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Nutrient timing for athletes

Nutrient timing for athletes

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Thomas DE, Brotherhood JR, Brand JC: Carbohydrate feeding athlletes exercise: effect of glycemic ror. Nutrient timing for athletes loading Nutrient timing for athletes been found to improve long-distance running performance in well-trained athletes, especially when combined with an effective tapering phase prior to competition 5. Fast fix: You can positively affect event outcomes by eating the right foods in the right amounts at the right times. Nutrient timing for athletes

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Nutrient timing for athletes, there are timjng a few benefits in timing your meal or snack. Nutrient timing can help maximize muscle growth.

A study reported that consuming whey protein after lower-body resistance training contributed to greater rectus femoris muscle size. Timing your nutrition can also aid in fat loss. One study found that consuming a 1;1. Another study reports that nutrient timing also affects metabolism.

If the goal is improved performance, nutrition timing can help with this too. Research supports pre-exercise carbohydrate consumption for endurance athletes.

It may be even more critical when resistance training according to an article in the Journal of Athletic Performance and Nutrition.

This article explains that it works by reducing protein degradation and increasing protein synthesis. Some research even suggests that the timing of other substances may offer more benefits.

A study looked at the timing of ergogenic aids and micronutrients. It noted that timing caffeine, nitrates, and creatine affect exercise performance.

This timing also impacts the ability to gain strength and for the body to adapt to exercise. The strategy you use when timing nutrition will vary based on your desired goal. Protein is key to helping muscle grow. It is also critical for boosting muscle strength. Consuming protein during the anabolic phase can help muscle repair after resistance exercise.

It can even help reduce muscle protein breakdown the next morning according to one study. Consuming 20 grams of protein after exercise helps support muscle protein synthesis. While it may be tempting to aim for more, one study found that this provides no additional benefit.

Protein needs vary based on level of physical activity. An athlete engaged in moderate-intensity exercise needs 0. An athlete engaging in more intense exercise needs more, or between 1. Those engaging in resistance exercise also need this higher amount.

What does nutrient timing look like if the goal is weight loss? Much of the research in this area involves eating habits, in general, as opposed to eating before, during, or after exercise. One study that addresses this topic focuses on endurance athletes.

It notes that fat loss can be achieved for this type of athlete by:. The path to fat loss without losing muscle changes depends on exercise intensity. If the intensity is high, increased carbohydrate consumption can help meet this demand.

If the workout is low intensity, focus more on protein. Performance nutrition is gaining in popularity. Some suggest that access to a sports dietitian can improve performance for pro athletes.

This is the basis of an April article published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. The strategy for nutrition timing varies based on the sport. If the athlete runs marathons, fueling up a few hours before the run provides energy for the event.

Carbohydrate foods are best. A good calorie count is calories or less. After the race, refuel with a light meal. If the sport relies on muscle strength, refuel with protein within a few hours.

This helps the body as it repairs muscle damage. Approximately 20 grams is a good place to start. More may be needed if the sport is intense. A carbohydrate rich meal a few hours before aerobic exercise helps provide the energy needed.

Adding a little protein can help keep the energy going. Have a banana carbohydrate with some peanut butter protein. Or eat a couple of wheat crackers carbohydrate with cubes of cheese protein.

When lifting weights, post exercise protein is important. This will help the muscle tissue recover. It also aids in skeletal muscle growth. Aim to consume this protein within a few hours. A protein shake is an easy option.

Scrambling some eggs or having a salad with chicken are more options. An endurance athlete needs enough energy to sustain movement long-term. This involves fueling the body with a high carbohydrate meal a few hours before the training.

If the training session is long, a carbohydrate snack may be needed during the workout. Afterward, have a light meal that includes both protein and carbs. Sports nutrition is an ever-changing field. And every person is different. What works for one client or athlete may not work for another. Some may benefit from carbohydrate ingestion before exercise while others gain the most advantage by exercising in a fasted state.

Working with a sports nutrition specialist can provide clients individualized guidance. It takes into account their training program.

It also considers how their body responds to protein and carbs. At the same time, this professional can help with more than just nutrient timing. They can offer advice on calorie intake, how to create a balanced meal, and more.

: Nutrient timing for athletes

Effective Nutrient Timing for Athletes – Performance Lab® Serum insulin and cortisol, urinary markers of PRO breakdown, and muscle cross-sectional area were measured [ 41 ]. And if so, how should our eating patterns differ before, during, and after activities? Furthermore, the availability of essential amino acids EAA following exercise, especially the branched-chain amino acids, have been reported to influence recovery by optimizing PRO re-synthesis as well as glycogen re-synthesis rates after exercise [ 61 , 69 , 70 , 72 — 74 ]. Did you know that dehydration and low blood sugar can actually increase your risk of injury? Article PubMed Google Scholar Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RR: Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Protein: Include a source of protein to support muscle repair and growth. Furthermore, adopting this strategy during a resistance training program results in greater increases in 1 RM strength and a leaner body composition [ 8 , 10 — 12 , 32 ].
The Benefits of Nutrient Timing

However, some of the damage is purely negative and needs to be minimized or it will eventually impair health and performance. Providing the right nutrients, in the right amounts, at the right time can minimize this damage and restore energy in time for the next training session or competition.

The enzymes and hormones that help move nutrients into your muscles are most active right after exercise. Providing the appropriate nutrients at this crucial time helps to start the repair process. However, this is only one of the crucial times to help repair.

Because of limitations in digestion, some nutrients, such as protein, need to be taken over time rather than only right after training, so ingesting protein throughout the day at regular intervals is a much better strategy for the body than ingesting a lot at one meal. Additionally, stored carbohydrate energy glycogen and glucose and lost fluids may take time to replace.

By replacing fuel that was burned and providing nutrients to muscle tissue, you can ensure that your body will repair muscle fibers and restore your energy reserves.

If you train hard on a daily basis or train more than once a day, good recovery nutrition is absolutely vital so that your muscles are well stocked with energy.

Most people think of recovery as the time right after exercise, which is partially correct, but how much you take in at subsequent intervals over 24 hours will ultimately determine your body's readiness to train or compete again. Nutrient timing capitalizes on minimizing muscle tissue breakdown that occurs during and after training and maximizing the muscle repair and building process that occurs afterwards.

Carbohydrate stored in muscles fuels weight training and protects against excessive tissue breakdown and soreness. Following training, during recovery, carbohydrate helps initiate hormonal changes that assist muscle building.

Consuming protein and carbohydrate after training has been shown to help hypertrophy adding size to your muscle. Nutrient timing can have a significant impact on immunity for athletes.

Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise have been shown to decrease immune function in athletes. Furthermore, it has been shown that exercising when muscles are depleted or low in carbohydrate stores glycogen diminishes the blood levels of many immune cells, allowing for invasion of viruses.

In addition, exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state causes a rise in stress hormones and other inflammatory molecules. The muscles, in need of fuel, also may compete with the immune system for amino acids.

When carbohydrate is taken, particularly during longer-duration endurance training two to three hours , the drop in immune cells is lessened, and the stress hormone and inflammatory markers are suppressed. Carbohydrate intake frees amino acids, allowing their use by the immune system.

Carbohydrate intake during endurance training helps preserve immune function and prevent inflammation. Certain vitamins and minerals also play a role in immunity: iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, E, B6, and B However, excess intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E can have the opposite effect and in some cases impair the body's adaptation to training.

An eating plan incorporating all of these nutrients in reasonable quantities, such as amounts found in food, can help athletes maintain immunity.

The quality of the foods selected is very important and needs to be just as much of a priority as the focus on carbohydrate or protein, for example. For instance, eating a bagel for the carbohydrate but also including an orange for the vitamin C is important; drinking a protein shake can be helpful at the right time, but including some lean steak or shellfish for the iron and zinc is also essential.

Did you know that dehydration and low blood sugar can actually increase your risk of injury? Avoiding injury due to poor nutrition is absolutely within your control. Inadequate hydration results in fatigue and lack of concentration. Low blood sugar results in inadequate fueling to the brain and central nervous system.

This leads to poor reaction time and slowness. Poor coordination as a result can lead to missteps, inattention, and injury. Additionally, chronic energy drain taking in fewer calories and nutrients than needed will increase your risk of overuse injuries over time.

Stress fractures are one example; poor tissue integrity can happen when athletes think solely about calories taken in but not the quality of the calories consumed. Inadequate protein will also hinder the rebuilding of damaged muscles during training.

If muscles are not completely repaired, they will not be as strong as they could be and will not function optimally. The damaged muscle fibers can lead to soft-tissue injuries. Both protein and carbohydrate along with certain nutrients are needed to help with this repair.

For instance, gummy bears may provide carbohydrate, but they don't contain any vitamin E, which is helpful in repairing soft-tissue damage that occurs daily during training.

Therefore, the goal is both an appropriate quantity and an appropriate quality in food selection. Traditional CHO loading studies utilized a glycogen depletion phase typically lasting 3 — 6 days prior to increasing CHO intake [ 2 — 5 , 18 ]. Maximal levels of glycogen storage, however, may be achieved after just 1 — 3 days of consuming a high-CHO diet while minimizing physical activity [ 2 , 4 ].

Serum glucose levels increased during exercise in the high-CHO condition with no changes evident in the low-CHO condition.

Finally, post-exercise glucose levels were also significantly greater for the high-CHO condition when compared to the low-CHO condition, suggesting that individuals subjected to the high-CHO condition were better able to sustain blood glucose levels.

Another study by Bussau et al. Research involving the ingestion of single high CHO feedings has also demonstrated the promotion of higher levels of muscle glycogen and an improvement of blood glucose maintenance euglycemia , though changes in performance have been equivocal [ 14 , 19 — 22 ].

In a study completed by Coyle et al. In contrast, Febbraio et al. Earnest et al. compared the effects of the pre-exercise ingestion of honey low-glycemic , dextrose high-glycemic and a placebo over a kilometer time trial in a crossover fashion.

In general, research involving CHO ingestion within an hour prior to exercise demonstrates equivocal results regarding changes in performance, but studies have routinely shown the ability of CHO ingestion to maximize glycogen utilization and promote CHO oxidation.

Hawley and Burke [ 22 ] summarized several studies that administered some form of CHO within one hour prior to exercise: one study reported a decrease in performance [ 23 ], three studies reported an increase in performance [ 24 — 26 ] and five studies reported no effect [ 21 , 27 — 30 ] Additional File 1.

The authors concluded that the effect on the net PRO status breakdown vs. synthesis was greater when the supplement was ingested before exercise. They speculated that the increased serum amino acid levels present when tissue blood flow levels were significantly increased, likely led to an increase in PRO synthesis [ 9 ].

In this case the authors concluded that a pro-anabolic response was found when the whey PRO was ingested both before and after resistance exercise, but no differences were found between the two administration times [ 31 ]. Findings from these studies suggest that ingestion of amino acids and CHO, or whey PRO, before resistance exercise can maximally stimulate PRO synthesis after completion of the exercise bout [ 9 , 31 ].

Many studies have explored the use of pre-exercise PRO and CHO ingestion in preventing acute exercise-induced muscle damage [ 13 ], as well as the damage that may occur during prolonged periods of regular resistance training [ 8 , 10 — 12 , 32 ].

Although the authors reported that the level of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase had increased and maximal force production of the muscle was reduced, the administration or timing of the nutrients did not appear to alter these markers of muscle damage [ 13 ].

On both exercise days, the supplement was ingested 30 min prior to beginning the exercise bout. Additionally, multi-nutrient supplementation significantly increased serum levels of both growth hormone and free and total testosterone during and after the exercise bouts [ 12 ].

These latter findings suggest that pre-exercise ingestion may also create a favorable anabolic hormone environment. In another study involving unilateral resistance training, pre-exercise supplementation of whey PRO and leucine resulted in greater increases in maximal strength [ 11 ].

One study compared the pre-exercise and post-exercise ingestion of 1. The authors found that PRO supplementation significantly increased strength and lean mass when compared to placebo, but no differences were found between the two forms of PRO [ 32 ].

Individuals consuming the protein supplement experienced greater increases in body mass, fat-free mass, strength, serum levels of IGF-1, and intramuscular levels of IGF-1 mRNA, myosin heavy chain I and IIa expression, and myofibrillar protein content [ 10 ]. Collectively, the last two studies mentioned provide additional support for the concept that ingesting PRO before and after exercise can promote a greater training adaptation than consuming only an isoenergetic CHO placebo [ 10 , 32 ].

A study by Cribb and Hayes [ 8 ] used two different feeding strategies to determine the impact of nutrient timing, in regards to an exercise bout, for changes in strength, muscle hypertrophy and body composition.

Significantly greater increases in lean body mass, 1 RM strength, type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and higher muscle Cr and glycogen levels were found when the supplements were consumed immediately before and after workouts [ 8 ].

In summary, ingestion of amino acids or PRO, either alone or in combination with CHO, in close temporal proximity to a bout of resistance exercise, appears to significantly increase muscle PRO synthesis [ 9 , 31 ].

Furthermore, adopting this strategy during a resistance training program results in greater increases in 1 RM strength and a leaner body composition [ 8 , 10 — 12 , 32 ]. Depletion of glycogen is associated with increased levels of muscle tissue breakdown and suppression of the immune system [ 16 , 17 ].

Much like the consideration of pre-exercise nutrient supplementation, a majority of the literature which has examined the impact of nutrient administration during exercise has focused on aerobic exercise [ 33 — 36 ], with a lesser emphasis on nutrient administration during resistance exercise [ 37 — 41 ].

The initial research which dealt with nutrient administration during exercise scrutinized the optimal delivery of CHO in an effort to sustain blood glucose. Widrick and colleagues [ 35 ] had participants complete 70 km of self-paced time trials under four different conditions: 1.

high glycogen low glycogen CHO administration maintained blood glucose, while blood glucose declined significantly under the non-CHO conditions. Results from this study suggest exogenous CHO delivery during training is not as important if baseline glycogen levels are high, and if glycogen levels are low, CHO ingestion during endurance exercise will likely improve performance.

In a similar investigation, nine trained athletes consumed both a CHO and a non-CHO control solution while completing a 90 min bout of high-intensity intermittent running [ 34 ]. The CHO solution was 6.

When CHO was ingested the participants were able to run significantly longer when compared to the control condition, providing additional evidence that CHO availability may be important for continued exercise performance [ 34 ].

An additional study highlighting the importance of CHO delivery during endurance exercise was completed by Febrraio et al.

in [ 33 ]. This study, like several in this investigative field, utilized trained cyclists as participants. Blood glucose appearance and disappearance, and time trial performance was greater in the CC and PC trials when compared to the PP condition.

The authors concluded that pre-exercise ingestion of CHO improves performance only when CHO ingestion is maintained throughout exercise, and ingestion of CHO during min of cycling improves subsequent time trial performance [ 33 ].

Similarly, a study by Fielding et al. reported that more frequent intake of CHO These findings conflicted with those of Burke et al. Lastly, a study investigated the ability of a consumed CHO-gel preparation to maintain blood glucose levels and enhance performance during a high-intensity intermittent run in soccer players [ 45 ].

As with previous studies that have used CHO solutions, the CHO-gel promoted higher levels of blood glucose and facilitated improved performance in the intermittent bout of running when compared to the placebo [ 45 ].

In summary, the weight of evidence suggests that the ingestion of CHO during endurance type exercise is a well-established strategy to sustain blood glucose levels, spare glycogen [ 6 ], and potentially promote greater levels of performance. The interested reader is encouraged to consult the following reviews [ 15 , 46 — 49 ].

A fairly novel area of research has examined the impact of mixing various forms of CHO in an effort to promote greater levels of CHO oxidation during prolonged exercise. It is well accepted that peak rates of CHO oxidation are commonly around 1 gram of CHO per minute or 60 grams per hour [ 15 , 48 ].

An increase in exogenous CHO availability, and subsequent oxidation, will result in improved maintenance of blood glucose and less reliance on liver and muscle glycogen stores. Indeed, findings from this research team have regularly reported enhanced CHO oxidation rates, from 1. It should be noted that fructose is not as often used as a CHO supplement due to the potential for gastrointestinal upset.

The addition of PRO to CHO during exercise has also been investigated as a means to improve performance and facilitate recovery. During each session, participants consumed either a placebo, a 7. While the CHO only group increased time to exhaustion A study by Saunders et al.

Cyclists exercised to exhaustion on two different occasions separated by 12 — 15 h. During exercise, all participants ingested a 7. CHO intake levels were the same for each group, although the total caloric intake was different due to the energy supplied by the added PRO.

PRO balance was negative during the CHO condition, but these findings were partially reversed protein balance was still negative, but to a lesser degree when PRO was added to the supplement.

The authors concluded that combined ingestion of PRO and CHO improves net PRO balance at rest, as well as during exercise and post-exercise recovery [ 36 ].

Delivering nutrients during single bouts of resistance exercise has been used to determine their impact on changes in muscle glycogen [ 40 ], mitigation of muscle damage [ 13 , 37 ], and promotion of an anabolic response [ 38 , 39 , 41 ].

Over the course of an estimated 40 min resistance training workout using the lower body, 1. The authors concluded that CHO supplementation before and during resistance exercise can maintain muscle glycogen stores and enhance the benefits of training [ 40 ]. Nutrient feedings during exercise have also been researched for their ability to offset muscle damage after intense resistance training [ 37 ].

The authors concluded that the suppression of PRO breakdown and cortisol levels may help to promote accretion of muscle PRO with prolonged periods of resistance training and supplementation. Their final study examined the influence of a 12 week resistance training program in combination with CHO and EAA supplementation.

Serum insulin and cortisol, urinary markers of PRO breakdown, and muscle cross-sectional area were measured [ 41 ]. Similarly, a study by Beelen et al.

CHO administration becomes even more important when muscle glycogen levels are low at the onset of exercise [ 35 , 42 ]. Many nutritional interventions have been considered to enhance recovery from exercise. The body of published research supports the practice of ingesting nutrients to enhance performance for both endurance and resistance training athletes.

There is also sound evidence which supports the value of post-exercise nutritional supplementation as a means of improving the recovery of intramuscular glycogen, providing a positive stimulation for acute changes in amino acid kinetics and improvement of the net PRO balance, as well as enhancing the overall adaptation to resistance training.

Athletes who ingest 1. within 30 minutes after exercise have been shown to experience a greater rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis than when supplementation is delayed by two hours, largely due to a greater sensitivity of muscle to insulin [ 61 ].

Additionally, both solid and liquid forms of CHO promote similar levels of glycogen re-synthesis [ 15 , 62 , 63 ]. Moreover, different forms of CHO have different effects on insulin levels, with fructose ingestion being associated with lower levels of glycogen re-synthesis than other forms of simple carbohydrates [ 64 ].

If an athlete is glycogen-depleted after exercise, a CHO intake of 0. Similarly, maximal glycogen re-synthesis rates have been achieved when 1. Consequently, frequent feedings of CHO in high amounts over the 4 — 6 hours following exercise is recommended to ensure recovery of muscle and liver glycogen [ 15 , 49 ].

Several studies have suggested that adding PRO to CHO supplementation after exercise may help to promote greater recovery of muscle glycogen and attenuate muscle damage. Ivy and colleagues [ 69 ] instructed cyclists to complete a 2. While glycogen replenishment did not differ between the two CHO conditions low CHO [ Both authors concluded that ingestion of either CHO preparation resulted in greater restoration of muscle glycogen when compared to a placebo.

Furthermore, the availability of essential amino acids EAA following exercise, especially the branched-chain amino acids, have been reported to influence recovery by optimizing PRO re-synthesis as well as glycogen re-synthesis rates after exercise [ 61 , 69 , 70 , 72 — 74 ].

As these studies suggest, the ingestion of CHO 1 — 1. A single bout of resistance training modestly stimulates PRO synthesis, but also further stimulates PRO breakdown resulting in an overall negative PRO balance after exercise [ 75 , 76 ]; an effect which shifts PRO balance more towards neutral as training status progresses [ 76 ].

Infusion or ingestion of amino acids increases amino acid concentrations at rest or after resistance exercise [ 77 ].

In addition, providing CHO in combination with amino acids immediately before or after exercise may further increase amino acid availability and post-exercise PRO synthesis [ 73 , 78 ].

Consequently, increasing the concentration and availability of amino acids in the blood is an important consideration when attempting to promote increases in lean tissue and improve body composition with resistance training [ 77 , 79 ].

Ingestion of a large dose of CHO g alone and within 1 h after resistance exercise causes marginal improvements in overall PRO synthesis while maintaining a negative net PRO balance [ 78 ].

While no studies have found CHO to be detrimental, it is not the ideal nutrient in isolation to consume after resistance exercise. Its inclusion, however, is an important consideration regarding stimulation of glycogen re-synthesis and enhanced palatability [ 69 , 72 ].

The EAAs, however, in dosages ranging from 6 — 40 grams have routinely been shown to play a primary role in promoting muscle PRO synthesis [ 74 , 80 ], though adding CHO to them may enhance this effect [ 9 , 81 ]. Regarding post-exercise timing, ingestion of amino acids after resistance exercise has been shown at many different time points to stimulate increases in muscle PRO synthesis, cause minimal changes in PRO breakdown and increase overall PRO balance [ 74 , 75 , 80 ].

Unfortunately, the optimal time point for supplementation has not yet been demonstrated. Similar changes have been found in studies that have administered amino acids alone, or with CHO, immediately, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after exercise [ 9 , 74 , 79 , 81 ].

Levenhagen et al. They reported significantly greater levels of PRO synthesis when the nutrients were ingested immediately before the exercise bout.

In summary, the optimal dosage and ratio of EAAs and CHO necessary to optimize protein balance is not currently known. A summary of relevant findings is provided in Table 2 Additional File 2. In an attempt to stimulate greater adaptations associated with resistance training researchers have investigated the impact of administering varying combinations of CHO and PRO after 1 — 3 h post-exercise each exercise bout over the course of training [ 8 , 10 , 32 , 84 — 91 ].

The collective findings of these studies support the rationale for post-exercise administration of CHO and PRO to facilitate greater improvements in strength and body composition. Additionally, PRO source may be an important consideration as studies have suggested that whey PRO may exhibit a faster kinetic digestive pattern when compared to casein PRO [ 92 , 93 ].

Furthermore, this faster kinetic pattern for whey PRO is responsible for greater increases in PRO synthesis upon ingestion, with little to no impact over PRO breakdown. Casein PRO, on the other hand, releases its amino acids at a slower rate from the gut.

This kinetic pattern results in little control over PRO synthesis, but a powerful attenuation of PRO breakdown. When both of these milk PRO sources are compared using area under the curve analysis, results suggest that casein may be responsible for a greater overall improvement in PRO balance when compared to whey [ 92 , 93 ].

Cr is a popular dietary supplement that has been heavily researched for its ability to increase performance and facilitate positive training adaptations [ 94 , 95 ]. For example, Tarnopolsky et al. Changes in fat-free mass, muscle fiber area, 1 RM, and isokinetic strength improved in both groups, but were not different among groups.

Another study had participants resistance train for 11 weeks while consuming daily one of the following: 1 0. Supplementation in the first three groups resulted in greater increases in 1 RM strength and muscle hypertrophy when compared to CHO only, but no differences were found among the groups ingesting Cr in conjunction with either CHO or PRO [ 85 ].

In contrast, two published studies have suggested that the addition of Cr may be responsible for greater increases in muscle hypertrophy. The first study had participants complete heavy resistance training for 10 weeks while ingesting one of the following isoenergetic groups: 1 1. Similarly, Kerksick and colleagues [ 88 ] had participants complete 12 weeks of resistance training while ingesting a blend of whey and casein PRO, with or without Cr.

While all groups saw increases in strength and muscle mass, those groups ingesting Cr with the PRO blend experienced greater gains in body mass and fat-free mass.

Though these findings are somewhat mixed, the available data does provide support that adding Cr to a post-exercise regimen of CHO and PRO may help to facilitate greater improvements in body composition during resistance training [ 84 , 85 , 88 , 90 ].

The addition of CHO may increase PRO synthesis even more, while pre-exercise consumption may result in the best response of all [ 9 ]. The scientific literature associated with nutrient timing is an extremely popular, and thus ever-changing, area of research.

Upon reviewing the available literature, the following conclusions can be drawn at this point in time:. whey and casein exhibit different kinetic digestion patterns and may subsequently differ in their support of training adaptations.

However, including small amounts of fat does not appear to be harmful, and may help to control glycemic responses during exercise. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.

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Fielding RA, Costill DL, Fink WJ, King DS, Hargreaves M, Kovaleski JE: Effect of carbohydrate feeding frequencies and dosage on muscle glycogen use during exercise. Burke LM, Claassen A, Hawley JA, Noakes TD: Carbohydrate intake during prolonged cycling minimizes effect of glycemic index of preexercise meal.

Patterson SD, Gray SC: Carbohydrate-gel supplementation and endurance performance during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Dennis SC, Noakes TD, Hawley JA: Nutritional strategies to minimize fatigue during prolonged exercise: fluid, electrolyte and energy replacement.

J Sports Sciences. Article CAS Google Scholar. Jeukendrup AE: Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance. Jeukendrup AE, Jentjens R: Efficacy of carbohydrate feedings during prolonged exercise: current thoughts, guidelines and directions for future research.

Sports Med. Jeukendrup AE, Jentjens R, Moseley L: Nutritional Considerations in Triathlon. Jentjens R, Shaw C, Birtles T, Waring RH, Harding LK, Jeukendrup AE: Oxidation of combined ingestion of glucose and sucrose during exercise. Wallis GA, Rowlands DS, Shaw C, Jentjens R, Jeukendrup AE: Oxidation of combined ingestion of maltodextrins and fructose during exercise.

Jentjens R, Achten J, Jeukendrup AE: High rates of exogenous carbohydrate oxidation from multiple transportable carbohydrates ingested during prolonged exercise. Jentjens R, Jeukendrup AE: High exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates from a mixture of glucose and fructose ingested during prolonged cycling exercise.

Jentjens R, Moseley L, Waring RH, Harding LK, Jeukendrup AE: Oxidation of combined ingestion of glucose and fructose during exercise.

Jentjens R, Venables MC, Jeukendrup AE: Oxidation of exogenous glucose, sucrose, and maltose during prolonged cycling exercise. Currell K, Jeukendrup AE: Superior endurance performance with ingestion of multiple transportable carbohydrates.

Ivy JL, Res PT, Sprague RC, Widzer MO: Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity.

Saunders MJ, Kane MD, Todd MK: Effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage. Saunders MJ, Luden ND, Herrick JE: Consumption of an oral carbohydrate-protein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents postexercise muscle damage.

Beelen M, Koopman R, Gijsen AP, Vandereyt H, Kies AK, Kuipers H, Saris WH, van Loon LJ: Protein coingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Ivy JL: Glycogen resynthesis after exercise: Effect of carbohydrate intake.

Keizer H, Kuipers H, van Kranenburg G: Influence of liquid and solid meals on muscle glycogen resynthesis, plasma fuel hormone response, and maximal physical working capacity. Reed MJ, Brozinick JT, Lee MC, Ivy JL: Muscle glycogen storage postexercise: effect of mode of carbohydrate administration.

Conlee RK, Lawler RM, Ross PE: Effects of glucose or fructose feeding on glycogen repletion in muscle and liver after exercise or fasting. Ann Nutr Metab. Jentjens R, Jeukendrup AE: Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery.

Jentjens RLPG, van Loon L, Mann CH, Wagenmakers AJM, Jeukendrup AE: Addition of protein and amino acids to carbohydrates does not enhance postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis.

van Loon L, Saris WH, Kruijshoop M: Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures.

Effective Nutrient Timing for Athletes Discover more from GC Coaching Subscribe now to keep reading and get access to the full archive. He has been published in Bicycling Magazine, the TrainingPeaks blog, and Zwift Insider. While it may be tempting to aim for more, one study found that this provides no additional benefit. The muscles, on the other hand, should be glycogen-loaded from proper recovery nutrition the previous day. The addition of PRO to CHO during exercise has also been investigated as a means to improve performance and facilitate recovery. Carb loading has been found to improve long-distance running performance in well-trained athletes, especially when combined with an effective tapering phase prior to competition 5.
Nutrient Timing: What to Eat Before and After a Workout

You will also want to enjoy a balanced meal about two hours after training to continue to help replenish and nourish your body. Nourishing your body with optimal nutrition on non-training days is just as important as it will help to support your muscle recovery and nourish your body with what it needs to be in tip-top shape.

Be sure to consume at least three balanced meals each day with two nutrient-dense snacks in between. Meals should have a balance of complex carbs, clean protein, and healthy fats. Snacks can include things like two hard-boiled eggs with a side of fruit, or a half of an avocado sprinkled with sea salt.

Nutrition plays such a critical role in how well your body performs when it comes to endurance training, and nutrient timing can be such a useful tool in helping your body function at its best. Try implementing these tips and time your meals and snacks appropriately to get the most out of your training.

Many athletes are surprised at how much better they feel before, during, and after training with just a few adjustments to when and what they eat.

Type your email…. Shayne holds a bachelors degree in Health Science in Professional Development and Advanced Patient Care, is a licensed physical therapy assistant in Massachusetts, a USA Cycling Level 1 expert level certified Coach, a USA Cycling Power Based Training Certified Coach, Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certified Coach, a US Military Endurance Sports USMES affiliated Coach, and USA Olympic Committee Safe Sport certified.

Subscribe now to keep reading and get access to the full archive. Continue reading. Leave a comment Eating the right foods to support endurance training is just one piece to the puzzle. Type your email… Subscribe. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. Shayne Gaffney Shayne holds a bachelors degree in Health Science in Professional Development and Advanced Patient Care, is a licensed physical therapy assistant in Massachusetts, a USA Cycling Level 1 expert level certified Coach, a USA Cycling Power Based Training Certified Coach, Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certified Coach, a US Military Endurance Sports USMES affiliated Coach, and USA Olympic Committee Safe Sport certified.

He has been published in Bicycling Magazine, the TrainingPeaks blog, and Zwift Insider. He can be contacted directly via shayne gccoaching. Recommended Posts Virtual Velo Podcast-Ep. The Never Going Pro Podcast — S3 Episode 1: When Life Gives You Lemons.

Indoor Training Series: Hyperthermia. No comment yet, add your voice below! These hormones also increase the heart rate, blood pressure, heart contractility, blood redistribution to muscle, and respiration rate to meet the physiological needs of the continuous dynamic exercise.

Cortisol is largely responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrate and fat for energy during exercise. It is a very important catabolic hormone that is activated when low blood glucose levels are present, such as during exhaustive exercise.

If the body is low in glucose and glycogen, cortisol will send amino acids to the liver to make new glucose, referred to as gluconeogeneses. Thus, in exercise, when carbohydrate sources are dwindling, cortisol takes the building blocks of proteins amino acids and uses them for new glucose synthesis.

The Anabolic Hormones One widely known anabolic hormone is insulin. Insulin sensitivity is increased during aerobic and resistance exercise, which literally means there is an enhanced glucose uptake for muscle contraction. It also accelerates the transport of amino acids into muscle and stimulates protein synthesis in muscles Levenhagen et al.

However, during sustained aerobic exercise insulin levels in the blood decrease slightly because epinephrine and norepinephrine inhibit the release of insulin from the pancreas. Another important anabolic hormone is testosterone. Testosterone is a powerful hormone for protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy.

Growth hormone is an anabolic hormone that promotes bone and cartilage growth. It is also responsible for stimulating IGF-I, a hormone responsible for the development of muscle cells from myoblasts immature muscle cells into myotubes growing muscles cells and then into mature muscle fibers.

High levels of IGF-I are needed in order to promote muscle hypertrophy. Growth hormone also increases protein synthesis Volek, The Three Nutrient Timing Phases The nutrient timing system is split into three distinct phases: 1 Energy Phase just before and during workout 2 Anabolic Phase post 45 minutes of workout 3 Growth Phase remainder of the day The Energy Phase Muscle glycogen is the primary fuel followed by fat used by the body during exercise.

Low muscle glycogen stores result in muscle fatigue and the body's inability to complete high intensity exercise Levenhagen et al. The depletion of muscle glycogen is also a major contributing factor in acute muscle weakness and reduced force production Haff et al.

Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise decrease glycogen stores, so the need for carbohydrates is high for all types of exercise during this energy phase. Several hormonal and physiological responses occur during the energy phase. Prior to aerobic exercise, protein intake with carbohydrate supplementation has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis post-exercise Volek et al.

Carbohydrate supplementation prior to resistance training can increase the body's capacity to perform more sets, repetitions and prolong a resistance training workout Haff et al.

The Anabolic Phase: The Minute Optimal Window The anabolic phase is a critical phase occurring within 45 minutes post-exercise. It is during this time that muscle cells are particularly sensitive to insulin, making it necessary to ingest the proper nutrients in order to make gains in muscle endurance and strength.

If the proper nutrients are ingested 2 - 4 hours post-exercise they will not have the same effect. It is also during this time in which the anabolic hormones begin working to repair the muscle and decrease its inflammation.

Immediate ingestion of carbohydrate is important because insulin sensitivity causes the muscle cell membranes to be more permeable to glucose within 45 minutes post-exercise.

This results in faster rates of glycogen storage and provides the body with enough glucose to initiate the recovery process Burke et al.

Muscle glycogen stores are replenished the fastest within the first hour after exercise. Consuming carbohydrate within an hour after exercise also helps to increase protein synthesis Gibala, The Growth Phase The growth phase consists of the 18 - 20 hours post-exercise when muscle repair, growth and strength occur.

According to authors Ivy and Portman, the goals of this phase are to maintain insulin sensitivity in order to continue to replenish glycogen stores and to maintain the anabolic state.

There is no evidence to support one best approach for breakfast. Your breakfast should reflect your dietary preferences and goals. This reduction of carbs simply helps you reduce total daily calorie intake, creating a calorie deficit — the key factor in weight loss.

The timing is not important. In contrast to eliminating carbs at night, some research actually shows carbs can help with sleep and relaxation, although more research is needed on this This may hold some truth, as carbs release the neurotransmitter serotonin, which helps regulate your sleep cycle.

Cutting carbs at night is not a good tip for losing weight, especially since carbs may help promote sleep. However, further research is needed on this.

Instead, focus your efforts on consistency, daily calorie intake, food quality and sustainability. Whether your diet is high or low in carbs, you may wonder if timing matters to reap their benefits. This article discusses whether there is a best….

While they're not typically able to prescribe, nutritionists can still benefits your overall health. Let's look at benefits, limitations, and more. A new study found that healthy lifestyle choices — including being physically active, eating well, avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption —….

Carb counting is complicated. Take the quiz and test your knowledge! Together with her husband, Kansas City Chiefs MVP quarterback Patrick Mahomes, Brittany Mohomes shares how she parents two children with severe food…. While there are many FDA-approved emulsifiers, European associations have marked them as being of possible concern.

Let's look deeper:. Researchers have found that a daily multivitamin supplement was linked with slowed cognitive aging and improved memory. Dietitians can help you create a more balanced diet or a specialized one for a variety of conditions. We look at their benefits and limitations. Liquid collagen supplements might be able to reduce some effects of aging, but research is ongoing and and there may be side effects.

Protein powders are popular supplements that come from a variety of animal- and plant-based sources. This article discusses whether protein powders…. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep?

Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based Does Nutrient Timing Matter? A Critical Look. By Rudy Mawer, MSc, CISSN — Updated on June 3, Nutrient timing involves eating foods at strategic times in order to achieve certain outcomes.

Here is everything you need to know about nutrient timing. A Brief History of Nutrient Timing. However, a closer look at the research shows that these findings are far from conclusive, and have two significant limitations 1 , 5 : Short-term blood markers: Many of the studies only measure short-term blood markers, which often fail to correlate with long-term benefits 6.

Ultra-endurance athletes: Many of the studies follow extreme endurance athletes, which do not necessarily represent the average person. Bottom Line: Nutrient timing has been around for several decades.

Does Fast-and-Burn Work for Weight Loss? The Timinng. Creatine and cardiovascular health these reasons, the findings in much of the research that supports nutrient fot may not Nutrien to everyone. Several studies have suggested that adding PRO Nutrient timing for athletes CHO supplementation after exercise may help to promote greater recovery of muscle glycogen and attenuate muscle damage. It may be even more critical when resistance training according to an article in the Journal of Athletic Performance and Nutrition. Conclusion The scientific literature associated with nutrient timing is an extremely popular, and thus ever-changing, area of research.
Eating the right Nutrieny to support Toming training Raspberry ketones as a metabolism booster Creatine and cardiovascular health one piece to the puzzle. When you eat matters timihg. Nutrient timing is such an important part of endurance training Creatine and cardiovascular health supporting your body with the ayhletes foods at the right time, but it is also a big topic of confusion as there never seems to be a clear-cut answer as to when exactly you should eat. Nutrient timing sounds pretty simple, but it can be a bit complex. It is used to help support your body through endurance training for optimal athletic performance. But, nutrient timing is also focused on looking at how different foods impact your body at different times, which we will be covering next, so keep reading.

Nutrient timing for athletes -

Previous research has demonstrated that the timed ingestion of carbohydrate, protein, and fat may significantly affect the adaptive response to exercise.

The overall concept of macronutrient ratio planning for the diets of athletes is not addressed directly within this position stand, as there is no one recommendation which would apply to all individuals. However, the ISSN refers the reader to the latest Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Macronutrient intake as a source of more general information [ 1 ].

The purpose of this collective position statement is to highlight, summarize, and assess the current scientific literature, and to make scientific recommendations surrounding the timed ingestion of carbohydrates CHO , protein PRO , and fat. The enclosed recommendations are suitable for researchers, practitioners, coaches and athletes who may use nutrient timing as a means to achieve optimum health and performance goals.

This position stand is divided into three primary sections: pre-exercise, during exercise and post-exercise. Each section concludes with several bullet points that highlight the key findings from each of the areas.

Nutritional considerations prior to exercise have traditionally examined the administration of CHO to maximize endogenous glycogen stores [ 2 — 6 ] and maintain serum glucose levels during endurance exercise [ 4 , 7 ].

More recently, studies have begun to provide data supporting the contention that pre-exercise ingestion of CHO, amino acids, PRO, and creatine Cr prior to resistance training are effective modalities for enhancing exercise training adaptations [ 8 — 12 ] and decreasing exercise associated muscle damage [ 12 , 13 ].

As glycogen levels diminish, exercise intensity, and work output decrease [ 14 ], and frequently muscle tissue breakdown and immunosuppression ensues [ 16 , 17 ]. Due to the well-established connection between negative body changes and the depletion of glycogen stores, the concept of CHO loading is likely the oldest form of all the nutrient timing practices.

Traditional CHO loading studies utilized a glycogen depletion phase typically lasting 3 — 6 days prior to increasing CHO intake [ 2 — 5 , 18 ]. Maximal levels of glycogen storage, however, may be achieved after just 1 — 3 days of consuming a high-CHO diet while minimizing physical activity [ 2 , 4 ].

Serum glucose levels increased during exercise in the high-CHO condition with no changes evident in the low-CHO condition. Finally, post-exercise glucose levels were also significantly greater for the high-CHO condition when compared to the low-CHO condition, suggesting that individuals subjected to the high-CHO condition were better able to sustain blood glucose levels.

Another study by Bussau et al. Research involving the ingestion of single high CHO feedings has also demonstrated the promotion of higher levels of muscle glycogen and an improvement of blood glucose maintenance euglycemia , though changes in performance have been equivocal [ 14 , 19 — 22 ].

In a study completed by Coyle et al. In contrast, Febbraio et al. Earnest et al. compared the effects of the pre-exercise ingestion of honey low-glycemic , dextrose high-glycemic and a placebo over a kilometer time trial in a crossover fashion.

In general, research involving CHO ingestion within an hour prior to exercise demonstrates equivocal results regarding changes in performance, but studies have routinely shown the ability of CHO ingestion to maximize glycogen utilization and promote CHO oxidation. Hawley and Burke [ 22 ] summarized several studies that administered some form of CHO within one hour prior to exercise: one study reported a decrease in performance [ 23 ], three studies reported an increase in performance [ 24 — 26 ] and five studies reported no effect [ 21 , 27 — 30 ] Additional File 1.

The authors concluded that the effect on the net PRO status breakdown vs. synthesis was greater when the supplement was ingested before exercise.

They speculated that the increased serum amino acid levels present when tissue blood flow levels were significantly increased, likely led to an increase in PRO synthesis [ 9 ]. In this case the authors concluded that a pro-anabolic response was found when the whey PRO was ingested both before and after resistance exercise, but no differences were found between the two administration times [ 31 ].

Findings from these studies suggest that ingestion of amino acids and CHO, or whey PRO, before resistance exercise can maximally stimulate PRO synthesis after completion of the exercise bout [ 9 , 31 ]. Many studies have explored the use of pre-exercise PRO and CHO ingestion in preventing acute exercise-induced muscle damage [ 13 ], as well as the damage that may occur during prolonged periods of regular resistance training [ 8 , 10 — 12 , 32 ].

Although the authors reported that the level of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase had increased and maximal force production of the muscle was reduced, the administration or timing of the nutrients did not appear to alter these markers of muscle damage [ 13 ].

On both exercise days, the supplement was ingested 30 min prior to beginning the exercise bout. Additionally, multi-nutrient supplementation significantly increased serum levels of both growth hormone and free and total testosterone during and after the exercise bouts [ 12 ].

These latter findings suggest that pre-exercise ingestion may also create a favorable anabolic hormone environment. In another study involving unilateral resistance training, pre-exercise supplementation of whey PRO and leucine resulted in greater increases in maximal strength [ 11 ].

One study compared the pre-exercise and post-exercise ingestion of 1. The authors found that PRO supplementation significantly increased strength and lean mass when compared to placebo, but no differences were found between the two forms of PRO [ 32 ].

Individuals consuming the protein supplement experienced greater increases in body mass, fat-free mass, strength, serum levels of IGF-1, and intramuscular levels of IGF-1 mRNA, myosin heavy chain I and IIa expression, and myofibrillar protein content [ 10 ]. Collectively, the last two studies mentioned provide additional support for the concept that ingesting PRO before and after exercise can promote a greater training adaptation than consuming only an isoenergetic CHO placebo [ 10 , 32 ].

A study by Cribb and Hayes [ 8 ] used two different feeding strategies to determine the impact of nutrient timing, in regards to an exercise bout, for changes in strength, muscle hypertrophy and body composition.

Significantly greater increases in lean body mass, 1 RM strength, type II muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and higher muscle Cr and glycogen levels were found when the supplements were consumed immediately before and after workouts [ 8 ].

In summary, ingestion of amino acids or PRO, either alone or in combination with CHO, in close temporal proximity to a bout of resistance exercise, appears to significantly increase muscle PRO synthesis [ 9 , 31 ].

Furthermore, adopting this strategy during a resistance training program results in greater increases in 1 RM strength and a leaner body composition [ 8 , 10 — 12 , 32 ]. Depletion of glycogen is associated with increased levels of muscle tissue breakdown and suppression of the immune system [ 16 , 17 ].

Much like the consideration of pre-exercise nutrient supplementation, a majority of the literature which has examined the impact of nutrient administration during exercise has focused on aerobic exercise [ 33 — 36 ], with a lesser emphasis on nutrient administration during resistance exercise [ 37 — 41 ].

The initial research which dealt with nutrient administration during exercise scrutinized the optimal delivery of CHO in an effort to sustain blood glucose.

Widrick and colleagues [ 35 ] had participants complete 70 km of self-paced time trials under four different conditions: 1.

high glycogen low glycogen CHO administration maintained blood glucose, while blood glucose declined significantly under the non-CHO conditions. Results from this study suggest exogenous CHO delivery during training is not as important if baseline glycogen levels are high, and if glycogen levels are low, CHO ingestion during endurance exercise will likely improve performance.

In a similar investigation, nine trained athletes consumed both a CHO and a non-CHO control solution while completing a 90 min bout of high-intensity intermittent running [ 34 ]. The CHO solution was 6.

When CHO was ingested the participants were able to run significantly longer when compared to the control condition, providing additional evidence that CHO availability may be important for continued exercise performance [ 34 ].

An additional study highlighting the importance of CHO delivery during endurance exercise was completed by Febrraio et al. in [ 33 ]. This study, like several in this investigative field, utilized trained cyclists as participants. Blood glucose appearance and disappearance, and time trial performance was greater in the CC and PC trials when compared to the PP condition.

The authors concluded that pre-exercise ingestion of CHO improves performance only when CHO ingestion is maintained throughout exercise, and ingestion of CHO during min of cycling improves subsequent time trial performance [ 33 ].

Similarly, a study by Fielding et al. reported that more frequent intake of CHO These findings conflicted with those of Burke et al. Lastly, a study investigated the ability of a consumed CHO-gel preparation to maintain blood glucose levels and enhance performance during a high-intensity intermittent run in soccer players [ 45 ].

As with previous studies that have used CHO solutions, the CHO-gel promoted higher levels of blood glucose and facilitated improved performance in the intermittent bout of running when compared to the placebo [ 45 ]. In summary, the weight of evidence suggests that the ingestion of CHO during endurance type exercise is a well-established strategy to sustain blood glucose levels, spare glycogen [ 6 ], and potentially promote greater levels of performance.

The interested reader is encouraged to consult the following reviews [ 15 , 46 — 49 ]. A fairly novel area of research has examined the impact of mixing various forms of CHO in an effort to promote greater levels of CHO oxidation during prolonged exercise.

It is well accepted that peak rates of CHO oxidation are commonly around 1 gram of CHO per minute or 60 grams per hour [ 15 , 48 ]. An increase in exogenous CHO availability, and subsequent oxidation, will result in improved maintenance of blood glucose and less reliance on liver and muscle glycogen stores.

Indeed, findings from this research team have regularly reported enhanced CHO oxidation rates, from 1. It should be noted that fructose is not as often used as a CHO supplement due to the potential for gastrointestinal upset. The addition of PRO to CHO during exercise has also been investigated as a means to improve performance and facilitate recovery.

During each session, participants consumed either a placebo, a 7. While the CHO only group increased time to exhaustion A study by Saunders et al.

Cyclists exercised to exhaustion on two different occasions separated by 12 — 15 h. During exercise, all participants ingested a 7. CHO intake levels were the same for each group, although the total caloric intake was different due to the energy supplied by the added PRO. PRO balance was negative during the CHO condition, but these findings were partially reversed protein balance was still negative, but to a lesser degree when PRO was added to the supplement.

The authors concluded that combined ingestion of PRO and CHO improves net PRO balance at rest, as well as during exercise and post-exercise recovery [ 36 ]. Delivering nutrients during single bouts of resistance exercise has been used to determine their impact on changes in muscle glycogen [ 40 ], mitigation of muscle damage [ 13 , 37 ], and promotion of an anabolic response [ 38 , 39 , 41 ].

Over the course of an estimated 40 min resistance training workout using the lower body, 1. The authors concluded that CHO supplementation before and during resistance exercise can maintain muscle glycogen stores and enhance the benefits of training [ 40 ]. Nutrient feedings during exercise have also been researched for their ability to offset muscle damage after intense resistance training [ 37 ].

The authors concluded that the suppression of PRO breakdown and cortisol levels may help to promote accretion of muscle PRO with prolonged periods of resistance training and supplementation.

Their final study examined the influence of a 12 week resistance training program in combination with CHO and EAA supplementation. Serum insulin and cortisol, urinary markers of PRO breakdown, and muscle cross-sectional area were measured [ 41 ].

Similarly, a study by Beelen et al. CHO administration becomes even more important when muscle glycogen levels are low at the onset of exercise [ 35 , 42 ]. Many nutritional interventions have been considered to enhance recovery from exercise.

The body of published research supports the practice of ingesting nutrients to enhance performance for both endurance and resistance training athletes. There is also sound evidence which supports the value of post-exercise nutritional supplementation as a means of improving the recovery of intramuscular glycogen, providing a positive stimulation for acute changes in amino acid kinetics and improvement of the net PRO balance, as well as enhancing the overall adaptation to resistance training.

Athletes who ingest 1. within 30 minutes after exercise have been shown to experience a greater rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis than when supplementation is delayed by two hours, largely due to a greater sensitivity of muscle to insulin [ 61 ].

Additionally, both solid and liquid forms of CHO promote similar levels of glycogen re-synthesis [ 15 , 62 , 63 ]. Moreover, different forms of CHO have different effects on insulin levels, with fructose ingestion being associated with lower levels of glycogen re-synthesis than other forms of simple carbohydrates [ 64 ].

If an athlete is glycogen-depleted after exercise, a CHO intake of 0. Similarly, maximal glycogen re-synthesis rates have been achieved when 1.

Consequently, frequent feedings of CHO in high amounts over the 4 — 6 hours following exercise is recommended to ensure recovery of muscle and liver glycogen [ 15 , 49 ]. Several studies have suggested that adding PRO to CHO supplementation after exercise may help to promote greater recovery of muscle glycogen and attenuate muscle damage.

Ivy and colleagues [ 69 ] instructed cyclists to complete a 2. While glycogen replenishment did not differ between the two CHO conditions low CHO [ Both authors concluded that ingestion of either CHO preparation resulted in greater restoration of muscle glycogen when compared to a placebo.

Furthermore, the availability of essential amino acids EAA following exercise, especially the branched-chain amino acids, have been reported to influence recovery by optimizing PRO re-synthesis as well as glycogen re-synthesis rates after exercise [ 61 , 69 , 70 , 72 — 74 ].

As these studies suggest, the ingestion of CHO 1 — 1. A single bout of resistance training modestly stimulates PRO synthesis, but also further stimulates PRO breakdown resulting in an overall negative PRO balance after exercise [ 75 , 76 ]; an effect which shifts PRO balance more towards neutral as training status progresses [ 76 ].

Infusion or ingestion of amino acids increases amino acid concentrations at rest or after resistance exercise [ 77 ]. In addition, providing CHO in combination with amino acids immediately before or after exercise may further increase amino acid availability and post-exercise PRO synthesis [ 73 , 78 ].

Consequently, increasing the concentration and availability of amino acids in the blood is an important consideration when attempting to promote increases in lean tissue and improve body composition with resistance training [ 77 , 79 ].

Ingestion of a large dose of CHO g alone and within 1 h after resistance exercise causes marginal improvements in overall PRO synthesis while maintaining a negative net PRO balance [ 78 ]. While no studies have found CHO to be detrimental, it is not the ideal nutrient in isolation to consume after resistance exercise.

Its inclusion, however, is an important consideration regarding stimulation of glycogen re-synthesis and enhanced palatability [ 69 , 72 ]. The EAAs, however, in dosages ranging from 6 — 40 grams have routinely been shown to play a primary role in promoting muscle PRO synthesis [ 74 , 80 ], though adding CHO to them may enhance this effect [ 9 , 81 ].

Regarding post-exercise timing, ingestion of amino acids after resistance exercise has been shown at many different time points to stimulate increases in muscle PRO synthesis, cause minimal changes in PRO breakdown and increase overall PRO balance [ 74 , 75 , 80 ].

Unfortunately, the optimal time point for supplementation has not yet been demonstrated. Similar changes have been found in studies that have administered amino acids alone, or with CHO, immediately, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after exercise [ 9 , 74 , 79 , 81 ].

Levenhagen et al. They reported significantly greater levels of PRO synthesis when the nutrients were ingested immediately before the exercise bout.

In summary, the optimal dosage and ratio of EAAs and CHO necessary to optimize protein balance is not currently known. A summary of relevant findings is provided in Table 2 Additional File 2.

In an attempt to stimulate greater adaptations associated with resistance training researchers have investigated the impact of administering varying combinations of CHO and PRO after 1 — 3 h post-exercise each exercise bout over the course of training [ 8 , 10 , 32 , 84 — 91 ].

The collective findings of these studies support the rationale for post-exercise administration of CHO and PRO to facilitate greater improvements in strength and body composition.

Additionally, PRO source may be an important consideration as studies have suggested that whey PRO may exhibit a faster kinetic digestive pattern when compared to casein PRO [ 92 , 93 ].

Furthermore, this faster kinetic pattern for whey PRO is responsible for greater increases in PRO synthesis upon ingestion, with little to no impact over PRO breakdown. Casein PRO, on the other hand, releases its amino acids at a slower rate from the gut.

This kinetic pattern results in little control over PRO synthesis, but a powerful attenuation of PRO breakdown. When both of these milk PRO sources are compared using area under the curve analysis, results suggest that casein may be responsible for a greater overall improvement in PRO balance when compared to whey [ 92 , 93 ].

Cr is a popular dietary supplement that has been heavily researched for its ability to increase performance and facilitate positive training adaptations [ 94 , 95 ]. For example, Tarnopolsky et al. Changes in fat-free mass, muscle fiber area, 1 RM, and isokinetic strength improved in both groups, but were not different among groups.

Another study had participants resistance train for 11 weeks while consuming daily one of the following: 1 0.

Supplementation in the first three groups resulted in greater increases in 1 RM strength and muscle hypertrophy when compared to CHO only, but no differences were found among the groups ingesting Cr in conjunction with either CHO or PRO [ 85 ].

In contrast, two published studies have suggested that the addition of Cr may be responsible for greater increases in muscle hypertrophy. The first study had participants complete heavy resistance training for 10 weeks while ingesting one of the following isoenergetic groups: 1 1.

Similarly, Kerksick and colleagues [ 88 ] had participants complete 12 weeks of resistance training while ingesting a blend of whey and casein PRO, with or without Cr.

While all groups saw increases in strength and muscle mass, those groups ingesting Cr with the PRO blend experienced greater gains in body mass and fat-free mass.

Though these findings are somewhat mixed, the available data does provide support that adding Cr to a post-exercise regimen of CHO and PRO may help to facilitate greater improvements in body composition during resistance training [ 84 , 85 , 88 , 90 ].

The addition of CHO may increase PRO synthesis even more, while pre-exercise consumption may result in the best response of all [ 9 ]. The scientific literature associated with nutrient timing is an extremely popular, and thus ever-changing, area of research.

Upon reviewing the available literature, the following conclusions can be drawn at this point in time:. whey and casein exhibit different kinetic digestion patterns and may subsequently differ in their support of training adaptations.

However, including small amounts of fat does not appear to be harmful, and may help to control glycemic responses during exercise. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. aspx ]. Bussau VA, Fairchild TJ, Rao A, Steele P, Fournier PA: Carbohydrate loading in human muscle: an improved 1 day protocol.

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J Appl Physiol. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, Ivy JL: Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate.

Cribb PJ, Hayes A: Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RR: Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise.

Willoughby DS, Stout JR, Wilborn CD: Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolic, mass, and strength.

Amino Acids. Coburn JW, Housh DJ, Housh TJ, Malek MH, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Johnson GO, Donlin PE: Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during eight weeks of unilateral resistance training.

J Strength Cond Res. Kraemer WJ, Hatfield DL, Spiering BA, Vingren JL, Fragala MS, Ho JY, Volek JS, Anderson JM, Maresh CM: Effects of a multi-nutrient supplement on exercise performance and hormonal responses to resistance exercise. White JP, Wilson JM, Austin KG, Greer BK, St John N, Panton LB: Effect of carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar. Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, Lowe RC, Walters TJ: Substrate usage during prolonged exercise following a preexercise meal. Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala M, Jeukendrup AE, Phillips SM: Nutritional needs of elite endurance athletes.

Part I: Carbohydrate and fluid requirements. Eur J Sport Sci. Article Google Scholar. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada. Gleeson M, Nieman DC, Pedersen BK: Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

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Febbraio MA, Keenan J, Angus DJ, Campbell SE, Garnham AP: Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion, glucose kinetics, and muscle glycogen use: effect of the glycemic index. Febbraio MA, Stewart KL: CHO feeding before prolonged exercise: effect of glycemic index on muscle glycogenolysis and exercise performance.

Hawley JA, Burke LM: Effect of meal frequency and timing on physical performance. Brit J Nutr. Foster C, Costill DL, Fink WJ: Effects of preexercise feedings on endurance performance. Med Sci Sports. Okano G, Takeda H, Morita I, Katoh M, Mu Z, Miyake S: Effect of pre-exercise fructose ingestion on endurance performance in fed men.

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Consuming carbohydrate within an hour after exercise also helps to increase protein synthesis Gibala, The Growth Phase The growth phase consists of the 18 - 20 hours post-exercise when muscle repair, growth and strength occur.

According to authors Ivy and Portman, the goals of this phase are to maintain insulin sensitivity in order to continue to replenish glycogen stores and to maintain the anabolic state.

Consuming a protein and carbohydrate meal within 1 - 3 hours after resistance training has a positive stimulating effect on protein synthesis Volek, Carbohydrate meals with moderate to high glycemic indexes are more favorable to enhance post-exercise fueling.

Higher levels of glycogen storage post-exercise are found in individuals who have eaten high glycemic foods when compared to those that have eaten low glycemic foods Burke et al. Nutrient Timing Supplement Guidelines: Putting it Together for Yourself and Your Clients Aquatic instructors expend a lot of energy in teaching and motivating students during multi-level fitness classes.

Clearly, nutrient timing may be a direction the aquatic profession may choose to pursue to determine if it provides more energy and faster recovery from a challenging teaching load.

As well, some students and clients may seek similar results. From the existing research, here are some recommended guidelines of nutrient timing.

Energy Phase During the energy phase a drink consisting of high-glycemic carbohydrate and protein should be consumed.

This drink should contain a ratio of carbohydrate to protein and should include approximately 6 grams of protein and 24 grams of carbohydrate.

Additional drink composition substances should include leucine for protein synthesis , Vitamin C and E because they reduce free-radical levels-which are a contributing cause to muscle damage , and sodium, potassium and magnesium which are important electrolytes lost in sweat.

Anabolic Phase During the anabolic phase a supplement made up of high-glycemic carbohydrate and protein should be consumed. This should be a ratio of carbohydrate to protein and should contain approximately 15 g of protein and 45 grams of carbohydrate. Other important drink substances include leucine for protein synthesis , glutamine for immune system function , and antioxidant Vitamins C and E.

Growth Phase There are two segments of the growth phase. The first is a rapid segment of muscle repair and growth that lasts for up to 4 hours. The second segment is the remainder of the day where proper nutrition guidelines are being met complex carbohydrates, less saturated fats--substituting with more monounsatureated and polyunsaturated fats, and healthy protein sources such as chicken, seafood, eggs, nuts, lean beef and beans.

During the rapid growth phase a drink filled with high-glycemic carbohydrates and protein may be consumed. In this phase the ratio of carbohydrates to protein should be with 4 grams of carbohydrate to 20 grams of protein.

However, the information and discussion in this article better prepares the aquatic fitness professional to guide and educate students about the metabolic and nutrient needs of exercising muscles.

In the areas of nutrition and exercise physiology, nutrient timing is 'buzzing' with scientific interest. Ingestion of appropriate amounts of carbohydrate and protein at the right times will enhance glycogen synthesis, replenish glycogen stores, decrease muscle inflammation, increase protein synthesis, maintain continued muscle cell insulin sensitivity, enhance muscle development, encourage faster muscle recovery and boost energy levels…that says it all.

References: Bell-Wilson, J. The Buzz About Nutrient Timing. IDEA Fitness Journal, Burke, L. Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, Gibala, M. Nutritional supplementation and resistance exercise: what is the evidence for enhanced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 25 6 , Haff, G. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 10, Ivy, J. Nutrient timing: The future of sports nutrition. California: Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Levenhagen, D. Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis. American Journal Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, , Volek, J.

Influence of Nutrition on Response to Resistance Training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36 4 , Nutritional aspects of women strength athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, Top of Page. Research Interests.

As a trainer, clients will often Nutrient timing for athletes to you when Nutrinet have questions about atyletes diet. They Creatine and cardiovascular health want to know ahletes to eat for Non-addictive natural energizer muscle gain, for instance. Or they might wonder if certain diet plans can help speed up their fat loss. But one topic that can typically be discussed is nutrient Nutrrient. Nutrient timing involves eating at specific times to achieve a desired outcome. The goal helps dictate the timing strategy.

Author: Faelar

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