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Antimicrobial properties

Antimicrobial properties

PripertiesS. Kumar, A. Antimicrobial properties Antiimicrobial Antimicrobial properties of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants non-selective agents, such as bleachwhich kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgeryand antibiotics which destroy microorganisms within the body.

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Antimicrobial properties -

According to the research results, the functional groups methylenedioxy and methoxyl at C—2 and C—3 on the phenol ring might be the major group contributed to the activities of alkaloids, and methylenedioxy at C—2 and C—3 on the phenyl ring improved antibacterial activities more remarkably than methoxyl Yan et al.

Besides, when the compounds bear the same functional group at C—2 and C—3, a methoxy at C—9 and C—10 showed higher activity than methylenedioxy Kong et al. However, according to the results of Kong et al. Additionally, a synergetic effect against MRSA was found between berberine and epiberberine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine, jatrorrhizine and coptisine, but an antagonistic effect against MRSA was found between coptisine and epiberberine Luo et al.

The bioactivity of berberine alkaloids by oral administration was very low, and the plasma concentration of alkaloids displayed an explicit nonliner relationship with oral dosage Feng et al.

As summarized by Wu et al. The median lethal dosage LD 50 values of berberine by intravenous injection, intraperitoneal injection and intragastric oral administration in mice were 9. According to Ma et al.

rhizome was 2. In the acute toxicity study, LD 50 of fibrous roots of C. Besides, 1. rhizome did not produce obvious side effects in Sprague—Dawley rats, while 3. The LD 50 values of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine were In , C. rhizome was implicated in causing neonatal jaundice and kernicterus in neonates suffering from glucosephosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency, leading to the banning of C.

rhizome and berberine in Singapore. Later, after accumulating studies pointing to the safety of C. rhizome for the general public and better understanding of G6PD deficiency, the Health Sciences Authority in Singapore reviewed and lifted the prohibition of C.

rhizome and berberine Ho et al. There was no organ toxicity or electrolyte imbalance in 20 patients where C. rhizome was administered for patient-days Linn et al. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were seen and no adverse effects were found on rats administered with C.

rhizome during the study Lee et al. It is well known that five isoquinoline alkaloids in C. rhizome , berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, and jatrorrhizine, are the main contributors to its activities and functions.

Among them, berberine is the most studied and possessed the best antibacterial activity. In addition, different alkaloids exert diverse antibacterial effects against pathogens, which may be attributed to the various substituent groups on the phenol ring of alkaloids.

The alkaloids used in antibacterial experiments are commonly commercially purchased, which is different from dandelion, and this may ascribe to the difficulty of extraction and the low purity of extracts.

Besides, microcalorimetry has been used as a mature method in investigating the antibacterial effects of alkaloids. To sum up, isoquinoline alkaloids of C.

rhizome have been proved to be potent in killing common bacteria and have potential application values in food and medicine.

baicalensis is the member of the genus Lamiaceae, which are perennial plants and include about species. It is also known as Huang-Qin in China and its roots are the main parts commonly used in TCM. Nowadays, the plants are widely cultivated in Shandong Province, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Gansu Province, and Inner Mongonia Autonomous Region of China Wang et al.

More than compounds have been isolated from S. baicalensis , including flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides, and other compounds. Of those, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A were the main active compositions Li et al.

High-performance liquid chromatography HPLC , thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry MS , GC-MS, and capillary electrophoresis are usually applied to study these chemical compounds Li et al.

In China, S. baicalensis has a medicinal history of at least years, and was used to treat various clinical diseases.

Studies on its pharmacological effects showed that S. baicalensis possessed anticancer activities Bie et al. The antibacterial activities are mainly attributed to the presences of baicalein, baicalin, and volatile oil of S.

A summary is presented in Table 3 , and the profile of the antibacterial activities is shown in Figure 4. ATP, adenosine triphosphate; E. faecalis , Enterococcus faecalis ; FICI, fractional inhibitory concentration index; H.

pylori, Helicobacter pylori ; IC 50 , half maximal inhibitory concentration; IZD, inhibition zone diameter; K.

aeruginosa , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; QS, quorum sensing; S. baicalensis , Scutellaria baicalensis ; S. enterica, Salmonella enterica ; S. The profile of antibacterial effects of Scutellaria baicalensis. QS, quorum sensing. It was reported that l -lactic acid, as a substrate recognized and utilized by H.

pylori , was able to promote the growth and colonization of H. pylori Takahashi et al. Thus, a newly developed fluorometric assay was developed by Takahashi et al. Baicalein was proved to significantly inhibit the growth of l -lactic acid-dependent H.

pylori , which was probably achieved by influencing the l -lactic acid metabolic pathways of H. In a similar research Chen et al. pylori and inhibit the growth of H. pylori , and pylori to human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. According to a high-throughput assay conducted by Tsou et al.

typhimurium pathogenicity island 1 SPI-1 type III secretion system T3SS effectors and translocases, which was the key virulence pathway of bacteria, to inhibit the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Zeng et al. The results indicated that although baicalein did not exert antibacterial effects against P.

However, in another study, the MIC of baicalein against P. Moreover, Chen et al. aureus in vitro , and decreased the gene expressions of agrA , sarA , and ica in QS system.

Baicalein could attenuate the virulence of S. aureus by blocking the coagulase of van Willebrand factor-binding protein vWbp , which was one of the key virulence factors, but did not significantly inhibit the growth of S.

Thermal shift and fluorescence quenching assays, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutagenesis assays proved that baicalein could directly bind to vWbp through the Asp and Lys residues Zhang et al.

A synergistic effect was found between baicalein and ciprofloxacin against 12 of 20 clinical ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA, and an additive effect was observed against ciprofloxacin-susceptible MRSA by the checkerboard dilution test and time—kill assay.

Baicalein could restore the antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin against MRSA, possibly by inhibiting the NorA efflux pump. Besides, the specific pyruvate kinase of MRSA inhibited by baicalein could lead to the deficiency of adenosine triphosphate ATP; Chan et al.

A synergetic activity was achieved against 20 clinical penicillinase-producing S. According to the study of Peng et al. aureus induced by ciprofloxacin to decrease the antibiotic resistance of S.

Moreover, synergistic effects of baicalein and tetracycline against MRSA Fujita et al. pneumonia Cai et al. The QS circuit was important in controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation of P.

aeruginosa , and experiments proved that baicalin could inhibit virulence phenotypes LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, motilities, and exotoxin A , and QS-regulatory genes lasl , lasR , rhll , rhlR , pqsR , and pqsA to reduce the infection of P.

aeruginosa Luo et al. In another study Peng et al. coli by suppressing the expression of virulence genes and inhibiting the formation of biofilm. In addition, baicalin could downregulate the expression of Toll-like receptor TLR2 , and the phosphorylation of p53 in the mammary glands in S.

aureus -induced mastitis Guo et al. According to the study by Wang et al. aureus , to decrease S. aureus infections. The antagonistic activities against S. Furthermore, in the research of Zhou et al. aureus than baicalin itself. Volatile oil was firstly identified by Fukuhara et al.

through GC-MS, and proved to exert significantly antibacterial activities against B. subtilis , Enterococcus faecalis , K. pneumoniae , and Salmonella enterica , with MIC values from The principal contents of volatile oil included oxygenated monoterpene hydrocarbons, linalool, and 1-octenol Pant et al.

Except for these above, there are relatively fewer studies about the antibacterial activities of volatile oil, and the single active components with antibacterial activities need to be purified and further studied.

The aqueous extracts of S. baicalensis had no significant effects in body weight, clinical symptoms and mortality on rabbits and guinea pigs Kim et al. According to the experiment of Yi et al. In addition, no other functional or organic lesions were found during the treatment.

According to the summary of Zhao et al. baicalensis , it was not suitable for people with spleen and stomach deficiency for its bitter and cold medicinal properties. Baicalein and baicalin are the main flavonoids for the antibacterial effects of S.

In the references above, baicalein and baicalin were almost obtained commercially. Their possible antibacterial mechanisms included inhibiting bacterial growth, reducing bacterial virulence, destroying the formation of bacterial biofilm, and decreasing bacterial adhesion abilities. Among them, QS-related virulence factors are one of the most important sites of action.

It is noteworthy that baicalein and baicalin were also significantly effective in restoring the antibacterial activities of traditional antibiotics against resistant bacteria and could work well with traditional antibiotics to kill pathogenic bacteria. Baicalein or baicalin seems to be a promising novel effective synergistic antibacterial agent to solve the problems of antibiotic resistance.

However, other antibacterial mechanisms still need to be further exploited. According to the above statements, these three Chinese traditional medicines all bear significant antibacterial activity against common foodborne pathogens.

The extracts by different solvents or from different plant parts contain different kinds and concentrations of active compounds, which could lead to the differences in antibacterial effects.

Different antibacterial activity of extracts is reflected in two aspects, including different antibacterial spectra to different bacteria and different level of antibacterial activity to the same strain of bacterium.

The components of the extracts from these three plants reviewed here were different, and thus exerted different antibacterial effects. As for the involved antibacterial mechanisms of the extracts from these three plants, it was preliminarily proved that the sites of actions were usually the cell membrane, cell wall, nucleic acids, or some metabolic pathways of bacteria, which still need to be further studied.

TCM, as an important natural source with a long history, is a unique medicine in traditional Chinese treatment.

In the era of widespread antibiotic resistance, the discovery of new, natural, safe, and effective antibacterial compounds opens a new area for solving foodborne illness and overcoming antibiotic resistance.

Thus, exploring natural materials from medicinal herbs has inspired a new wave for the discovery of alternative and green antibacterial drugs.

In long-term research, although the potential of some natural products for bacteriostasis extracted from medicinal plants has been proved, the challenge of discovering new substances is still huge.

For example, the efficiency of extracting medicinal plants is low, it is very difficult to obtain pure substances, and it is hard to identify the extracted unknown compounds. More attention and research are urgently needed to explore the antibacterial mechanisms of these natural compounds, which will pave the way for seeking effective natural drugs or food additives.

Thus, on the one hand, it is crucial to purify the active substances to investigate the antibacterial activity and clarify the antibacterial mechanisms. On the other hand, advances in the field of natural products used for solving antibiotic resistance need multidisciplinarity and the combination of various technologies.

On account of the excellent advantages of these plants used as antibacterial agents, undoubtedly, they will be a good substitute or adjuvant of antibiotics. However, before this, further endeavor is still needed in the following aspects of exploiting abundant plants with outstanding antibacterial activities, determining the structures and properties of natural products, and more importantly, clearly clarifying the deeper antibacterial mechanisms.

Zhaojie Li and Kun Chen: Conceptualization and methodology and validation; Kun Chen, Xiudan Hou, and Wei Wu: Investigation; Zhaojie Li, Wei Wu, and Kun Chen: Writing original draft; Qingli Yang: Writing, review and editing, and supervision; Xiudan Hou and Wei Wu: Project administration; Zhaojie Li and Qingli Yang: Funding acquisition.

All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of Shandong Province No.

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Citation: Gonelimali FD, Lin J, Miao W, Xuan J, Charles F, Chen M and Hatab SR Antimicrobial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Some Plant Extracts Against Food Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms.

Received: 25 May ; Accepted: 02 July ; Published: 24 July Copyright © Gonelimali, Lin, Miao, Xuan, Charles, Chen and Hatab. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY.

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Sections Sections. About journal About journal. Article types Author guidelines Editor guidelines Publishing fees Submission checklist Contact editorial office. ORIGINAL RESEARCH article Front. Antimicrobial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Some Plant Extracts Against Food Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms.

Faraja D. Introduction Globally, food spoilage caused by microorganisms still widely affects all types of food and causes food waste and loss, even in developed countries. Materials and Methods Extraction In this work, four plants were selected based on their traditional usage as folk medicine.

TABLE 2. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against seven microorganisms.

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