Category: Family

Glycemic load and weight loss

Glycemic load and weight loss

In addition, the participants were invited to anf an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT. This Glycemic load and weight loss ratio puts to body into lkss. Low Glycemic load and weight loss index foods Support for Thyroid Health those with a rating under 55; high glycemic index foods have a rating of 70 or higher. The participants were considered fully eligible if it was verified that complete data were adequately recorded. Our evidence Featured reviews Podcasts What are systematic reviews? The same study reported seven serious adverse events, including kidney stones and diverticulitis.

Glycemic load and weight loss -

Exclusive news, data and analytics for financial market professionals Learn more about Refinitiv. By Amy Norton. NEW YORK Reuters Health - When it comes to losing weight, the number of calories you eat, rather than the type of carbohydrates, may be what matters most, according to a new study.

The findings, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggest that diets low in "glycemic load" are no better at taking the pounds off than more traditional -- and more carbohydrate-friendly -- approaches to calorie-cutting. The concept of glycemic load is based on the fact that different carbohydrates have different effects on blood sugar.

White bread and potatoes, for example, have a high glycemic index, which means they tend to cause a rapid surge in blood sugar. Other carbs, such as high-fiber cereals or beans, create a more gradual change and are considered to have a low glycemic index.

The measurement of glycemic load takes things a step further by considering not only an individual food's glycemic index, but its total number of carbohydrates. A sweet juicy piece of fruit might have a high glycemic index, but is low in calories and grams of carbohydrate.

Therefore, it can fit into a diet low in glycemic load. However, the effort of figuring out what's an allowable carb might not be worth it, if the new study is any indication. Principal investigator Dr.

Susan B. Roberts, of Tufts University, Boston, and colleagues found that a reduced-calorie diet, whether glycemic load was high or low, was effective in helping 34 overweight adults shed pounds over one year.

Study participants who followed a low-glycemic-load diet ended up losing roughly 8 percent of their initial weight, as did those who followed a high-glycemic-load diet. Of course, that doesn't mean "anything goes" as long as you're cutting calories.

A super-sized serving of French fries won't do any dieter any good, she noted. The Mediterranean diet is centered around whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, and fish, with small amounts of dairy and poultry and only occasional servings of red meat and sweets.

When you eat a high-glycemic food, the sugar in that food becomes readily available as soon as it passes through the stomach to the intestines.

You may feel a sudden surge of energy as sugar in the form of glucose pours into your blood. Your body will react to the glucose elevation by making more insulin to move glucose into muscle and other cells.

The insulin rush will deplete that blood glucose within the next couple of hours. If your blood sugar level drops too quickly, you may even feel exhausted, shaky, and woozy. This is called hypoglycemia.

And you'll probably crave a high-glycemic snack. In contrast, low-glycemic foods require more processing time in the digestive system as enzymes work to separate the sugar from other components. Glucose flows more slowly into the bloodstream, and insulin is released gradually, too.

As a result, you remain sated longer and are less likely to overeat. Low glycemic index foods are those with a rating under 55; high glycemic index foods have a rating of 70 or higher.

Another measure, the glycemic load, takes into account both the glycemic index of a food and the carbohydrate content in a serving. Although some foods, like watermelon, have a high glycemic index, they have a moderate glycemic load because a serving has relatively few carbohydrates.

Foods like white potatoes, white bread, and packaged bakery products, that are both high glycemic index and high-carb, pack a greater glycemic load. As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.

Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Thanks for visiting. Don't miss your FREE gift. The Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness , is yours absolutely FREE when you sign up to receive Health Alerts from Harvard Medical School. Sign up to get tips for living a healthy lifestyle, with ways to fight inflammation and improve cognitive health , plus the latest advances in preventative medicine, diet and exercise , pain relief, blood pressure and cholesterol management, and more.

Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting inflammation to finding the best diets for weight loss from exercises to build a stronger core to advice on treating cataracts. PLUS, the latest news on medical advances and breakthroughs from Harvard Medical School experts.

Sign up now and get a FREE copy of the Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness. Stay on top of latest health news from Harvard Medical School.

Recent Blog Articles. Flowers, chocolates, organ donation — are you in? What is a tongue-tie? What parents need to know.

Metrics details. Loax to the lack of evidence, advice pertaining to glycemic load GL can be misleading. Glycemic load and weight loss the excessive Glyxemic of Ans, mostly through an extreme reduction in Glycemic load and weight loss Functional movement patterns, result in a relatively high intake of fat and protein and result in overweight and obesity? This study was performed to initially explore the optimal GL range. A cross-sectional study involving participants aged 40 years or older in Guangzhou, China was conducted. Participants were divided into four groups according to cluster analysis. Dietary data were assessed using a previously validated 3-day food record.

Glycemic load and weight loss -

David Jenkins. The GI of a food or meal is influenced by a number of factors, including the type of sugar it contains, the structure of the starch, the cooking method, and the level of ripeness.

The rate at which foods raise blood sugar levels depends on three factors: the types of carbs they contain, their nutrient composition, and the amount you eat.

The GL is a measure of how a carb affects blood sugar levels, taking both the type GI and quantity grams per serving into account. However, the Glycemic Index Foundation , an Australian nonprofit raising awareness about the low GI diet, recommends that people also monitor their GL and aim to keep their total daily GL under Otherwise, the easiest way to aim for a GL under is to choose low GI foods when possible and consume them in moderation.

The glycemic load GL is a measure of the type and quantity of the carbs you eat. Diabetes is a complex disease that affects millions of people worldwide 6. Those who have diabetes are unable to process sugars effectively, which can make it difficult to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

However, good blood sugar control helps prevent and delay the onset of complications, including heart disease, stroke, and damage to the nerves and kidneys 7 , 8 , 9.

A number of studies suggest that low GI diets reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes 10 , 11 , A review of 54 studies concluded that low GI diets reduced hemoglobin A1C a long-term marker of blood sugar control , body weight, and fasting blood sugar levels in people with prediabetes or diabetes The low GI diet may also improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes , a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.

The low GI diet appears to reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Diets higher in GI have also been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Low GI diets have been associated with a reduction in weight and cholesterol. On the other hand, high GI diets have been linked to heart disease and an increased risk of certain cancers.

There are plenty of healthy and nutritious foods to choose from. You should build your diet around the following low GI foods:. These foods can be included as part of the low GI diet:. To search for foods not found on this list, refer to this database.

The low GI diet involves swapping high GI foods for low GI alternatives. For a balanced diet, consume low GI options from each of the food groups. To follow the low GI diet, limit your intake of the high GI foods listed above and replace them with low GI alternatives.

This sample menu shows what 1 week on the low GI diet might look like. It even includes a few recipes from the Glycemic Index Foundation. The sample meal plan above shows what 1 week on the low GI diet might look like. However, you can adjust the plan to suit your taste and dietary preferences.

Eating snacks between meals is allowed on the low GI diet. Some healthy snack ideas are listed above. For example, the GI of frozen french fries is Some varieties of baked potato, a healthier alternative, have a GI of 93 or more. In fact, there are many unhealthy low GI foods, such as a Twix bar GI 44 and ice cream GI 27—55 for low fat versions.

Another drawback is that the GI measures the effect of a single food on blood sugar levels. However, most foods are consumed as part of a larger mixed meal, making the GI difficult to predict in these circumstances Results of 30 meta-analyses of RCTs from 8 publications demonstrated that low-GI diets were generally no better than high-GI diets for reducing body weight or body fat.

One notable exception is that low-GI diets with a dietary GI at least 20 units lower than the comparison diet resulted in greater weight loss in adults with normal glucose tolerance but not in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

While carbohydrate quality, including GI, impacts many health outcomes, GI as a measure of carbohydrate quality appears to be relatively unimportant as a determinant of BMI or diet-induced weight loss.

Based on results from observational cohort studies and meta-analyses of RCTs, we conclude that there is scant scientific evidence that low-GI diets are superior to high-GI diets for weight loss and obesity prevention. Similarly, the Spearman correlation coefficients of the food records and FFQ were 0.

The data regarding the sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle information, including physical activity, educational history, smoking and alcohol drinking status were gathered by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire.

In addition, the participants were invited to complete an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT. The MET-h of an activity was calculated by multiplying the time spent performing the activity by the MET value corresponding to that activity.

Regular exercise was defined as performing at least 7. Their body height and waist circumference were measured to the nearest 0. High-quality and accurate techniques and mean measurements were used.

The body mass index BMI was calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. Overweight was defined as a BMI between Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference greater than or equal to The plasma glucose level was measured by a glucose oxidase assay AU; Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL, USA.

Peripheral blood samples were collected in the morning after 8—12 h of fasting. The fasting plasma glucose FPG and 2-h plasma glucose 2-hPG levels were measured at fasting and 2 h after the participants had ingested a standard g glucose solution, respectively.

Diabetes was defined as an FPG level greater than or equal to 7. The participants were considered fully eligible if it was verified that complete data were adequately recorded.

In addition, to prevent the variables with larger ranges from having a greater contribution than the variables with smaller ranges, z-scores were calculated to standardize the data set before clustering.

All statistical tests were performed using PASW SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version The categorical variables are expressed as absolute values relative frequencies and were compared using the chi-squared test. A dominant component analysis was performed to identify the underlying dietary patterns.

The components were also orthogonally rotated the varimax option to enhance the difference between loadings, which allowed for easier interpretability.

A k-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants into clearly distinct groups based on the dominant components. After excluding outliers and participants with incomplete data, participants men and women with a mean age of 56 years were included in the analysis.

Five principal components were extracted through a dominant component analysis of 16 variables, explaining Four identified clusters on dominant component loadings after varimax rotation.

RCM rotated component matrix, GL glycemic load, MAR micronutrient adequacy ratio. The general, anthropometric, and laboratory characteristics of the participants classified in different clusters are shown in Table 1.

Cluster 1 included more male subjects and tended to have an unhealthier lifestyle pattern, such as smoking and less regular exercise. Clusters 2 and 3 included more female subjects and tended to have a healthier lifestyle pattern. Cluster 4 tended to include more younger subjects. Among the individuals, were diagnosed with overweight and obesity by BMI, and were diagnosed with central obesity by waist circumference, resulting in a prevalence of The lowest prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed in cluster 3 A similar trend of the prevalence of central obesity was observed across the four clusters.

Among the individuals, were diagnosed with abnormal glucose metabolism, and were diagnosed with diabetes by OGTT, resulting in a prevalence of The prevalence of both abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes was relatively lower in clusters 2 and 3.

The total GL was similar between clusters 2 and 3; however, the food composition differed. Cluster 2 consumed the highest GL intake from fruit and nuts, while cluster 3 consumed the highest GL intake from whole grains, mixed beans, dairy, beans and nuts.

The MARs were higher in clusters 2 and 3 Fig. Dietary characteristics of the four identified clusters. Whisker-box plot with boxes indicating the median and 25th and 75th percentiles and whiskers indicating the 10th and 90th percentiles.

The shadow indicates the Chinese dietary reference intakes a — e or the interquartile range of cluster 3 f. GL glycemic load, MAR micronutrient adequacy ratio.

Consistent with several previous cross-sectional studies [ 36 , 37 ], our results suggest that a low GL is associated with better glucose homeostasis. Nevertheless, our results contributed to the debate regarding whether excessive GL restriction may increase the risk of obesity.

In this study, participants with moderate GL intake clusters 2 and 3 had a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, while both those with the highest GL intake cluster 1 and the lowest GL intake cluster 4 showed an increased risk of overweight and obesity.

Only one previous study suggested a negative association between GL and BMI [ 38 ], while other studies have indicated that GL is not associated with the BMI [ 37 , 39 , 40 ]. However, in addition to BMI, associations with waist circumference have been examined, and both a positive association [ 41 ] and no association [ 39 , 40 ] between GL and waist circumference have been reported.

In the present study, dietary GI and GL were assessed using a previously validated 3-day food record instead of an FFQ. This methodology was selected for three reasons. First, FFQ usually overestimates food intake compared to other nutritional assessment methods, which leads to an overestimation of the energy and nutritional values of diets [ 42 ].

Second, possible errors include the omission or addition of food, as well as an inadequate assessment of the frequency and amount of consumed products [ 43 ]. Third, with a 3-day food record, details about the sources, preparation, and processing of foods and timing and location of meals together with quantitative data on all food sources of energy and nutrients can be captured.

Last, a 3-day food record can be designed to be culturally sensitive and cognitively easy, making it especially suitable for respondents with limited education, such as elderly adults [ 44 ]. Therefore, the food record provides relatively accurate data concerning the intake of food and nutrients.

In our reproducibility and validity test, the intake of certain foods was sometimes underestimated using 3-day food records.

However, the intake of cereal, which is the dominant source of GL, rarely changed. Dietary pattern analyses using component [ 45 , 46 ] or cluster analyses [ 47 , 48 ] reflecting the complexity of dietary intake have recently received greater attention from nutritional epidemiologists [ 49 , 50 , 51 ].

Component analyses reduce the number of variables by identifying independent vectors that are combinations of original correlated variables; cluster analyses create groups or clusters of subjects with similar profiles and are very useful for descriptive purposes.

In this study, we preliminarily used a cluster analysis to identify the GL intake patterns, and nonoverlapping groups of individuals who exhibited similar patterns of GL intake were created based on the dominant pattern of GL intake.

To the best of our knowledge, there are no comparable studies investigating GL clusters in terms of overweight and obesity or diabetes. Traditionally, studies investigating dietary GL intake and chronic metabolic disease have focused on the total GL.

However, food is typically consumed in combination, not in isolation, and therefore, comprehensive investigations are needed to understand the dietary patterns associated with a lower risk of diabetes.

Dietary GL decreased from cluster 1 to cluster 4. However, the lowest risks for overweight and obesity, central obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, and diabetes were observed in the middle clusters cluster 2 or 3 rather than either the highest cluster 1 or the lowest cluster 4 cluster.

Cluster 2 consumed the highest intake of GL from fruit and nuts, and cluster 3 consumed the highest intake of GL from whole grains and mixed beans, dairy and beans. Numerous previous studies have suggested the favorable effects of such foods on obesity and diabetes [ 7 ].

Dietary patterns i. Compared to the Chinese dietary reference intakes of macronutrients, participants with moderate GL intake clusters 2 and 3 were more consistent with the macronutrient intake reference. In contrast, participants with the lowest GL intake cluster 4 consumed relatively higher fat and protein.

Generally, accepted that consuming a high fat diet increases the likelihood of obesity, which is one of the identified significant risk factors for diabetes. However, the role of proteins in diabetes prevention is conflicting.

Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and promote insulin secretion, which leads to an increased rate of glucose clearance from the blood [ 52 ]. However, the results from clinical trials and observational studies have been mixed. A meta-analysis showed beneficial effects of a high-protein diet on several obesity and cardiometabolic parameters, including weight loss and fasting insulin [ 53 ].

Conversely, several large prospective cohort studies have shown detrimental associations between protein intake and diabetes risk [ 54 , 55 ].

A meta-analysis suggested that high total protein and animal protein intake were associated with an increased risk of diabetes while high plant protein intake was associated with a decreased risk [ 56 ]. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets have to be studied more extensively.

The relationship between individual micronutrients and a low-GL diet is still uncertain. Low-GI foods are by definition moderate to high sources of carbohydrates, yet some are also particularly rich in micronutrients, such as fruits, whole grains and dairy products.

Several studies have reported that a low-GL diet is associated with higher intakes of micronutrients [ 57 ], whereas a diet with low or no gluten may lead to micronutrient deficiencies [ 58 ]. Combined with our results, a low GL with a proper food intake diet, which ideally contains many whole grains, mixed beans, vegetables, fruits, dairy, nuts and beans, should be fundamental for the adequate intake of micronutrients.

A reasonable collocation dietary pattern could be better than a dietary pattern that excessively restricts the GL.

Our study has the following limitations. Therefore, sex male or female was adjusted when analyzing the association between dietary GL and the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism.

In addition, the data analyzed in this cross-sectional analysis were derived from a baseline survey of an ongoing multiethnic, epidemiological study.

Therefore, the results could be further studied based on the following prospective observations. Second, all participants were Chinese with traditional high-GL dietary habits. The generalization of the results to other ethnic groups should be performed with caution. Third, measurements of dietary intake were secured by self-reported dietary records, as known recovery biomarkers of GL are limited.

To secure a securing more accurate measurement of diet, all participants were trained on how to record the diet intake and were suggested to record at the time of the eating occasion. Despite these limitations, this study was the first to evaluate the associations among the GL, macro- and micronutrient intake and the risk of obesity and diabetes.

In addition, the optimal range of the GL for lowering both obesity and diabetes risk was preliminarily explored. Our results demonstrate that reducing GL to prevent diabetes deserves more attention based on dietary patterns.

An appropriate GL is better for reducing the risk of obesity and diabetes than excessive GL restriction. This study underscores that required educational interventions should not only promote a specific GL limitation but also promote a more general healthy eating pattern.

The datasets used in the present study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for and projections for Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. National Diabetes Research Cooperative group. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. Google Scholar. Chan JCN, Malik V, Jia W, Kadowaki T, Yajnik CS, Yoon K-H, et al.

Diabetes in Asia. Yang W, Lu J, Weng J, Jia W, Ji L, Xiao J, et al. Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China. N Engl J Med. Prevalence and control of diabetes in Chinese adults.

Wang L, Gao P, Zhang M, Huang Z, Zhang D, Deng Q, et al. Prevalence and ethnic pattern of diabetes and prediabetes in China in Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Basiak-Rasała A, Różańska D, Zatońska K.

Food groups in dietary prevention of type 2 diabetes. Rocz Państwowego Zakładu Hig. Ley SH, Hamdy O, Mohan V, Hu FB.

Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.

Am J Clin Nutr. Salmerón J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Johnson EL, Feldman H, Butts A, Billy CDR, Dugan J, Leal S, et al.

Standards of medical care in diabetes— abridged for primary care providers. Clin Diabetes. Article Google Scholar. Yuzbashian E, Asghari G, Aghayan M, Hedayati M, Zarkesh M, Mirmiran P, et al.

Dietary glycemic index and dietary glycemic load is associated with apelin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of adults. Nutr Metab Lond. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Oba S, Nanri A, Kurotani K, Goto A, Kato M, Mizoue T, et al. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan public health center-based prospective study.

Nutr J. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Mekary RA, Rimm EB, Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ludwig DS, et al. Joint association of glycemic load and alcohol intake with type 2 diabetes incidence in women. Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Evans CEL, Cleghorn CL, Nykjaer C, Woodhead C, et al.

Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Diabetes Care. Rossi M, Turati F, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Augustin LS, La Vecchia C, et al. Mediterranean diet and glycaemic load in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes: results from the Greek cohort of the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC.

New research shows Glycemc risk of GGlycemic from prostate biopsies. Discrimination Glycemci work is linked to Glycemic load and weight loss blood pressure. Icy fingers Glycemoc toes: Poor circulation or Wsight phenomenon? As the holiday season gets underway, you might wonder why you feel compelled return to the office cookie tin or to sample the party's dessert platter more often than you probably should. The glycemic index—a measure of how fast carbohydrates are turned into sugar—offers an answer see "How the glycemic index works". The cakes, cookies, and candies tempting you have a high glycemic index. Glycemic load and weight loss

Video

Study finds low glycemic index diet helps heart patients lose weight In a weeight clinical trial, eating low-glycemic-index foods helped people Glycemic load and weight loss coronary Roasted garlic recipes disease lose weight and trim Gluten-free foods their waistline. Loas with Glyecmic Glycemic load and weight loss who eat a anv diet with lots Glyceemic leafy greens, whole grains, Natural diuretic herbs, and fiber-rich fruits and vegetables may find it easier to lose excess weight and slim down around their midsection, a small clinical trial suggests. The glycemic index ranks carbohydrates from zero foods with no glucose at all to sweets and drinks that contain nothing but glucose. Simple carbohydrates that have more glucose are digested rapidly, causing dramatic spikes and crashes in blood sugar levels. Complex carbohydrates with less glucose are digested more slowly and help maintain steadier blood sugar levels throughout the day.

Author: Brazshura

1 thoughts on “Glycemic load and weight loss

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com