss of only 3 ft over the course of that entire block, so a very slight decline.

My students who took the videos said it was pretty flat, and the downhill appearance is probably related to how the camera was oriented. Although a decline might exaggerate heel strike, from a comparative standpoint all runners were filmed at the same spot — in that sense Meb is doing a much more pronounced heel strike than the others.

You know how to flex your arm — you decrease the angle of forearm and upper arm, pulling something towards you. The hip flexion muscles and tendons are in front, and the hip extension ones are in back e.

I was confused the first time I heard this too, but it's a basic anatomical thing, and it sucks that this isn't the first thing coaches quiz you on when you play a running sport. Steve, Congrats on the new job! I'm curious about the idea that the lack of shoulder rotation is a good thing.

I recently read an article involving mechanics of distance running in ironman athletes and it noted that rotation helps propel them forward. Upon reading this I looked at some videos of Bekele, Geb, and Rudisha and realized that they all rotate to some extent.

What are your feelings on this notion? The article I am referencing is here. This is an amazing summary of what is a simple and natural movement when what you have written is understood and applied. Chi and Pose methods are great in that they are sending folks in the right direction. We did a survey study on folks using Chi in and redoing it now…for almost all it is helpful.

Your page, the work of Danny Dreyer, as well as form guru Lee Saxby are all linked form this page. The next level is what you describe when you discover the magic of recoil and simply allow the motion of hip extension, foot placement, and leg return to happen.

No active pawback; no forced lifting motion, hamstring activation, or foot placement; and a very gentle lean from the ankle with caution not to bend at waste.

I will share your work with our readers and attendees at injury prevention conferences and clinics. In particular, the role of the big toe "acting as a locking mechanism" isn't quite clear.

When and how should one set the "lock"? When and how should it be released? Are these "active" or "passive" functions? Should one use the "lock" to set the "slingshot" pull of the hip extension?

Technique is the first and most important thing to learn as an athlete or teach as a coach. Really informative article — this builds upon some concepts that I had found in Pose and provides additional biomechanical theory.

You refer to loading up the foot by allowing the heel to touch the ground following forefoot strike. I wonder unless I have missed it if you have had any thoughts about shoes …. Would you recommend a shoe with minimal drop from heel to forefoot traditional barefoot guidance or is there any advantage in a slight heel that will mean that the foot reaches heel support more quickly.

Moreover, is there any benefit in either approach though intuitively a slight heel for people who suffer from IT band issues? Really good article. Coming from a sprint background I am inclined to agree with everything you have written here.

In addition to everything you have written I thought a little bit with respect to hip positioning would be of tremendous help because achieving appropriate hip extension and efficient heel recovery depend on the relative hip tilt.

In my experience it helps to maintain a high hip height, but do you think it contributes to stride length and efficiency? This isn't any more pose like as it is chi like or evolution like ~ all share common 'good form' characteristics but there are also big differences.

In pose the emphasis is on using the hamstrings to pull the foot from the ground. Using the hip stretch as suggested here would constitute a late pull in pose ~ a considerable deviation away from pose standard.

I find this distinctively different to pose and I might add, I prefer it. dear Steve, could you indicate us a slow motion video of a "good" running form please? Because for instance when I watch Craig Alexander's movie: he first lighly lands on his heel and then whole foot and not mid-foot or front-foot.

I watched other videos and it seems to be the norm, at least for top ironmen. Thanks for the great tips! I am new to running and have already had my fair share of shin splints and knee pain…hopefully these tips on proper form will help!

I believe that what I have written further clarifies certain aspects of the mechanics of running, particularly concerning the biarticular muscles of the legs, the arc of the running stride and the length of the running stride:. While there are many good things about this article, there is at least one, fundamental error therein: the notion the the foot needs to land under the body.

The recovery of the leg is linked to the arc of the running stride. When the standing leg is underneath the body the joints of the legs are bent such that the body is at the lowest point in the stride. As the body has come over the foot, it has descended — this descent helps to swing the leg down to go forward.

By the time the body has reached its lowest point, the recovering leg has come alongside of the standing leg. Then, when the body begins to extend off of the driving leg, the recovering leg is carried both forward and upward with the body.

Remember, in order to recover, the leg is moving faster than the forward speed of the body. Accelerating the body also accelerates the leg swing. The lower leg, if nicely free, simply follows the movement of the thigh rotating forward at the hip. However, when the knee reaches the extent of its forward swing, and begins to descend, the lower leg continues forward, hinging at the knee, which gives the body extra impetus in both forward and upward direction.

The extension of the lower leg allows the body to remain airborne for an instant longer, allowing the foot to reach the ground before the body falls upon it. Arm swing further assists the body in stretching the arc of the running stride — if a long-jumper does not swing body legs and arms forward, he will not be able to jump as far.

However, while forward swing of the arm accompanies the extension of the body off of the driving leg, the forward swing of leg comes after the extension and, thus, lengthens the arc of the stride. There is absolutely no reason that a foot that lands in front of the body should slow the forward movement of the body.

In fact, if the joints a free, putting the weight of the leg on the ground allows the body to maintain its forward speed for longer. There are very good videos that clearly show Carl Lewis doing exactly this.

You may find this post to be of interest to you, since it talks about running efficiency. I'd like to echo someone else's comment appealing to you to write more about how things change when running uphill or downhill.

For myself 6'3", lbs , I find I have to heel strike and take long strides when going downhill if I'm to make up for the time I lose going uphill. It bangs me up, but it is fastest for me. When going uphill, I find I don't reduce my stride distance as much as some others and not as much as commonly recommended.

I look at pictures of elite runners while they race and It's hard to find any who let their heels touch the ground. How can the heel touch down when the movement is forward?

I agree with 13gentj. There is no way that is possible and I have looked at lots of video to figure out the foot mechanics of elite runners. Please send us a link to a video showing this forefoot-to heel touch cycle if you have one that documents what you describe. Although running style tends to be roughly preordained by your innate and individual biomechanics and shouldn't be tampered with drastically, minor corrections can make a big difference in performance and injury prevention.

Thanks for sharing. You may disagree with some of the concepts of Chi Running or Pose but they work. Thousands of students of Chi Running now run injury free. In my opinion, it is the most effective and easy way to learn to run efficiently and with less impact.

Any thoughts? It would be great if you could add a few pictures to your blog — even sick figures are fine 🙂. If you land in front of your body you have to wait for momentum to enable your bodt to catch up and until it does, you're going nowhere — you can't change support or fall forward extend your hip as you call it until the body has reached mid stance.

if you land under your body you're ready to go forward. Thank you very much for this information! I myself tried to control the heel to butt movement and ended up pulling my hamstring. People listen to what he says about relaxed vs controlled. It is much better that way. Could it be that you are not properly stretching the hamstrings?

The foot has to be active, the thigh contracted, chest not compressed Iyengar yoga style one leg at a time, then both, in the seated yoga forward bend, or standing and hanging forward bend …. if it feels like a horrible tendon type of pain behind the, you are probably one of those who has unwittingly not been stretching correctly.

Heel-butt rules…… and I would say, relaxed yet controlled. Sorry, I think my last reply which I'm not sure if the post went through was not responding in context. I was referring to heel-butt connection, not as kicking the heels up toward the butt when running which I would tend to disagree with, but this is not the place to do it, and I am not an expert, other than to say, some of the best runners I have seen do not kick their heels out behind them … and I would tend to think it wastes lots of momentum, which lifting the knees up in front do not.

The heel-butt connection I refer to is a posture guiding, butt building, back saving, injury and pain prevention mechanism that gets me through my daily life and my athletics.

I enjoyed your contribution to the running community through your discussion of running mechanics. As a physical therapist, running coach and competitive runner of 37 years, running mechanics are an important component of the education that I provide to clients.

Your discussion further illuminates the necessary discussion about mechanics. Pose and Chi while beneficial in some respects are marketing efforts primarily. Understanding of proper biomechanics and promotion of efficient running form are key to promoting American distance running.

I provide video analysis of runner's mechanics weekly and just completed 12 athletes from the Geneva College track and cross country team. I look forward to sharing my findings and expanding the knowledge base of this important topic. Your feedback would be greatly appreciated. Dr Peter j Vilasi.

I'll echo BJ's question above, could you explain what you mean by toe lock a bit more? This isn't totally clear. The idea of "locking" seems to counter my sensation of what "passive" feels like, so something isn't making sense to me. Although being a heel striker may not make you a slower runner, you are not using your body to its full potential.

The foot and ankle are designed for maximum force absorption so should be best utilised during such a high load activity such as running and are not done so if the first place of contact is the heel. Barefoot running was an invaluable tool to help me improve my running form and for the long-term, I am happy to report.

You alluded to a similar approach in another post Steve, but rather than flipping off your shoes for the last mile I found that just getting your legs warm for about a mile was best approach for me, then the barefoot, pop shoes back in the bag and run home. This way, when I put my space-hoppers back on I could at first mimic the BFR form, then — when my mind was off it — I would catch myself running as normal no soft landing anymore, slower cadence — but I really appreciated the difference between the BFR form and the shod form.

This has worked great for me — to date I have reached 14 miles in vibrams and I'm due to run the Tameside 10K here in the UK barefoot in August I've been back and forth with BFR but made progress slowly. So many of us runners are proverbially impatient sods 🙂.

First, children do not learn to run like they learn to throw a baseball or kick a ball. Running is built on innate movement patterns that appear at certain stages of development. Thus, the contra-lateral movement involved in crawling translates to running when the body is upright and body weight on the feet stimulates extensor reflexes.

Children run quite well without being overtly taught to run. On the other hand, later patterns that are learned through imitation and experiment affect posture negatively, resulting in poor running form.

Second, to say the arms swing from the shoulders is incomplete. Movement is initiated and distributed through the spine, such that spinal rotation is amplified by movement of the arms first from the sterno-clavicular joints, and later from the gleno-humeral joint.

There should be some rotation of the shoulder girdle, as well as some movement of the shoulder from the sternum. The same can be said for leg movement, i.

This is particularly evident in the way the hip of the extending leg moves rearward, while the other side of the pelvis is lifted and moved forward, initiating leg recovery.

It also makes little sense to truncate leg recovery and place the foot on the ground under the body. A leg will naturally be recovered forwards to the degree that the opposite leg is extended rearward.

It is actually important that the recovered leg land forward of the center of gravity so that the muscles of the leg take tone and the weight of the body comes upon the leg. In this way, by the time the leg is fully loaded and under the body, the gastrocnemius will have contracted to stretch the Achilles tendon, which will recoil to assist initiation of extension.

If one simply truncates recovery and puts the foot down under the body, one will miss the gradual loading of the leg muscles, and thus, will not make good use of Achilles tendon recoil. Also, if foot strike occurs well forward, and on the ball of the foot, weight will not be transferred to the heel, which will preserve Achilles tendon stretch for recoil and extension.

As a doctor of chiropractic who has 20 years of studying Running mechanics and spinal biomechanics, can tell you that most of what Steve has outlined is correct for runners. You can sit and argue, debate about techniques all day.

What i have seen in well over 3, patients who I have trained in running after video analysis is that the majority of them who have pain were pain free after applying most of what Steve has outlined for proper running mechanics as well as increased running speed and registering better times in their races.

So I see a tremendous amount of results, could care less about debating if Pose is better than Chi or evolution running, who cares?

There are correct mechanics based of physics and biomechanical principles that need to be applied to runners. I have been writing a book on a method I developed for running. It will be out soon.

I can't help but notice that basically there are many of us all saying the same thing, many methods, and for different purposes and different goals. We who have figured it out want to share and read about it.

When I read this authors' blog I see the same words and concepts, as if it could be my own works. Competing athletes who can, because of their training, necessarily run on the balls of the feet. The best thing about the internet is seeing how many ways there are to make our own energy work for us, and to keep honing and promoting the real meaning of exercise.

The main reason I haven't finished my book is I keep finding more and more links to support my original suppositions from long ago. There are debates on most topics and concepts, cardio is badly explained, misunderstood and overdone, on metabolism everyone is poo-pooing everyone else's definition, yes running shoes, no running shoes, anecdotal evidence is not good enough, science has been proved wrong ….

where does it end ….. I think what matters most, is that the uninformed will realize that there is no one and only way, but they surely find out that there is never an end to what can be learned about breathing walking running, stretching, moving and sleeping and of course the thousands of wonderful exercises to help achieve these through weight training, ballet, medical martial arts, swimming and biking.

We just want others who are suffering through their fitness routines to know that exercise does and should feel good. Nice reading the posts enjoyed. What are your thoughts, as regards gait and plant, in regards, having a dominant side.

Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog.

A fantastic read. I will definitely be back. When you run, your heel should absolutely not be hitting the ground before the rest of your foot.

If you want to become a good distance runner, you must start with proper foot strike. Or, check out an excerpt from it on the Science of Running Blog here. Great post! It was a great read. If a person can improve the running arm swing, he can significantly increase speed and help increase endurance by making the arms more efficient.

In , scientists published a study in European Journal of Physics1 that calculated the amount of drag — and the work required to overcome this variable — […].

Lumayan panjang, tapi quite details dan menambah pengertian saya mengenai […]. Great post thanks!!! This quote from your article is very true IMO….

These days, its hip to sound all scientificy. The fact is, its doesnt really matter how your foot lands. html 2. McGee, B. pdf 2. Magness, S. html […]. Sometimes I was experiencing knee pain, when running long or short distances.

It became a bit frustrating and this motivated me to pay great attention to details, study posture, movement and improve the biomechanics of running. Certainly there has been a tonne of research published on running, running biomechanics, and injury risk over the last 8 years.

Posted in Running Mechanics and tagged Biomechanics , running form. Dave on January 24, at am. Hi Ken I'd agree with you that the articles 'case' for runners needing to improve technique pretty much the same as Dr Romanov. There are also a few things that Pose does not deal with such as locking of the big toe.

Averagebum on August 24, at am. Mill Runner on August 4, at am. Your blog is very infomative and helpful. I learn a great deal reading it, thanks. At this point of time, the angle between the thighs is maximum. Anders on August 4, at am. Anonymous on April 22, at am.

Anonymous on August 4, at am. Anonymous on August 4, at pm. Arun on December 30, at am. Jamoosh on August 4, at pm. joe71 on August 5, at am.

Stefan on August 5, at am. stevemagness on August 5, at pm. Lots of great comments! I'll try and get through and respond to each in a couple of posts.

Anders- Thanks for all of your comments, very thought provoking. To address each comment: Sprint mechanics- You're correct. Great point on the Cues. There is a big difference.

Joe- Thanks! Anonymous on August 6, at am. Anonymous on August 6, at pm. Steve, Hi…As an advocate for the Pose Method theory of human movement you can imagine I have many aspects in your article that I disagree with. Dekel on August 6, at pm. Steve, this is great!

stevemagness on August 6, at pm. Joe Garland on August 7, at am. stevemagness on August 7, at am. Joe- It's not as easy as heel vs. forefoot strike.

html So my basic answer to you as that, from what I've seen the cream of the crop all run pretty similar, which is a conclusion that Salazar reached too, as he said in a recent interview with Amby Burfoot on Runner's World. Dave Hotz on August 7, at am. TokyoRacer on August 8, at am. Joe Garland on August 8, at am.

Steve, For the record, although I'd swear that I'm a mid-foot striker based on how I feel photos show me landing on my heel although my shoes don't show wear at the heel. Post Paint Boy on August 9, at pm. Flo on August 9, at pm. Ewen on August 10, at am. I must eat, sleep and run. The road to my soul.

on August 11, at pm. We then jump on the bike for hours on end, which only goes to exacerbate the hip-flexor tightness which comes from excessive time spent in a sat down position. Tension in your shoulders, neck or upper back can inhibit your arm motion.

You need your arms to provide balance, rhythm and power as you run. As with your legs, the faster you go, the bigger the arm motion should be. Conversely, running slowly should require small, yet still active motions of the arms, swinging from the shoulder.

This will take some getting used to, but as you get fatigued keep your arms moving, as they help to keep the legs working at a steady rhythm. No matter how hard you work on improving your running form, a serious limiting factor to your performance and ability to stay injury free is your core strength and ability to activate your gluteal muscles.

These two key muscle groups play a huge role in providing stability around your lower trunk, pelvis and hips.

Weaknesses and imbalances around these areas can directly lead to knee, hip and back injuries, as well as running related problems with the lower leg, calf and achilles.

Incorporate regular strength and stability exercises into your weekly routine to improve these key factors and your running will reap the benefits in the long term.

Both in terms of injury prevention and improved performance. Below is an example of a short core routine we use for a pro triathlete we work with, developed to compliment her running specifically. One great exercise to start practicing on a regular basis is the Single Leg Squat, as shown in the video below.

Glute activation and strength exercises are an important part of learning how to use your glutes when running — Check out the link for more info on better using your butt muscles to run stronger.

Running is a linear motion, as you move forwards in a straight line. Excessive rotation counteracts the end goal of making forward progression. In fact it costs us energy to control and stabilise — a big inefficiency!

In the same way, your energy should be directed in traveling forwards not upwards. Your breathing rhythm when running should fit in with the overall rhythm that the rest of your body is working to. The ratios with with you inhale and exhale will most likely vary as your intensity of exercise varies.

Getting your breathing right is integral to your running technique and should be practiced so that you can maintain your composure on race day as your concentration is elsewhere. That is, if the appropriate progressive approach is taken to develop running technique from head-to-toe, and adequate time is taken to allow the body adapt gradually… a factor so many fail to apply appropriately!

is definitely heel striking to some degree…. Home » Blog » Running Technique » Proper Running Technique: Six Ways to Run More Efficiently. Having trained as a sports rehabilitation therapist, James now works exclusively with distance runners, helping athletes from beginner to pro to run stronger and pain free.

Check out James' marathon training plan for beginners [PDF]. His transition into distance running has taught him what his body is capable of, a process which is ongoing! Read more Mount Everest Ultra Marathon — Ten Tips.

Running Cadence: Using a Metronome to Improve Technique. Kenyan Running Drills in Slow Motion: Warm-Up Routine. This is a great article.

I have been working on my own running form and have read a few books about it. I take things from each book and put it towards my form. I like the hip flexor exercise and I will probably start using that in my stretching regime. Thanks for the great article.

Thanks Leon! I use exactly the same approach as you when it comes to working on my own technique, and that of the athletes I coach. Thank you. Thanks for taking the time to leave a comment, Leandro.

I hope you find all the Tweets and info interesting and useful, both in your training, and in your work with runners and their injuries! Thanks for your comment. I have to disagree though. Check out the footage below.

Not a bad thing though, as his brief heel-strike is close to under his hips, and the foot rolls through to load the midfoot very quickly — negating much of the usual impacts associated with a heel-strike.

Very useful information, and very timely. I do run barefoot already but often wonder if its the correct form and what I can do to improve my posture and technique. This is a really clear and well written article, which I would like to use for some of my patients.

It is nice to see the advice I give as a physiotherapist reinforced — a bit of positive feedback for me as well as useful resource for my patients. Thanks so much for sharing, this is such a great time for me. I had adopted forefoot running and it was going great, was going to do christchurch half marathon last weekend-when I developed an injury above medial maleolus.

My sports physio thinks its related to when I broke my femur fell running 10 years go, my r glutes are still weaker than my L , also not helping is having a back op after child birth 3 yrs ago! What a wreck! Still determined to get back running, I am so interested now in biomechanics and getting my form right, think I may go back and improve light heel striking and cadence.

Cheers x. Thanks for putting out the some most crucial recommendations for long distance runners. Hi James! Thanks for the article. It is really good. It made me think about my technique.

Would your tips be appropriate also for me as I run much faster comparing to long distance? What do you say about high-knees drill? Could I use it as excuse that my speed requires a higher leg drive?

Thanks for your kind words about the article. Thus with this increased pace, you will of course need to create a greater stride length without over striding. This is where the extra stride length should come from, rather than simply driving the knee forwards, relying on the hip flexors and quads.

I just wonder if the vertical yellow line you drawn from the ankle position rather should be placed at the forefoot for forefoot runners?

It seems logical to me that the location of the initial contact zone with the ground, not the ankle position, determines the degree of breaking force when overstriding.

If so, then both forefoot runners in the example pictures are actually overstriding?

The Proper Technique for Running Long Distances – Human Kinetics

Keep your hands in an unclenched fist, with your fingers lightly touching your palms. Imagine yourself trying to carry a potato chip in each hand without crushing it.

Your arms should swing mostly forward and back, not across your body,between waist and lower-chest level. Your elbows should be bent at about a degree angle. When you feel your fists clenching or your forearms tensing, drop your arms to your sides and shake them out for a few seconds to release the tension.

Torso The position of your torso while running is affected by the position of your head and shoulders. With your head up and looking ahead and your shoulders low and loose, your torso and back naturally straighten to allow you to run in an efficient, upright position that promotes optimal lung capacity and stride length.

Many track coaches describe this ideal torso position as "running tall" and it means you need to stretch yourself up to your full height with your back comfortably straight. If you start to slouch during a run take a deep breath and feel yourself naturally straighten.

As you exhale simply maintain that upright position. Hips Your hips are your center of gravity, so they're key to good running posture.

The proper position of your torso while running helps to ensure your hips will also be in the ideal position.

With your torso and back comfortably upright and straight, your hips naturally fall into proper alignment--pointing you straight ahead. If you allow your torso to hunch over or lean too far forward during a run, your pelvis will tilt forward as well, which can put pressure on your lower back and throw the rest of your lower body out of alignment.

When trying to gauge the position of your hips, think of your pelvis as a bowl filled with marbles, then try not to spill the marbles by tilting the bowl. Instead, efficient endurance running requires just a slight knee lift, a quick leg turnover, and a short stride.

Together, these will facilitate fluid forward movement instead of diverting and wasting energy. When running with the proper stride length, your feet should land directly underneath your body.

As your foot strikes the ground, your knee should be slightly flexed so that it can bend naturally on impact. If your lower leg below the knee extends out in front of your body, your stride is too long. With each step, your foot should hit the ground lightly--landing between your heel and midfoot--then quickly roll forward.

Keep your ankle flexed as your foot rolls forward to create more force for push-off. As you roll onto your toes, try to spring off the ground. You should feel your calf muscles propelling you forward on each step.

There are several running drills you can do at the start of a session to help get the feel of good running form. Check yourself out. What we think we look like and what we actually look like can be far apart.

Improve range of motion. If you can utilise your full range of motion without restriction, your running will become more efficient.

Being able to open up the hips, loosen off the thoracic spine or maintain the right amount of flexibility in the ankles, can help massively. Try yoga, pilates or a simple all-body stretching programme to help.

Warm-up properly. Warming up diligently before each run can help you assess how your body is responding and allow you to warm up the muscle groups and get them firing for the main session of running to follow.

Strength and conditioning. Having strong and healthy glutes and calves are essential for runners to propel themselves forward with each stride — increasing stride length without compromising form. Consider dedicated strength and conditioning exercises for these muscle groups.

Single leg calf raises from a step at the end of each run are a great way to retain healthy lower limbs — particularly as we get older.

The best running technique is the technique that takes you from the start to the finish of your run in the most efficient way possible without risking injury. The correct breathing technique depends on the distance you are running. For endurance athletes, breathing should be calm and relaxed, mainly in through the nose and as deep into the belly as is comfortable so the full capacity of the lungs is being utilised as possible.

If breathing is rapid, shallow and in the upper chest, try to calm the body — even if this means dropping the pace — until your breathing is controlled and then build back into the pace. Consider walk-run strategies and be prepared to ease off the intensity to avoid any risk of injury.

In terms of specific technique, try not to overstride as this is likely to lead to the fastest way of becoming injured. Here are three. Gait analysis a way of analysing your running form — often with you running on a treadmill — to see what happens every time your foot hits the ground.

Gait analysis can be used by experts to help pick up any weaknesses or asymmetries in your running style that may lead to injuries or areas that you need to strengthen. It is often used by running shoe retailers to determine what type of running shoes might best suit an individual.

For example, a stability or support shoe might be recommended to a runner that over pronates the foot rolls in on landing. There is no right or wrong answer here. Running technique can improve just through running more, and there are plenty of resources in books, online and podcasts to give you pointers about how you can improve.

However, a running coach has their place too. They will look at you objectively and give tailored advice, assessing individual weaknesses and prescribing exercises to help strengthen areas of the body, such as the glutes, that will improve running technique. Nutrition Training.

Athletes Training. What is good running form? Shop SLT Merchandise. Popular Articles. You might also like.

Endurance running techniques Video. Running technique should be as simple Endurance running techniques putting one foot in front of tunning other. We learn Edurance walk, then we learn to run. Simple, right? But somewhere along the way to adulthood our lifestyle — and footwear choices — get in the way. We lose the art of flowing movement, and our running form suffers.

Video

What Is Perfect Running Form? - Run Technique Tips For All Runners

Endurance running techniques -

In long distance running, incremental growth is key. This approach will reduce the chance of injury as you increase your workout load. Make sure you keep track of your distance so you can be precise.

Preventing injuries is crucial for those who take up long distance running. As mentioned above, a warm up before a run and cool down afterwards are good starting points. Paying attention to the body during workouts can help prevent injury.

Most distance runners have learned to pay attention to body pains. If one is having persistent pain during running, it's best to take a few days off and resume training only after the pain is gone.

An important takeaway regarding pain is not to run through it. Remember, it is better to have a minor setback than a major setback. Anyone who runs a marathon understands the toll it takes on the body. As a result, adequate long-term rest is crucial before resuming rigorous training. The general rule for rest and restoration after a long distance running competition should be to allow your body a day of rest for each mile you ran.

So if you participated in a 10 mile race, then allow 10 days of rest before getting back into hard training. If you participated in a full marathon of Regardless of your fitness level, preparation for a race should be gradual.

The whole spectrum of training includes eating well, staying hydrated, and maintaining a training schedule that is incremental in weekly mileage.

Such an approach ensures that you have thoroughly prepared your body for the grueling task of long distance competition. If the intention of taking up long distance running is to eventually run a full marathon, then you need to make sure that you start with ample preparation time in order to avoid injuries and to slowly improve your fitness level.

The aim should be to run at least a 20 mile distance with relative comfort by the time the marathon competition rolls around. When you can run 20 miles, you can run a marathon with less likelihood of injuring yourself or quitting before the finish line. While there are those who enter a marathon with the aim of making the best time possible, there are also those who participate with the aim of finishing the course irrespective of the time it takes.

As much as some people love long distance running, covering the same route regularly can quickly become boring and monotonous. To keep things interesting and inspiring, explore other routes. For instance, run a route covering one section of the park and part of a neighborhood.

And the next day, run the other section. Fitness levels permitting , trail running is wonderful for the runner who enjoys nature. However, the terrain needs some getting used to, since it involves jumping over stumps, crossing rivers, and running up hill and descents.

For more experienced runners, altitude training is a great element to add to your regimen. For those living close to a beach, running on a beach or coastline is a refreshing experience. Switching up the jogging routes helps keep the scenery fresh and interesting each day, improving the running experience.

Training smart is the key to getting fit and achieving the fitness progress that one desires. There are days that call for heavy training sessions. These days should be followed by long periods of rest. This approach allows muscle recovery in the body for maximum gain.

No need to think of a rest day as slacking off, but rather as a crucial part of the workout process. Altitude training applies more to competitive athletes than non-competitive athletes.

When you train in high altitude to feet above sea level or higher you are breathing thinner air than you would be at feet. The athlete training on higher ground will build a higher threshold of endurance in comparison to one training at a lower altitude.

Thinking about long distances before you start your run can be discouraging. Mentally breaking down a long distance run is often the key to get going and keep going. When taking up long distance running, it may be easier to find a safe group in the area that gets together to do long runs.

Simple, right? But somewhere along the way to adulthood our lifestyle — and footwear choices — get in the way. We lose the art of flowing movement, and our running form suffers. Or, as is so often the way, when injury strikes. With this in mind, re-educating ourselves on good running technique can be time well spent.

Focusing on technique and form can also be particularly important for long distance athletes running hundreds of miles a month, or triathletes who are already fatigued after swimming and biking.

This underlines a key point about us all being individuals. But, while not losing sight of this, there are some guiding principles we can adhere to that expert generally agree make for good running form.

As we look to improve as runners, we want to either run faster over our chosen distance, or run at the same speed but with less effort. A big chunk of this comes down to our fitness level — the fitter we are the easier the effort for any given pace.

However, running form is important too. The smoother we can be, with less wasted energy on each stride, the more slowly we will fatigue, and the faster and longer we can go.

Unlike the swim and the bike, running is completely weight-bearing, and we absorb the force of several times our own body weight on each stride.

Correct running form helps prevent injuries and soreness, particularly to susceptible joints such as knees and hips. There are other elements of run training that are key to avoiding injury. Elements such as strength training and a thorough warm up are also key to injury prevention.

That might sound strange in an article on running form. But your No 1 focus should be to lace up your trainers, put on a few layers and head out of the door. From here take your running cautiously.

All time spent on your feet is valuable to help your conditioning. Start to build a healthy habit and enjoy your running before you start to consider form.

Many runners also find that the more they run, the more their natural form improves anyway. When you see the finish line in sight that is the time to increase your arm swing which will give you more energy and speed for your sprint to the finish.

You will get a greater push off the ground if you keep your posture erect and in line — head, chest, hips, feet. Many runners tend to slope their shoulders and drop their head but try to keep a straight line throughout your torso and up into your shoulders, neck, and head.

Running faster uphill can cause your form to become sloppy as you expend more energy. Keep everything steady and consistent. As mentioned earlier, a good gauge of your effort is your breathing.

Your breathing should not increase drastically as you begin to climb a hill. This will help to give you that extra push of momentum to help you surge up and over the hill without having to give up too much energy.

Keep your heels under your knee. When running up a hill, do not allow your feet to extend out beyond your knee. You are already placing a good amount of stress on your knee joint by just running up an increase, don't accentuate the stress by foot striking out in front of your knee.

Stay mentally focused and do a form check to make sure you are using correct running form techniques from time to time. Hill workouts are hard but if you stay focused and tell yourself you can do it then you CAN do it. When running up hills you should be running at 2-steps breathing in, 2 steps breathing out or maybe a or Also, using correct breathing posture can really make a difference in comfort and efficiency.

It is much easier to injure yourself when running downhill versus running uphill because you are placing a lot of braking force eccentric stress on your quadriceps and lower leg muscles as you go. Your legs will take a beating if you do not employ an appropriate pace and stride for your body.

Allow gravity to carry you. If you have been doing hill repeats , then this is your time to recover. Although it may feel easier than running uphill, many, many running injuries are due to running downhill. Your eccentric muscle forces are working to cause a breaking force and if your body is not used to this type of running it can be very damaging especially for beginner runners.

Many runners extend their landing foot too far out in front of their body when they are coming down a hill. A lot of runners make the mistake of not slowing their pace down to normal and continue at a faster pace once they reach flat surface. During a long run or a race this can be devastating as you will expend a lot more energy without realizing it before it's too late.

Keep checking your pace for several minutes after reaching the bottom of the hill in order to make sure you are running at your pre-determined pace. You are going need to get more oxygen to your muscles, especially those hard-working leg muscles and the best way to do this is to take deep breaths.

Your breaths should come from deep inside of you which will increase your oxygen consumption. Learn more about breathing tips as a runner. Runners with bad form usually have a loud footfall while those with good form are light and soft on their feet.

Try and focus on keeping your body light and graceful which helps to conserve energy and prevent injury due to hard impact.

The road to Endurance running techniques running Peanut allergy symptoms is runninng with scientific jargon: swing phase, Endurance running techniques time, loading rate, stretch reflex. What does techniwues all mean? You just want to pound the sidewalk and reap the benefits. Do away with all the complicated lingo — there are three easy tricks to get your running form back on track:. Avoid making running too complicated for yourself, and focus instead on keeping up your daily runs.

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