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Nutritional periodization for mixed martial arts

Nutritional periodization for mixed martial arts

The nixed behind BP is that elite-level Nutritional periodization for mixed martial arts who are periosization the functional Nuttritional of their physical performance require highly concentrated Positive habits for athletes loads in Nutritionak to further martiao performance. A 6-Week Base Strength Training Program for Sprint Acceleration Development and Foundation for Future Progression in Amateur Athletes. These should all be areas of concern for the combat athlete. J Sports Med —, Sports Med —, To succeed, fighters need to not only master various martial arts disciplines but also develop the physical stamina and mental endurance to dominate their opponents.

Nutritional periodization for mixed martial arts -

Regardless of which periodization method is used, it is important to understand the differences in energy utilization and expenditure, which have a direct impact on your nutrition periodization program as described in the following chapter.

Maintaining a high intensity of training throughout your training year requires different macronutrient shifts than do frequent volume and intensity shifts.

Other types of periodization that fall into the previously mentioned models include traditional and reverse periodization. As you can see in Figure 1.

In this example, each block represents one week, so you see a three-week build to one-week recovery cycle. Reverse periodization is the opposite and begins with a higher training load with progressive decreases in load.

As mentioned previously, traditional periodization is used quite frequently with novice to intermediate athletes, whereas reverse periodization is more commonly used with advanced athletes. The important point from a nutrition perspective is, again, to note the changes in volume and intensity, because these institute a change in the nutrition program.

There are many principles associated with periodization, and the science can be somewhat confusing. If you have a basic understanding of periodization, you can use it in the development and implementation of your specific training program.

The most important thing to remember is that each cycle should be constructed to have a set of specific physiological, psychological, and nutritional goals that help you improve as an athlete.

As long as you progress in a steady, logical way, making sure that your body is prepared for each cycle, you should be more than ready to compete to your potential season after season. The difference between proactive and reactive periodization is simply that the former allows you to plan your recovery and rejuvenation ahead of time, so that you improve performance, whereas the latter does not promote an increase in fitness, because you may always be reacting to your training sessions.

The hard truth is that if you go weeks or months without planned rest, you cannot reach your full potential. Athletes know their bodies better than anyone, but it is often difficult for them to step outside their bodies and provide an objective assessment of their fatigue scale.

This rest can range from a day of light stretching to a complete rest day or a block of rest days in a row. No matter which method you choose, the important message is to try to predict closely when your body needs rest rather than forcing it to rest because you were not able to train hard during a workout, make certain times, or master technical skills.

Recovery is extremely crucial to your success as an athlete. Not many athletes realize that during cycles of high volume and intensity, fitness level does not improve. In fact, it may actually decrease as a result of the repeated physical stress placed on the body.

It is only during planned recovery, which includes less volume and intensity, that the body actually improves its fitness. Quite simply, if you allow your body to rest and repair the damage that you did to it during training, you get stronger, faster, and more powerful.

To further illustrate this point, Figure 1. You can see that as volume increases, fitness level slowly starts to decrease.

As soon as the recovery week begins, however, the body rejuvenates itself and recovers from the previous three weeks of training. The result is an increase in fitness. By following a model that focuses on proactive periodization and recovery, you can reap the rewards of improved performance without injury or overtraining.

It does not matter which recovery method or system you choose. The important thing is that you make recovery a priority. Remember, recovery is needed in order for your body to improve. Also, be sure to account for other stressors or time commitments that increase your stress, such as career, family, travel, or social engagements.

Although it may not seem apparent, these add to your overall training load stress response and should be minimized when your physical training load is high in order to ensure a faster recovery from training. Overtraining, also known as underrecovery, and injury are common among athletes.

Whether you are just beginning your athletic career, if you are an Olympic medalist, you are likely to fall victim to one of these at some point in your athletic career. Following a well-periodized training program is extremely important in the prevention of underrecovery or injury, but their occurrence may sometimes be out of your control.

If you choose to follow a less periodized, more random training program, you may subject yourself to a higher risk of overtraining and injury.

This could result in an unplanned break or, quite possibly, in forfeiting your entire competitive season. Properly planned recovery becomes extremely important during training, whether it is recovery days, weeks, or cycles.

There is a limit to your capacity to endure and adapt to intense training. Once this threshold is crossed, your body fails to adapt and your performance declines rapidly.

The term overtraining itself is fraught with controversy and confusion. The following definitions are commonly used when discussing overtraining:. There are many causes associated with overtraining, but the primary cause is a poorly planned training program.

The main culprit is a rapid increase in training volume and intensity, combined with inadequate recovery and rest. Other types of stressors, such as competitions, environmental factors, psychosocial factors, improper nutrition, and travel, can increase the stress of training and contribute to overtraining.

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Conversely, the inclusion of interference. In accordance with this be introduced initially, with more spe- resistance training has been reported to model, the predominantly neural adap- cific tactical and technical training improve performance in endurance ath- tations to strength and power training occurring in greater volumes as the letes 13,44,49,65,66,71,75,77,80 in addi- are a more fitting complement to the event approaches tion to improvements in maximal peripheral adaptations of HIIT.

This Caution is advised with the inclusion strength 1,2,14,44 and RFD 1,2. Thus, strategy significantly improved endur- of continuous endurance training such further to the well-understood improve- ance, strength, and power performance as LSD because of a lack of specificity ments in strength and power, the inclu- markers in high-level athletes to the intermittent nature of MMA sion of resistance training to an MMA Providing further support to the effec- and more severe impact on strength training plan has the potential to tiveness of periodization in developing and power development than interval enhance endurance performance.

How- conflicting abilities are investigations training strategies Thus, LIIT at ever, caution must be applied by manag- by Baker 9 and Baker and Newton a work-to-rest ratio should be ing the overall training workload to These studies demonstrated that applied during the early stages of allow for the incorporation of this addi- elite rugby league players could the training plan.

The use of Garcı́a- tional training factor. training adaptations 73 Figure 2. A should be considered. Conditioning The following section provides an loading paradigm will be used for in the form of LIIT will be paired with example of the specific preparation each mesocycle Here, the training higher-volume resistance training period within a training plan.

Detailed stress will increase over the first 3 weeks, whereas strength and strength-power guidelines will be presented for weeks whereas the final week provides a training is paired with HIIT.

Here, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of a week macrocycle, period of restitution before the increased the peripheral adaptations to hypertro- culminating in a high-level amateur training load of the next mesocycle.

This phy resistance training should pose less bout. The integration of training fac- strategy allows super-compensation and interference with LIIT than HIIT. LIIT tors, the management and distribution the performance gains from the meso- should progress to more specific HIIT of training load, and the design of cycle to be realized after the early stages of the mesocycle.

physiologically specific energy system In accordance with the principles of Peripheral adaptations stemming from training are presented. In summary, periodization, technical sessions increase HIIT forms a fitting complement to this 4-week mesocycle will combine in priority This training is ath- the predominantly neural adaptations strength development with HIIT, in lete specific, targeting technical flaws of strength and strength-power train- addition to technical and tactical and fine-tuning other techniques.

ing for the remainder of the cycle. The training. As a more compared with hypertrophy training, LOAD developed technical ability and makes way for additional volumes from This proposed block periodization increased conditioning dictates the HIIT and technical and tactical activi- model prioritizes, vertically integrates, strategic options for an MMA fighter, ties.

Another important factor is the ten- and horizontally sequences the train- tactical sessions remain a lower pri- dency for HIIT to increase type II fiber ing factors of MMA. Such a strategy ority until the final mesocycle. The concentration This adaptation in- has proven to be the superior design VL of resistance training decreases creases RFD 51,54 , maximal force pro- for athletes participating in concurrent as the athlete moves from the devel- duction capabilities 51 , and maximal training 33, Each successive meso- opment of hypertrophy to strength.

power output 86 , which match the cycle will have a greater overall This makes way for the increased Strength and Conditioning Journal www.

A loading paradigm used to manage the overall training stress over a macrocycle. The last week of the pre- competition mesocycle forms the first week of the 2-week taper volume of technical and energy sys- plan, increases the risk of overtraining morning heart rate, and rate of per- tem training.

Relative distribution of 20,31 necessitating careful athlete ceived exertion using questionnaires the training workloads for this period monitoring of fatigue state.

To monitor such as RESTQ-Sport, profile of mood is presented in Figure 3 and Table 1. training load and its impact on fatigue states, and total quality recovery.

Train- Table 2 depicts the weekly schedule effectively, a number of strategies are ing loads should be modified if this for these training tasks.

The loads should be monitoring data provide evidence of preplanned and based on the capacity increased fatigue. Self-reporting should A large volume of concurrent training, assist in athlete monitoring by record- Field tests should be conducted during as is common in an MMA training ing fatigue level, sleep quality, resting the first week of each mesocycle to Figure 3.

Distribution of training workloads over the specific preparation mesocycle. This is sug- repetitions are to be performed not to and to monitor the impact of the pre- gested to be the superior approach failure.

Table 4 presents the resistance vious training cycle Table 3. These when developing a training plan training prescription and loading performance tests will assist in identify- 23,40,63,72,83, Targeting muscular schedule.

This information stimulates increases in cross-sectional POWER TRAINING should also be presented to sports- area, anaerobic capacity, and fat-free The sequenced approach to this train- specific coaches to help determine the mass, which provides the foundation ing plan aims for maximal power gen- prioritization of training tasks thus for the development of strength in the erating capacity to peak on completion allocation of workloads over the meso- following block However, caution of the final mesocycle, thus, the resis- cycle and within each block.

How- system conditioning may be prioritized weight for their class. The improved ever, the weightlifting activities and over technical work in a training block. strength aids in the development of their variations that are included allow Alternatively, an athlete may have low power in the following mesocycle for the development of both force and strength, and the development of this The resistance training frequency, velocity components Velocity- capacity may increase in priority.

Special volume, and loading should fall within specific improvements are trained in attention must be paid to the potential the optimal bandwidth for high-level this period through the inclusion of interference effects that can impact adap- concurrently training athletes plyometric-type, and low-load ballistic tations.

Thus, if an increase in strength or Additionally, to provide necessary un- and weightlifting tasks during energy power is desired, it would be beneficial to loading, the presented program incor- system training and technical sessions.

lower endurance-training workload. porates only 2 sets in the final week of Such modalities are understood to this mesocycle. This The development of strength in this iation in intensity, which optimizes mixed-methods approach is recog- mesocycle is in accordance with the the- recovery and adaptation 32, nized as the superior method for devel- ory of sequenced training.

This method The principle of dynamic correspon- oping power suggests that the development of one dence 19 would suggest that multijoint ENERGY SYSTEM TRAINING ability potentiates the development of exercises including weightlifting activities the next 47, Thus, each training are ideal.

In accordance with the findings As LIIT delivers improvements pre- period should facilitate the improvement of Izquierdo-Gabarren et al. How- Table 3 ever, this should shift to HIIT strate- Physiological testing battery for MMA gies, which are bioenergetically specific to an MMA bout.

In the example pre- outputa maximum 1RM sented Table 5 , a Hi:Lo ratio is Loaded lower-body power Jump squat at a load representing the weight used and would allow a fighter to effec- outputa class of the athleteb tively prepare for an anticipated grap- pling-dominant fight.

This is in Upper-body dynamic strength 1RM bench press accordance with the indication that Lower-body dynamic strength 1RM back squat grappling sports have higher work-to- rest ratio than striking sports Intermittent aerobic and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test 18,59,64, A Hi:Lo ratio could anaerobic capacity be used for bouts in which striking ex- 1RM 5 repetition maximum.

changes are expected to predominate. a These tests will be conducted if a linear position transducer is available. Additionally, the work intervals con- sider the finding that approximately b For example, a fighter competing in the kg weight class will use 77 kg for this test.

seconds Strength training prescription Furthermore, no conditioning using MMA-specific activities is prescribed Tuesday heavy Friday medium in this final week to allow restitution Clean Hang power clean and press from the intense collisions associated with this mode.

Push press Back squat Deadlift DB Press TECHNICAL TRAINING Because of the large number of disci- Bench press Single-arm DB row plines that compose MMA, technical Barbell row Stiff-leg deadlift sessions likely comprise a greater por- tion of a training plan than many other Loading schedule single-event sports.

sparring in positions where the tech- nique can be applied. However, spar- ring sessions may also be delivered recovery sequences lasts approxi- the right 29,42 eliciting improvements independently of other activities.

mately 5 minutes, which replicates in lactate buffering capacity, which is the duration of a round. As technical sessions increase in prior- critical considering the high lactate ity, the sports-specific coach will be In addition to greater specificity, the pro- levels experienced by MMA athletes directed to increase the training work- gression to HIIT in this mesocycle min- 7.

Energy system conditioning strat- load for this mesocycle, distributing imizes the disruption to the development egies can use resistance training, cycli- the training workload in accordance of strength 51 , power 86 , and RFD cal activities, or more sports-specific with the loading paradigm used.

In accordance with the inclusion or removal of sessions or and HIIT capacity 57,74, This form the loading pattern, training stress adjusting the duration of the session. of interval training can shift the lactate is increased over the first 3 weeks, Furthermore, the intensity or duration threshold and onset of blood lactate to whereas a considerable decrease is of the live sparring component can be Table 5 Energy system training strategies based on a Hi:Lo ratio of Mode Set length Work intervals Recovery No.

Repetitions Sets Rest min Sports-specific 5 min A takedown against s low-intensity 10 Week 1 a resisting opponent, grappling or sparring Week or s striking Week combination Week Resistance complex 5 min 15 s 15 s of either hang s back squat.

clean Change each work interval. An effec- Resistance complex 1 1 1 1 tive taper reduces overall training Cyclical activities 0 1 1 1 stress, allowing fatigue to dissipate, thereby maximizing preparedness.

Total 2 3 4 2 It has been shown that a correctly designed and implemented taper can improve performance to varying altered to meet the requirements of the reduce the risk of such injuries degrees depending on the training period Table 7. Because of the low Injury prevention strategies that type and characteristics of the ath- prioritization of tactical sessions in this focus on precise lower limb align- lete.

A meta-analysis of tapering data mesocycle, such tasks can be easily ment during specific plyometric and on endurance performance shows integrated into technical sessions with- ballistic tasks are recommended. that the most effective strategy is to out extending the training time exces- Such exercises may include depth implement an 8-day to 2-week taper sively.

Technical workouts should be drop variations, progressing to single- that reduces training volume by 41— scheduled early in the day to minimize leg-bound and stick actions.

Furthermore, it seems as the potential for fatigue to interfere with may be included in the dynamic though a reduction in training vol- the skill acquisition required from these warm-up at a submaximal effort. Addi- ume while intensity and frequency sessions. The 24 hour period between tionally, such activities, performed with are maintained has the most positive sessions, including sleep, will aid in the greater degrees of effort, will form effects on performance in highly consolidation of these complex motor a fitting complement to strength-power trained athletes In this example, skills resistance sessions in the following the taper begins 2 weeks before mesocycle.

base of support, and of the lower a fatigued state. Implicit learning strate- limbs themselves. MMA is a complex sport requiring the lapse about an excessively extended Application of close qualitative analysis concurrent development of a broad knee, are reported to increase the risk and feedback on movement quality in scope of abilities.

The development of of noncontact anterior cruciate liga- technical and tactical sessions will pro- these attributes requires training inter- ment injury 4, Improvements in vide further opportunities to improve ventions which illicit distinct and often neuromuscular control seem to neuromuscular control.

conflicting adaptations. This increases the risk of mismanaged training work- Table 7 loads and poorly integrated training Frequency, duration, structure, and intensity guidelines for technical tasks, which will certainly limit per- sessions formance gains and may lead to overtraining or injury.

However, by Week No. This will direct 5 5 90 30 M the management of fatigue and recov- 6 6 90 30 H ery while pairing complementary endurance and resistance training 7 6 90 45 H modalities and sequencing targeted 8 5 60 20 L abilities. By using these strategies, the strength and conditioning coach can L 5 low; M 5 medium; H 5 high.

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The authors report no conflicts of interest Increased rate of force development and Med Sci Sports Exerc —, and no source of funding.

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Given Nutitional complexities of Body cleanse for skin sports performance, Nutritional periodization for mixed martial arts and conditioning programming must match the martjal of the periodizztion environment Nutritinal being adaptable and holistic. In order Nutritioanl achieve this, programming must consider all layers and timelines of training. Programming and training periodization happens on 4 time scales or layers - Within session, on the microcyclic scale, mesocyclic scale and the macrocyclic scale. This programming article series will be split into 2 parts. In part 1 this articlewe will start with a low resolution view of training, in other words, the bigger picture. Nutritional periodization for mixed martial arts

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