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Antioxidants and immune system support

Antioxidants and immune system support

Supportt binds to the peptidase domain of Immhne, which Antioxidants and immune system support called suppoet receptor-binding immunee RBD Antioxidants and immune system support, while S2 catalyzes the membrane sjpport, thereby releasing the genetic material into cells 5. Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. J Infect Dis. Research has not proven this to be true. Behera MK, Shukla SK, Dixit VK, Nath P, Abhilash VB, Asati PK, et al. Adv Exp Med Biol.

Antioxidants and immune system support -

Many natural cellular processes in our bodies create waste, some of which form free radicals. A consistently high state of inflammation is considered to be a precursor to many common conditions in older adults, such as cardiovascular disease and various types of cancer.

The good news is that our bodies create antioxidants to balance this damage out! Antioxidants bind to free radicals and suppress their damage. However, since we are exposed to additional free radicals from pollution, cigarette smoke, pesticides, radiation, and some processed foods, we need to also take in additional antioxidants to neutralize the free radicals.

How can I get more antioxidants? Antioxidants are found in many plant foods. Here are a few:. How much do I need? There is no specific daily recommendation for antioxidants. Should I take a supplement? Antioxidants appear to have the most benefit when you eat them in whole foods.

For example, strawberries and raspberries contain an antioxidant called ellagic acid, which is poorly absorbed in supplement form. The best antioxidant diet, one rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, could also be the best diet to prevent heart disease, cancer, type II diabetes, and age-related diseases.

Privacy Policy. Facebook Twitter Instagram LinkedIn Search. While writing this review, there were more than 23M confirmed cases and more than K deaths.

In India, there were more than 3M positive cases, and more than 57K reported deaths. The incubation period is presumed to vary between 2 and 14 days.

The transmission mode includes surface contact of aerosol droplets from infected persons, followed by touching nose, eyes, and mouth. Evidence also points toward vertical transmission to new-borns, also by fecal transmission 1 — 3.

These viruses belong to the large family of Coronaviridae and subfamily Coronavirinae , which infect birds and mammals. The genome size of these viruses ranges from 26 to 32 kb 4. The virus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ACE2 receptors on cells through its spike S glycoprotein.

The S protein has two domains S1 and S2. S1 binds to the peptidase domain of ACE2, which is called the receptor-binding domain RBD , while S2 catalyzes the membrane fusion, thereby releasing the genetic material into cells 5.

Of them, non-structural proteins are predicted to participate in the host-protein interactions and modulate host cell signaling pathways.

The onset of clinical disease and its progression to the severe stage may vary between individuals and that depend upon their immune status, and the presence of underlying medical conditions. Pneumonia is severe manifestation of the infection 2.

The details of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not clearly understood. The available evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of infection can be classified into two phases.

Phase 1: An asymptomatic phase with or without detectable virus. Phase 2: Symptomatic phase with high viral load 4. The virus enters the airway epithelium after binding its S protein to the ACE2 receptors and subsequent priming by the cellular transmembrane protease, serine 2 TMPRSS2.

Following its entry, the virus inhibits or delays the host innate interferon IFN immune response. The mechanisms of how it modulates the host IFN response is not completely understood.

Once type 1 IFN is secreted, the virus interferes IFN signaling by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT 1 phosphorylation 9.

The viral proteins that modulate host type 1 IFN responses include structural such as M, N and NSPs. Following the impairment in the IFN system, virus replication ensues in cells. This results in hyper inflammation of tissues and subsequent tissue fibrosis and pneumonia 4 , 7 , Studies also indicate the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of COVID Available evidence suggests that, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes oxidative stress directly by enhancing the production of reactive oxygen species ROS 11 and indirectly by suppressing the host antioxidant defense mediated by the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 -like 2 NRF-2 Further, granulocytosis in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection also contributes to the production of super oxide ions, a type of ROS and for the additional production of pro-inflammatory cytokines In a study by Lin et al.

Further, study also found that elevated oxidative stress results in activation apoptosis and inflammation. In another study done on human HCoVE infection shows that deficiency in the expression of NRF-2 target, glucosephosphate dehydrogenase G6PDH results in enhanced ROS as well as virus production Incidentally, the NRF-2 levels were found to be suppressed in lung biopsies from COVID subjects, on the other hand NRF-2 activators found to inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2 and the inflammatory response However, it is not known how SARS-CoV-2 infection causes suppression of NRF-2 signaling.

Additionally, studies also suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the activation of NF-κB-toll-like receptor TLR signaling pathways to induce the oxidative stress and hyper inflammatory response, ultimately leading to acute lung injury The elevated cytokines also trigger induction of endothelium HA-synthase-2 HAS2 in alveolar epithelial cells type 2 , and fibroblasts Most importantly, key molecule hyaluronan HA has high water binding capacity up to 1, times its molecular weight.

Perhaps the accumulation of fluid in the lungs could be the reason that computer tomography CT images of the lung in acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS patients show the presence of distinguishing white patches called ground glass The majority of autopsies have shown that infected lungs are filled with clear liquid jelly, which resembles the lungs of wet drowning Even though the nature of clear liquid jelly is not yet been determined, HA is associated with ARDS The lungs of COVID patients show elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF-α.

This correlates with increased activity of HAS2 and the subsequent lung pathology induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the above clinical and research findings suggest that COVID pathogenesis involves two phases: Phase 1, suppression of innate immune response, increases in oxidative stress and phase 2 acute inflammation-driven damaging phase Figure 1.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of pathogenesis of COVID SARS-CoV-2 infection involves two phases: 1 Asymptomatic carrier phase. The black stars indicate the stage at which food supplements can counteract the pathogenesis of COVID Arrow on the left indicate the progress of the infection.

From the point of prevention, phase 1 is crucial as individuals in this stage are carriers, they can spread the infection unknowingly. Management of individuals in phase 1, along with mounting specific adaptive immune response, and use of antivirals is critical to prevent the virus entry, replication as well as the disease progression to phase 2.

Therefore, global strategies may include administration of external antiviral, and or immune-boosting food supplements. During the phase 2 of the infection, in addition to maintaining the general health condition of affected patients, the line of treatment may be focused on adapting the strategies including the use of nutritional supplements that can suppress the ongoing oxidative stress, acute-inflammation and cytokine storm so that destruction and damage caused to affected tissues is prevented.

In summary, in addition to symptomatic treatment, strategies to counteract the SARS-CoV-2 infection is to boost the immune response in phase 1 while suppressing it in the second phase could be effective.

Currently, there is one vaccine; Sputnik V, approved by the Ministry of Health, Russian Federation. It was fast-tracked for use as a corona vaccine, but experts have expressed concern about the vaccine's efficacy and safety since it has not yet been evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials.

Currently, most countries around the world are into developing corona vaccines, a few of them have entered into human trials while most of them are in various stages of research and development. Further, there no specific drug for use against COVID as well as substantial data both at the national or international level on the effects of nutritional supplements on risk or severity of COVID The development of new antivirals for COVID is a great challenge and needs a considerable length of time and effort for designing and validation.

Several shreds of evidence indicate that many nutritional supplements from various spices, herbs, fruits, roots, and vegetables can reduce the risk or severity of a wide range of viral infections by boosting the immune response, particularly among people with inadequate dietary sources and also by their anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, and viricidal functions.

These nutrients can be repurposed in mitigating the pathological effects induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Therefore, the use of natural compounds may provide alternative prophylactic and therapeutic support along with the therapy for COVID In the following section, the beneficial effects of some of the nutrients are described.

Zinc is an essential metal involved in a variety of biological processes due to its function as a cofactor, signaling molecule, and a structural element. It regulates inflammatory activity and has antiviral and antioxidant functions Studies in the rat model show that deficiency of Zn increases oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory TNF-α and vascular cell adhesion molecule VCAM -1 expression and causes lung tissue remodeling which was partially reversed by the Zn supplementation Zn deficiency shows up-regulation of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and FasR signaling and induction of apoptosis in lung epithelial cells 21 and also up-regulates the Janus kinase JAK -STAT signaling in lungs under septic conditions Zinc can also modulate the viral entry, fusion, replication, viral protein translation and virus budding of respiratory viruses 19 , Speth et al.

Zn also shortens the duration of flu-like symptoms by 2 days as well as improves the rate of recovery Zinc is considered as the potential supportive treatment against COVID infection due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant as well as direct antiviral effects VD a fat-soluble vitamin, plays a vital role in both in immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antiviral responses 29 , The human airway epithelium constitutively expresses the vitamin D receptor thereby enabling the protective effects of VD against respiratory infections.

VD blocks NF-κB p65 activation via up-regulation of NF-κB inhibitory protein I-kappa-B-alpha I K B-α VD also decreases the expression levels of pro-inflammatory type 1 cytokines such as IL, IL, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ while increasing type 2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL, and regulatory T cells 32 , VD increases the levels of antioxidant NRF-2 and facilitates balanced mitochondrial functions, prevents oxidative stress-related protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage Epidemiological data relates VD deficiency to increases in the susceptibility to acute viral respiratory infections 34 while its supplementation potentiates the innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections including those caused by Influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 and 2, respiratory syncytial virus RSV , and chronic hepatitis C 35 , Though there are no reports that VD directly affects the virus replication or viral load, studies reveal that VD could contribute to antiviral activity through suppression of virus-induced inflammation.

Perhaps this function of VD could help in suppression of the cytokine storm in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, evidence also suggests that VD can supplement the effectiveness of drug treatment as observed in the case of ribavirin therapy for treatment-naïve patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus HCV genotype 1 and HCV genotype 2e3 infections 33 , 34 , 38 , The beneficial effect of supplementation was seen in patients across all ages groups and in individuals with pre-existing chronic illness Older people are most often deficient in these important micronutrients.

Thus they can derive the most significant benefit from the VD supplementation Vitamin C can potentially protect against infection due to its essential role on immune health This vitamin supports the function of various immune cells and enhances their ability to protect against infection.

Supplementing with VC has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of upper respiratory infections most of which are assumed to be due to viral infections , including the common cold The total recommended daily allowance RDA for VC is 60 mg.

Various spices, herbs, fruits, and vegetables have found to be excellent sources of VC VC is also a potent antioxidant.

As an antioxidant, it scavenges ROS, prevents lipid peroxidation, and protein alkylation and thus protects cells from oxidative stress induced cellular damage Studies also have revealed that administration of VC in combination with quercetin provides synergistic antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects Therefore, having the food supplement incorporated with sources of VC can help in alleviating and providing immune boosting as well as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection Curcumin has a broad spectrum of biological actions, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities It inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- α in lipopolysaccharide LPS -stimulated BV2 microglial cells 50 and IL- 1β and IL-6 in TNF-α treated HaCaT cells via inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways The curcumin also inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 , as well as STAT signaling pathways It exerts antiviral effect by various mechanisms ranging from inhibiting the virus entry into cells, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, inhibiting the virus replication, as well as modulating several signaling pathways Recent study has shown that curcumin potentially inhibits ACE2, modulates characteristics of lipid bilayer, as well as viral S protein inhibiting entry of virus into cells 54 , 55 , inhibits the viral protease 56 , stimulates host interferon production to activate the host innate immunity 55 , etc.

Furthermore, curcumin is a potent antioxidant. It exerts its antioxidant effects both by neutralizing free radicals and enhancing the production of antioxidant enzymes 57 — These studies reveal potential immune-boosting, antioxidant and anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects of curcumin.

Therefore, curcumin could be a potential supplement in combating the COVID pathogenesis. Cinnamaldehyde is a naturally present organic compound abundantly found in essential oils in cinnamon. It predominantly exists in the trans-isomer form, which gives cinnamon its flavor and odor Cinnamaldehyde is a well-known dietary phytonutrient, known to possess anti-inflammatory properties.

In a study by Liao et al. Studies have also found that it can suppress endotoxin-mediated hyperexpression of TLR4 and NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathways Cinnamaldehyde is also known to downregulate the production of prostaglandins PGEs by downregulating IL-1β-induced COX-2 activity thus lowering the chances of hyper inflammation in a dose-dependent manner All the above evidences show cases that cinnamaldehyde is a potential anti-inflammatory bioactive compound and could be useful in mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 induced hyper inflammation in the lung.

The predominant thiosulfinate in fresh garlic extract identified as allicin, has shown a number of health benefits due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties. Allicin suppresses the inflammation via inhibiting the TNF-α induced expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IP, and IFN-γ and also through suppression of degradation of NF-κB inhibitory protein IκB in intestinal epithelial cells It inhibits inducible NO nitric oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages 66 , Several garlic associated compounds have found to possess a strong viricidal activity against a wide range of viruses including parainfluenza virus type 3, human rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus HSV -1, HSV-2, and vesicular stomatitis virus VSV.

Some of the garlic compounds that show viricidal activity are ajoene, allicin, allyl, methyl thiosulfinate and methyl allyl thiosulfinate 68 , Studies also have found that only fresh samples with no processing such as heat induction or drying were successful to induce most of the biological activities of garlic Therefore, fresh garlic extract may be useful as a prophylactic against COVID Black pepper has long been used in many cuisines and it holds a very valuable space among medicinal plants.

Piperine that is obtained from ethanolic extract of black pepper and is a major alkaloid in the group of cinnamamides Piperine possesses a strong anti-inflammatory function and therefore can be repurposed for suppression of hyper inflammation induced during COVID It downregulates PGEs by inhibiting the expression levels of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP Piperine promotes innate immunity by promoting the phagocytic activity of phagocytes and is known to inhibit LPS-induced expression of IRF-1 and IRF-7 mRNA, phosphorylation of IRF-3, type 1IFN mRNA, and down-regulation of STAT-1 activity Few studies conducted on microglial cells have shown that piperine inhibits LPS-Induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and PGE2 production in BV2 cells Also, it found to inhibit the production of IL-2, and IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs Furthermore, piperine treatment found to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, nitric oxide synthase-2, and NF-κB in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced inflammation rat model These findings indicate the strong anti-inflammatory activity of the piperine.

Further, piperine is a potent antioxidant and protects against oxidative damage by neutralizing free radicals, ROS, and hydroxyl radicals.

It scavenges superoxide radicals with IC 50 of 1. These results indicate that piperine possesses a direct antioxidant effect against various free radicals Because of these properties, piperine can be tried as a prophylactic or therapeutic compound to protect from the oxidative stress and hyper inflammation induced during the COVID Selenium is abundantly found in common foods such as corn, garlic, onion, cabbage, broccoli.

It's an essential micronutrient that plays a vital role in various physiological processes and on the immune system. Selenium exerts its biological effect through incorporation into selenoproteins in the body. Optimum selenium status μg per day promotes enhanced T cell proliferation, NK cell activity and innate cell functions.

Further supports stronger vaccine response and robust immunity to pathogens. Also, suppresses severe inflammation in tissues such as lungs and intestine Studies have shown that selenium supplementation modulates the inflammatory response in respiratory distress syndrome patients by restoring the antioxidant status of the lungs and suppressing the IL-1β and IL-6 levels Selenium supplementation suppresses pathogen induced activation of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine release The antiviral properties of selenium have found to be mediated through its antioxidant effects.

Overall, selenium improves the immunity through its non-enzymatic role acting as cofactor for enzymes involved in critical post-translational modifications of proteins.

Because of its substantial role in suppressing the inflammation and augmentation of antioxidant status and innate immunity, selenium supplementation may be useful in fight against COVID Propolis produced by honeybees and known to have a broad spectrum of biological properties, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, dermatoprotective, laxative, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory activity The immunomodulatory activity is attributed to flavonoids and some phenolic acids mainly caffeic acid phenethyl esters and artepillin C 3,5-diprenylhydroxycinnamic acid.

Propolis exhibits immunomodulatory effects on a broad spectrum of immune cells mediated by the modulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and MAPK signaling pathways. Further, it also modulates nuclear factor of activated T cells NFAT and NF κB signaling pathways 82 , Propolis also stimulates greater antibody production, suggesting that it could be used as an adjuvant in vaccines.

Propolis at higher concentration inhibits lymphoproliferation while at low concentrations the effect is reversed, causing lymphoproliferation Further, compounds in honey propolis inhibits various viruses such as dengue virus type 2, herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, influenza virus A1 Together, with immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, propolis can be tried as a prophylactic support against COVID The commonly used probiotics are Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, followed by the Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, and Escherichia coli.

Probiotics not only support the health of the gut but also improves system functioning and regulation Though it is not clear how gut microbiome provides benefit over respiratory tract infections via gut-lung axis. In general, it is observed that the gut microbiome impacts systemic immune responses as well as local immune responses at distal mucosal sites, including lungs Consumption of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus have found to help in clearing the influenza virus in the respiratory tract Levels of interferons, mucosal antibodies of lung and activity of NK cells, antigen presenting cells APCs are improved by probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 strain has shown to have suppressing effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, enhances anti-inflammatory cytokines IL, IL-4 and also known to reduce plasma peroxidation levels as well as modulate immune system It is reported that Lactobacillus acidophilus CMCC administration in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased the damage in the lungs by reducing the bacterial load and reducing the inflammation A clinical study has reported that administration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Lactobacillus plantarum 2,, L.

paracasei ssp. paracasei 19, Pediococcus pentosaceus along with resistant starch, inulin prebiotics etc. reduced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other infections Bifidobacterium longum BB strain prevents infection from influenza and improves innate immunity Though mechanism of their immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory effects in the lung are not clearly understood.

In general, probiotics exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via modulation of the NF-κB, MAPK and pattern recognition receptors PRR pathways that decreases Th2 mediated responses and upregulates Th1 responses.

Further, they have an ability to inhibit the attachment of bacterial LPS to CD14 receptor, hence decrease in the overall activation of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines production 94 , Considering the role of probiotics in improving the host innate immune response as well as anti-inflammatory effects 87 , and considering the fact that gut involvement and enterocytes 96 can be reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 infection, probiotics can be repurposed as prophylactics as well as adjuvants to combat the pathogenesis of COVID Lactoferrin Lf is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that has been studied against a broad range of viruses, including SARS-CoV, which is closely related to SARS-CoV Lf inhibits viral entry via binding to cell surface molecules or viral particles or both.

It was also known to suppress virus replication as in the case of HIV. Therefore, it plays a crucial role in preventing the virus entry and replication Studies have shown that it exerts immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects by inducing the T-cell activation, suppressing the levels of interleukins including IL-6, TNF-α, and downregulating the ferritin Also it suppresses H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells Furthermore, zinc saturated Lf exerts a more potent antiviral effect It is mainly used as a nutritional additive in infant formulas and clinical studies, with doses ranging from mg to 4.

and can be tried as a potential preventive and therapeutics against COVID Quercetin is a well-known antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and antiviral bioactive. It inhibits TNF-α production in LPS-induced macrophages , IL-8 production in lung A cells , and mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1α in glial cells It also limits the production of cyclooxygenase COX and lipoxygenase LOX enzymes in rat liver epithelial cells Studies have also shown that quercetin has antiviral effects on both RNA and DNA viruses.

It inhibits the virus entry and viral-cell fusion and reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lung inflammation induced by rhinovirus in mice Further, quercetin metabolite 4',5-diacetyloxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone has been shown to inhibit the picornavirus replication by inhibiting the RNA replicase complex Studies have also found that quercetin-3β-galactoside due to the presence of hydroxyl group, it binds to viral protease 3CL pro and inhibits its proteolytic activity Further, increased ability of estradiol in affecting human genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets compared to testosterone suggests a plausible explanation of the apparently higher male mortality in this corona pandemic Furthermore, as observed in prediction models that quercetin binds SARS-CoV-2 S-protein at its host receptor region or to the S-protein-human ACE2 interface interfering the virus entry into cells indicating its therapeutic potential This prediction is consistent with the reports that both quercetin and a structurally similar luteolin inhibits the SARS-CoV virus infection Additionally, other studies have also found that quercetin in combination with VC induces synergistic antiviral and immunomodulatory effects against COVID Taken together, various studies suggest that quercetin possesses potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and can be repurposed as a preventive and therapeutic candidate to combat COVID Currently, there is one corona vaccine, Sputnik V, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute, Moscow has been approved by the Ministry of Health, Russian Federation.

Presently, there are over vaccines around the world in various stages of research and development. A few of them are in human clinical trials and are being tested rigorously for their safety, efficacy, and dosage standardization.

Similarly, there are several drug candidates that have been identified and most are in various stages of research and development, whilst some of them have been repurposed and approved for emergency use in this pandemic. The notable ones approved for use in an emergency include hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, remdesivir, tocilizumab, etc.

The plethora of existing literature provides the scientific evidence on immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties of several phytonutrients as summarized in Table 1. Initial studies find that some of these have been found to possess anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and are being fast-tracked into clinical trials Table 2.

Repurposing of these nutrients in the right combination to achieve the functional synergy in the form of ready-to-eat food supplements may provide both prophylactic and adjuvant therapy against COVID Table 2.

Registered clinical trials of food supplements Source: ClinicalTrials. MM, VP, RN, and PJ: drafted the article. PH and PVR: edited the article. All authors: contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

of India. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We are thankful to the Director and to CSIR-CFTRI for providing facilities to carry out this study. Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KKW, Chu H, Yang J, et al.

A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease in China.

N Engl J Med. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia.

Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, et al. COVID infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Differ. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al.

SARSCoV-2 cell entry depends on ace2 and tmprss2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor.

Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P, Mi D, Ren L, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARSCoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARSCoV. Nat Commun. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology.

Semin Immunopathol. Kindler E, Thiel V, Weber F. Interaction of SARS and MERS coronaviruses with the antiviral interferon response. Adv Virus Res. Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID J Pharm Anal.

Olagnier D, Farahani E, Thyrsted J, Cadanet JB, Herengt A, Idorn M, et al. Identification of SARSCoV2-mediated suppression of NRF2 signaling reveals a potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-octyl-itaconate and dimethyl fumarate.

Delgado-Roche L, Mesta F. Oxidative stress as key player in severe acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus SARSCoV infection. Arch Med Res. Ntyonga-Pono MP. COVID infection and oxidative stress: an under-explored approach for prevention and treatment? Pan Afr Med J.

Lin CW, Lin KH, Hsieh TH, Shiu SY, Li JY. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3C-like protease-induced apoptosis.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. Wu YH, Tseng CP, Cheng ML, Ho HY, Shih SR, Chiu DTY. Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances human coronavirus E infection.

J Infect Dis. Bell TJ, Brand OJ, Morgan DJ, Salek-Ardakani S, Jagger C, Fujimori T, et al. Defective lung function following influenza virus is due to prolonged, reversible hyaluronan synthesis. Matrix Biol J Int Soc Matrix Biol. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al.

Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al.

Pathological findings of COVID associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. Hällgren R, Samuelsson T, Laurent TC, Modig J. Accumulation of hyaluronan hyaluronic acid in the lung in adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Am Rev Respir Dis. Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. Biaggio VS, Pérez Chaca MV, Valdéz SR, Gómez NN, Gimenez MS. Alteration in the expression of inflammatory parameters as a result of oxidative stress produced by moderate zinc deficiency in rat lung.

Exp Lung Res. Bao S, Knoell DL. Zinc modulates cytokine-induced lung epithelial cell barrier permeability. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol.

Liu MJ, Bao S, Napolitano JR, Burris DL, Yu L, Tridandapani S, et al. Zinc regulates the acute phase response and serum amyloid a production in response to sepsis through JAKSTAT3 signaling.

PLoS ONE. Ishida T. Am J Biomed Sci Res. Speth R, Carrera E, Jean-Baptiste M, Joachim A, Linares A. Concentration-dependent effects of zinc on angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 activity FASEB J.

te Velthuis AJW, van den Worm SHE, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ. PLoS Pathog. Hemilä H, Fitzgerald JT, Petrus EJ, Prasad A. Zinc acetate lozenges may improve the recovery rate of common cold patients: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis. Roth DE, Richard SA, Black RE. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials.

Int J Epidemiol. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: a systematic review. J Med Virol.

Thirst-Quenching Beverages Antioxidants and immune system support navigation. Garden seed suggestions natural immunr processes in our bodies adn waste, some of which form free Antioxidants and immune system support. A consistently high state of inflammation is considered to be a precursor to many common conditions in older adults, such as cardiovascular disease and various types of cancer. The good news is that our bodies create antioxidants to balance this damage out! Antioxidants bind to free radicals and suppress their damage. New research shows Immkne risk of infection from prostate biopsies. Antioxidants and immune system support at work is zystem to high blood pressure. Icy Antioxiants and toes: Poor circulation Antioxxidants Raynaud's phenomenon? Some vitamins and minerals — including vitamins C and E and the minerals copper, zinc, and selenium — serve as antioxidants, in addition to other vital roles. Because free radicals lack a full complement of electrons, they steal electrons from other molecules and damage those molecules in the process.

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  1. Ich bin endlich, ich tue Abbitte, aber es kommt mir ganz nicht heran. Wer noch, was vorsagen kann?

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