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L-carnitine and athletic performance

L-carnitine and athletic performance

Long-term administration performznce L-carnitine to Brain health research abd on perforkance muscle carnitine content and physical Age-defying skincare products. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Tang WH, Wang Z, Kennedy DJ, Wu Y, Buffa JA, Agatisa-Boyle B, Li XS, Levison BS, Hazen SL. Why Use L-Carnitine. Kim, E. Pause slideshow Play slideshow Shop The App For Free Gifts.

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Recovery Benefits Of L-Carnitine For Athletes Shop The App For Free Gifts. For athletes looking to enhance their physical Performancw, there's a wide aghletic of supplements available on the market today. Brain health research supplement that isn't L-carnirine NEARLY enough athletix L-Carnitine, a naturally occurring amino acid that Pomegranate Extract been shown through numerous clinical studies to offer numerous benefits for athletes of all levels. Despite L-Carnitine delivering a multitude of incredible benefits to not only athletes and lifters, but to anyone looking to get in shape, lose weight, or increase their overall wellness, it's easily one of the most overlooked supplements on the market! L-carnitine may not have the sports nutrition ubiquity of whey powder or caffeine in the endurance sports world, but it's actually in the top of performance-enhancing food supplements in terms of science backing.

L-carnitine and athletic performance -

By searching for biomarkers with potential therapeutic implications, the data provided evidence that high-power and high-endurance athletes have a distinct metabolic profile, including: steroid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative stress, and energy-related metabolites. All of these characteristics are improved or encouraged by L-carnitine supplementation.

In our clinic, our athletic patients have seen consistent long-term benefits with L-carnitine. People report improved performance and endurance, faster recovery, more efficient muscle building, and less fatigue and soreness after training.

These improvements can steadily increase with 3 to 6 or more months of taking L-carnitine. Recommendation: L-carnitine 1,mg, one to three times per day, with any meals, or as directed by your healthcare provider.

An overview of research examining the value of L-carnitine for athletes summarized the following key points: 1 The majority of studies report stimulation of lipid metabolism by carnitine with improved efficiency of oxygen consumption and better respiratory quotient.

This means that L-carnitine improves the uptake of oxygen from the blood into tissues and helps its actions there, while reducing the amount of carbon dioxide waste in proportion. L-carnitine significantly decreases post-exercise plasma lactate levels. Lactate is a waste product which is formed and cleared continuously under fully aerobic conditions.

Recent data from preliminary studies indicate that L-carnitine eases the deleterious effects on tissues of hypoxic training and can speed up recovery from exercise stress. L-carnitine plays a decisive role in preventing cellular damage, and speeds cell repair and recovery from exercise stress.

Carnitine directly affects gene expression and carnitine-acyltransferase enzymes, improving fatty acid concentrations in cells and muscles, as recently shown. References Karlic, Heidrun, and Alfred Lohninger. Koozehchian, Majid S. Unlike carnitine, it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and promotes the synthesis of a key brain chemical neurotransmitter called acetylcholine 1.

Acetylcholine is critical for effective communication between nerve cells and plays a key role in cognitive function, memory and motivation. Supplementation with acetyl-l-carnitine may increase muscle carnitine stores enhancing the metabolism of fats and energy production 2,3.

Supplementation with ALC may reduce fatigue and enhance attention and concentration 4. There is also experimental evidence to indicate that it improves brain function 5. Supplementation of ALC may improve physical and mental energy levels and enhance cognitive and physical function in older people 6.

Daily supplementation of carnitine over a twelve-week period may increase total energy expenditure. A comparison of cyclists with and without carnitine supplementation showed that those who received supplementation had greater energy expenditures during low intensity exercise training 3.

Weight loss: a review of multiple studies indicated that supplementation with carnitine may result in a greater magnitude of weight loss for individuals who are overweight 7. Pral supplementation of carnitine may increase the oxidation of fats during low level activity 3,8.

Individuals who receive daily carnitine supplementation over a week period show increased expression of genes for insulin signalling and fatty acid metabolism 3.

Supplementation with carnitine may enhance peak power production in conjunction with resistance training 4. Supplementation of carnitine may reduce markers of muscular damage post exercise and enhance the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodelling 10, The researchers found that during low-intensity cycling, the subjects taking carnitine burned 55 percent less muscle glycogen while increasing the body's ability to burn fat by 55 percent.

During high-intensity cycling, the subjects taking L-carnitine had lower levels of lactic acid and higher levels of creatine phosphate, one of the primary building blocks of ATP.

Fatigue resistance: When the Nottingham researchers measured the subjects' ability to resist fatigue during a cycling test, they found that subjects taking the supplement were able to go more than 25 percent longer.

This was likely because they burned more fat while preserving muscle glycogen, in addition to having lower levels of lactic acid and higher levels of creatine phosphate. Decreased Muscle Soreness, Improved Recovery: In a number of studies on human subjects, L-carnitine doses of just grams per day have been shown to significantly reduce muscle damage from strenuous exercise, and improved recovery to exercise.

The best part? It wasn't rats doing these workouts. It was healthy, active men and women. Better blood flow and pumps: This supplement's performance benefits not only stem from its ability to increase fat burning and decrease glycogen use, but also from the way it can enhance blood flow to the muscles.

How does this work? For one, carnitine reduces oxidative damage in the body's nitric oxide NO. But it also enhances the activity of a key enzyme involved in your body's NO production. The net result is higher NO blood levels, which not only enhance energy during workouts, but also muscle recovery following workouts.

There are few negative side effects from this supplement at reasonable doses. It can cause nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea when taken in high doses. Rare side effects can include muscle weakness in uremic patients and seizures in people with seizure disorders.

Quite simply, take it with carbs. Some early studies showed no benefit of carnitine because they failed to adequately raise muscle carnitine levels. This was because the supplement wasn't taken at the right time, when insulin would be spiked and muscle uptake would be adequate.

Newer research shows that insulin levels must be quite high for adequate amounts of L-carnitine to enter muscle cells, where it performs the majority of its work.

While as little as 1 gram of L-carnitine can be effective, your best bet is to take grams per dose for maximum benefit, along with at least grams of carbs and grams of protein, preferably with a meal. This applies if you take straight-up L-carnitine, L-carnitine L-tartrate, or propionyl-L-carnitine.

Acetyl L-carnitine, however, is more easily taken up by the intestines and the muscle cells, not to mention the brain, in the absence of food. Therefore, this form of carnitine may be stacked with other ingredients that enhance fat-burning, such as caffeine and green tea, and taken between meals.

At this time, it appears that there is no need to cycle L-carnitine. Taken regularly, it should continue to be effective long term.

L-carnitine and athletic performance has major benefits for performacne, helping to improve Natural energy boosters speed and enhance oxygen uptake. Studies on high-repetition exercise show that L-carnitine improves muscle athleti. Amino athletiic are the building blocks from which proteins are made: Carnitine occurs in several natural varieties: propionyl-L-carnitine is one variant that is produced in many tissues. The L-carnitine form has a key role in energy production. L-carnitine is a mixed amino acid derivative of lysine, an essential amino acid that our bodies cannot make, and a sulfur-containing amino acid called methionine. L-carnitine and athletic performance

L-carnitine and athletic performance -

The strength of this review is a focus on the period of LC treatment, very important aspect often missed in many articles dealing with this supplement.

This limitation is also magnified by the varied design of the studies available including different supplementation protocols and outcome measures. There is also a high degree of heterogeneity among participants of the analyzed studies.

Therefore, the results should be taken with caution, and more research is required before definitive recommendations. Lasting for several years opinion that LC supplementation does not change metabolism, especially exercise metabolism, is based mostly on short-term supplementation protocols.

Nevertheless, LC is still used by elite [ 9 ] and sub-elite [ 10 ] athletes. Recent studies suggest that LC supplementation may elevate muscle TC content; therefore, modify muscle fuel metabolism and performance during the exercise.

Due to insulin-mediated LC transport to the muscle, oral administration regimen should be combined with CHO. Because of LC poor bioavailability, it is likely that the supplementation protocol would take at least 3 months. Shorter period of supplementation may be effective in prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage, but not metabolic changes.

On the other hand, it is also clear that prolonged LC supplementation elevates fasting plasma TMAO [ 16 , 17 , 18 , 58 , 59 ], compound supposed to be pro-atherogenic [ 61 ].

Therefore, additional studies focusing on long-term supplementation and its longitudinal effect on the TMAO metabolism and cardiovascular system are needed. Bremer J. Carnitine--metabolism and functions. Physiol Rev. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar.

Arenas J, Huertas R, Campos Y, Diaz AE, Villalon JM, Vilas E. Effects of L-carnitine on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities in muscle of endurance athletes.

FEBS Lett. Ringseis R, Keller J, Eder K. Mechanisms underlying the anti-wasting effect of L-carnitine supplementation under pathologic conditions: evidence from experimental and clinical studies.

Eur J Nutr. Brass EP. Supplemental carnitine and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans.

J Physiol. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Stephens FB, Wall BT, Marimuthu K, Shannon CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans.

Shannon CE, Ghasemi R, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB. Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability does not alter the adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

Scand J Med Sci Sports. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, Sheehy BT, Britt EB, Fu X, Wu Y, Li L, et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis.

Nat Med. Baltazar-Martins G, Brito de Souza D, Aguilar-Navarro M, Munoz-Guerra J, MDM P, Del Coso J. Prevalence and patterns of dietary supplement use in elite Spanish athletes.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Wardenaar FC, Ceelen IJ, Van Dijk JW, Hangelbroek RW, Van Roy L, Van der Pouw B, De Vries JH, Mensink M, Witkamp RF. Nutritional supplement use by Dutch elite and sub-elite athletes: does receiving dietary counseling make a difference?

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Wachter S, Vogt M, Kreis R, Boesch C, Bigler P, Hoppeler H, Krahenbuhl S. Long-term administration of L-carnitine to humans: effect on skeletal muscle carnitine content and physical performance.

Clin Chim Acta. Novakova K, Kummer O, Bouitbir J, Stoffel SD, Hoerler-Koerner U, Bodmer M, Roberts P, Urwyler A, Ehrsam R, Krahenbuhl S.

Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the body carnitine pool, skeletal muscle energy metabolism and physical performance in male vegetarians. Lohninger A, Sendic A, Litzlbauer E, Hofbauer R, Staniek H, Blesky D, Schwieglhofer C, Eder M, Bergmuller H, Mascher D, et al. Endurance exercise training and L-carnitine supplementation stimulates gene expression in the blood and muscle cells in young athletes and middle aged subjects.

Monatshefte Fur Chemie. Article CAS Google Scholar. Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Gargante MP, Vacante M, Colonna V, Motta M. L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.

Sawicka AK, Hartmane D, Lipinska P, Wojtowicz E, Lysiak-Szydlowska W, Olek RA. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Older Women. A Pilot Study on Aging Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function.

Samulak JJ, Sawicka AK, Hartmane D, Grinberga S, Pugovics O, Lysiak-Szydlowska W, Olek RA. L-Carnitine supplementation increases Trimethylamine-N-oxide but not markers of atherosclerosis in healthy aged women.

Ann Nutr Metab. Olek RA, Samulak JJ, Sawicka AK, Hartmane D, Grinberga S, Pugovics O, Lysiak-Szydlowska W. Increased Trimethylamine N-oxide is not associated with oxidative stress markers in healthy aged women. Oxidative Med Cell Longev. Bordoni L, Sawicka AK, Szarmach A, Winklewski PJ, Olek RA, Gabbianelli R.

A pilot study on the effects of l-Carnitine and Trimethylamine-N-oxide on platelet mitochondrial DNA methylation and CVD biomarkers in aged women. Int J Mol Sci. Grunewald KK, Bailey RS. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

Sports Med. Hawley JA, Brouns F, Jeukendrup A. Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exercise. Barnett C, Costill DL, Vukovich MD, Cole KJ, Goodpaster BH, Trappe SW, Fink WJ. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle and blood carnitine content and lactate accumulation during high-intensity sprint cycling.

Int J Sport Nutr. Vukovich MD, Costill DL, Fink WJ. Carnitine supplementation: effect on muscle carnitine and glycogen content during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Rebouche CJ. Carnitine movement across muscle cell membranes. Studies in isolated rat muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta.

Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL. Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle.

FASEB J. An acute increase in skeletal muscle carnitine content alters fuel metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

Stephens FB, Evans CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL. Carbohydrate ingestion augments L-carnitine retention in humans. J Appl Physiol Attaix D, Ventadour S, Codran A, Bechet D, Taillandier D, Combaret L.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system and skeletal muscle wasting. Essays Biochem. Schiaffino S, Dyar KA, Ciciliot S, Blaauw B, Sandri M. Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth and atrophy. FEBS J. Sanchez AM, Candau RB, Bernardi H. FoxO transcription factors: their roles in the maintenance of skeletal muscle homeostasis.

Cell Mol Life Sci. Keller J, Ringseis R, Priebe S, Guthke R, Kluge H, Eder K. Dietary L-carnitine alters gene expression in skeletal muscle of piglets. Mol Nutr Food Res. Keller J, Ringseis R, Koc A, Lukas I, Kluge H, Eder K.

Supplementation with l-carnitine downregulates genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the skeletal muscle and liver of piglets. Busquets S, Serpe R, Toledo M, Betancourt A, Marmonti E, Orpi M, Pin F, Capdevila E, Madeddu C, Lopez-Soriano FJ, et al.

L-Carnitine: an adequate supplement for a multi-targeted anti-wasting therapy in cancer. Clin Nutr. Keller J, Couturier A, Haferkamp M, Most E, Eder K.

Nutr Metab Lond. Keller J, Ringseis R, Eder K. Supplemental carnitine affects the microRNA expression profile in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. BMC Genomics. Jang J, Park J, Chang H, Lim K. L-Carnitine supplement reduces skeletal muscle atrophy induced by prolonged hindlimb suspension in rats.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Di Marzio L, Moretti S, D'Alo S, Zazzeroni F, Marcellini S, Smacchia C, Alesse E, Cifone MG, De Simone C. Acetyl-L-carnitine administration increases insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in asymptomatic HIVinfected subjects: correlation with its suppressive effect on lymphocyte apoptosis and ceramide generation.

Clin Immunol. Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, French DN, Rubin MR, Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Ratamess NA, Newton RU, Jemiolo B, Craig BW, et al. The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery.

J Strength Cond Res. Rondanelli M, Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Scevola D, Locatelli M, Minoli L, Ferrari E. Circadian secretory pattern of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor type I, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin during HIV infection.

AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. Evans M, Guthrie N, Pezzullo J, Sanli T, Fielding RA, Bellamine A. Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Askarpour M, Hadi A, Miraghajani M, Symonds ME, Sheikhi A, Ghaedi E. Beneficial effects of l-carnitine supplementation for weight management in overweight and obese adults: an updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Pharmacol Res. Lee JK, Lee JS, Park H, Cha YS, Yoon CS, Kim CK. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation and aerobic training on FABPc content and beta-HAD activity in human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol.

Rafraf M, Karimi M, Jafari A. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation in comparison with moderate aerobic training on serum inflammatory parameters in healthy obese women.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Koozehchian MS, Daneshfar A, Fallah E, Agha-Alinejad H, Samadi M, Kaviani M, Kaveh BM, Jung YP, Sablouei MH, Moradi N, et al.

Effects of nine weeks L-Carnitine supplementation on exercise performance, anaerobic power, and exercise-induced oxidative stress in resistance-trained males.

J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Ahlborg G, Jensen-Urstad M. Metabolism in exercising arm vs. leg muscle. Clin Physiol. Doherty TJ. Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. Volpato S, Bianchi L, Cherubini A, Landi F, Maggio M, Savino E, Bandinelli S, Ceda GP, Guralnik JM, Zuliani G, et al.

Prevalence and clinical correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people: application of the EWGSOP definition and diagnostic algorithm. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Peake J, Suzuki K. Neutrophil activation, antioxidant supplements and exercise-induced oxidative stress. Exerc Immunol Rev.

PubMed Google Scholar. Peake J, Nosaka K, Suzuki K. Characterization of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in humans. Fritz IB, Arrigoni-Martelli E. Sites of action of carnitine and its derivatives on the cardiovascular system: interactions with membranes.

Trends Pharmacol Sci. Giamberardino MA, Dragani L, Valente R, Di Lisa F, Saggini R, Vecchiet L. Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort.

Int J Sports Med. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gomez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.

Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Vingren JL, Hatfield DL, Fragala MS, Ho JY, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, Volek JS. Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrate. Ho JY, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Fragala MS, Thomas GA, Dunn-Lewis C, Coday M, Hakkinen K, Maresh CM.

L-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Hatfield DL, Vingren JL, Fragala MS, Ho JY, Thomas GA, Hakkinen K, Volek JS.

Effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on muscle oxygenation responses to resistance exercise. Rebouche CJ, Mack DL, Edmonson PF. L-Carnitine dissimilation in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. Quantitative estimation of absorption and degradation of a carnitine supplement by human adults.

Rebouche CJ, Chenard CA. Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites. There are several different variations of L-Carnitine available on the market today, each with its own unique properties and benefits.

These variations include L-Carnitine L-Tartrate, Acetyl L-Carnitine, Propionyl L-Carnitine, and Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate is the most commonly used variation of L-Carnitine and is typically used for its ability to enhance athletic performance and aid in muscle recovery.

Acetyl L-Carnitine, on the other hand, is known for its cognitive benefits, including improved focus and memory retention. Propionyl L-Carnitine has been shown to improve blood flow and cardiovascular health, while Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine is commonly used for its ability to improve endurance and reduce muscle fatigue.

As mentioned in the beginning of this blog, L-Carnitine has been shown through countless clinical studies to offer numerous benefits for athletes of all levels, from beginners to professional athletes.

This allows athletes to exercise for longer periods of time without experiencing fatigue, ultimately leading to improved athletic performance. It has also been shown to increase oxygen uptake and reduce lactic acid build-up, which can delay fatigue.

This can lead to improved body composition and weight loss. This can aid in recovery and reduce muscle soreness. It has also been shown to increase blood flow to muscles, which can improve nutrient delivery and waste removal.

The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, where energy is produced in the form of ATP adenosine triphosphate. Fatty acids are an important source of fuel for the body, especially during exercise or periods of fasting.

When the body needs energy, L-Carnitine helps to transport fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, where they are then broken down and used to produce ATP. This process is known as beta-oxidation, and it is essential for energy production and maintaining healthy metabolism.

In addition to helping transport fatty acids, L-Carnitine also helps to remove waste products from the mitochondria, such as acetyl-CoA and coenzyme A. L-carnitine does this cellular work both when you exercise and rest, but research confirms that it is especially effective during intense exercise.

Without adequate carnitine, most dietary fats can't get into the mitochondria and be burned for fuel. But for people with carnitine deficiency, it is a serious medical condition. It can lead to muscle weakness, stunted growth, an enlarged liver, and a number of other problems.

This is one reason it's considered a "conditionally essential" nutrient: Your body produces it, but if it doesn't produce enough, your health can be seriously impacted.

A study out of Scotland concluded that in addition to its fat-transporting work, L-carnitine also enhances insulin's actions on muscle cells. This is one reason I advocate taking this supplement with a post-workout meal.

Some of the most interesting research into L-carnitine supplementation focuses on how it can enhance athletic performance. L-carnitine's bona fide role as a fat-burning supplement is well established.

During bulking periods, it can help limit fat gains and make a "cleaner" bulk. If you're cutting, it can help transport the fat you have into your cellular furnaces to get burned as energy. Burning fat as fuel: Some of the most interesting recent research into L-carnitine supplementation focuses on how it can enhance athletic performance.

In one study, University of Nottingham Medical School researchers had one group of athletes consume 2 grams of L-carnitine along with 80 grams of a high-glycemic carb first thing in the morning and four hours later for 24 weeks. Another group only took the carbs.

The researchers found that during low-intensity cycling, the subjects taking carnitine burned 55 percent less muscle glycogen while increasing the body's ability to burn fat by 55 percent.

During high-intensity cycling, the subjects taking L-carnitine had lower levels of lactic acid and higher levels of creatine phosphate, one of the primary building blocks of ATP. Fatigue resistance: When the Nottingham researchers measured the subjects' ability to resist fatigue during a cycling test, they found that subjects taking the supplement were able to go more than 25 percent longer.

This was likely because they burned more fat while preserving muscle glycogen, in addition to having lower levels of lactic acid and higher levels of creatine phosphate. Decreased Muscle Soreness, Improved Recovery: In a number of studies on human subjects, L-carnitine doses of just grams per day have been shown to significantly reduce muscle damage from strenuous exercise, and improved recovery to exercise.

The best part? It wasn't rats doing these workouts. It was healthy, active men and women. Better blood flow and pumps: This supplement's performance benefits not only stem from its ability to increase fat burning and decrease glycogen use, but also from the way it can enhance blood flow to the muscles.

How does this work? For one, carnitine reduces oxidative damage in the body's nitric oxide NO. But it also enhances the activity of a key enzyme involved in your body's NO production.

School Hydration and performance Physical Education Brain health research Athletc Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece. Correspondence to: Gerasimos Athletid. Grivas, School of Physical Perforamnce and L-carniitne Science, University of Brain health research, Trikala, Greece. Copyright © The Author s. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License CC BY. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and summarize the current literature regarding L-carnitine and the potential role of sports especially in distance athletes. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound that plays an important role in mitochondrial β-oxidation.

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  1. Nach meiner Meinung lassen Sie den Fehler zu. Es ich kann beweisen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

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