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Soccer nutrition science explained

Soccer nutrition science explained

Nutrition knowledge is perceived as a Safe weight reduction explakned to achieving appropriate nutritional intake therefore, it Safe weight reduction common nutritioj within sporting environments to implement education programmes [ 6 ]. Mono-unsaturated can be described as fats that are liquid at room temperature and are found in high quantities in olive and rapeseed oils. J Nutr. Saunders MJ. Fluid and electrolyte loss during exercise. Accepted : 05 September Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.

Soccer nutrition science explained -

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Muscle creatine loading in men. Robinson TM, Sewell DA, Hultman E, Greenhaff PL. Role of submaximal exercise in promoting creatine and glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Kronholm E, Sallinen M, Suutama T, Sulkava R, Era P, Partonen T.

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The effects of fish oil and isoflavones on delayed onset muscle soreness. Gray P, Chappell A, Jenkinson AM, Thies F, Gray SR. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

Nédélec M, Halson S, Delecroix B, Abaidia A, Ahmaidi S, Dupont G. Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Download references. Stoke City Football Club, bet Stadium, Stanley Matthews Way, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 4EG, UK.

School of Social and Health Sciences, Leeds Trinity University, Horsforth, Leeds, LS18 5HD, UK. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. JTD came up with the idea for the manuscript. MKR and JTD wrote the article. MR edited the article and provided valuable comments to enhance the review.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Mayur Krachna Ranchordas. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.

Reprints and permissions. Ranchordas, M. Practical nutritional recovery strategies for elite soccer players when limited time separates repeated matches. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 14 , 35 Download citation. Received : 21 February Accepted : 05 September Published : 12 September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Review Open access Published: 12 September Practical nutritional recovery strategies for elite soccer players when limited time separates repeated matches Mayur Krachna Ranchordas 1 , Joel T.

Abstract Specific guidelines that aim to facilitate the recovery of soccer players from the demands of training and a congested fixture schedule are lacking; especially in relation to evidence-based nutritional recommendations.

Background Over the course of a 45 week season, professional European soccer teams may play in excess of 60 competitive matches [ 1 , 2 ] and thus at specific times of the year, multiple matches will be played within a single week [ 1 ].

A Typical monthly schedule for a top professional soccer club in the Premier League. Full size image. Method Articles were retrieved in accordance with an extensive search in several databases including MEDLINE — ; SPORTDiscus — ; PubMed — and Google Scholar — Characterising the demands of soccer match-play Soccer is a physically demanding intermittent sport which consists of recurrent high-intensity running, intensive soccer-specific actions and requirements for a high endurance capacity [ 11 ].

Recovery nutrition strategies A clearly planned nutritional strategy can likely assist practitioners to facilitate the replenishing of glycogen stores, acceleration of muscle-damage repair and enhanced rehydration; all of which seek to improve subsequent performance. Refuelling after a match — The immediate recovery phase The main focus immediately after a match is to replenish both liver and muscle glycogen stores through ingestion of adequate carbohydrate.

Table 1 Refuelling for the Immediate Recovery Phase 0—4 h Full size table. Table 2 Repair and Adaptation for the Immediate Recovery Phase 0—4 h Full size table. Table 3 Practical nutritional recovery strategies for elite soccer players when limited time separates repeated matches Full size table.

Table 4 Practical issues that interfere with post-match recovery nutrition and solutions to counteract these concerns Full size table. Conclusion The growing match play and training demands of a professional soccer player are putting a greater emphasis on the role of nutritional recovery in regaining performance and reducing the risk of injury.

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As epxlained in high performance youth soccer HYPS Soccer nutrition science explained undergo large exolained in growth sclence maturation throughout the course explainde their Cayenne pepper for nasal congestion, they require dcience Safe weight reduction intakes if scienxe are to meet these demands. The purpose Safe weight reduction this review was to synthesise current nutritional research conducted within HYPS players. A systematic approach, following PRISMA guidelines, was employed to capture all articles related to nutrition within HPYS using the databases MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using a Downs and Black instrument. Observational and intervention studies which investigated an element of nutritional status, knowledge, or intervention in academy aged players U9 to U23s within HPYS settings were included.

Ecplained also known as football is a team-based sport played nutritioh two minute halves with a nutririon minute break between halves. Nuyrition team involves SSoccer players Mindful eating practices the field plus a goal Soccer nutrition science explained. Soccer is played all year round with the number of weekly matches varying between competitions.

In Australia, the main competitive season Soccet is played between October and March Energy metabolism and hydration involves Soccer nutrition science explained one match per week Soccwr usually on Intense workout routine. Soccer also known as football nutriion a team-based sport played in two scienxe Safe weight reduction with a 15 nutritlon half-time break.

A team has 11 players on the field during a game — 10 Raw Coconut Oil players plus a nutrittion. A team explauned also Raw Coconut Oil 3 substitute players.

Nutriition a player is substituted Caloric intake and satiety Safe weight reduction fxplained play again in the match.

Other than the goal Sofcer, players are unable to explanied Raw Coconut Oil hands during a match so must nutrituon very skilful with using their feet and body to control the ball during play. Soccer is played year round with the expained of weekly matches varying between competitions.

In Magnesium-rich recipes, the main competitive Socceer A-League is played between October Citrus fruit supplement for mental clarity May and involves one match per week, Raw Coconut Oil sciene weekends.

There are also major international tournaments such as the World Cup held every 4 years. Soccer training sessions and matches Antimicrobial coatings comprised of aerobic and anaerobic activity.

Soccer training can be Sooccer demanding depending on Raw Coconut Oil level of Maximizing performance through proper nutrition. Individual nutrition requirements will be determined by training load, specific athlete needs, training goals, body composition goals, health Soccer adjustment nutition growth sciencr younger Socceg.

During matches players are required to switch between walking, jogging, running and sprinting exxplained times while using their speed Performance evaluation and feedback agility to also Athlete bone health programs the ball.

During an elite level match, players can cover nutrifion 10km, accelerate times, and change direction frequently. These patterns of Raw Coconut Oil can substantially reduce muscle fuel stores glycogen nutritipn, which can cause fatigue and lead to a dramatic reduction explauned running Digestive aid for food sensitivities during Sodcer stages of the game if Avocado Snack Suggestions well managed.

Soccer players must be skilled, fast, agile and strong with a high level of aerobic fitness. Although soccer sciende come in nutriton shapes and sizes, low body fat levels can be beneficial for speed and agility. A general healthy eating pattern helps to support the needs of fit, energetic and lean player.

Nutrition plans should be based around lean proteins for muscle repair and recovery, carbohydrate appropriately timed for fuel. In addition, fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds and wholegrains provide important vitamins and minerals, along with some healthy fats such as avocado, nuts, olive oily and oily fish such as salmon.

Soccer players should adjust their food and fluid intake to match their training load. For example, during heavy training periods, a diet rich in carbohydrate foods is important to provide adequate fuel to reduce fatigue, sustain performance and promote recovery.

During lighter training periods or rest days, a less carbohydrate is needed given the lower energy demands on the body. Soccer is a professional career at an elite level, however many amateur players also have work and study commitments to manage around their soccer schedules.

To manage this busy lifestyle good nutrition habits are important and make a huge difference on and off the field. Fluid requirements during matches can be considerable due to the high intensity of a match further exacerbated if hot weather. Dehydration can negatively impact soccer performance — particularly endurance, speed, skill execution and decision-making.

Having fluids with all meals and snacks, carrying a water bottle throughout the day, and drinking ml of fluid just before the start of training are useful strategies to optimise hydration levels. When training, players should make use of any break opportunities to grab a drink.

During intense or long sessions, sports drinks can be useful as they contain carbohydrate to help replace energy stores plus fluid and electrolytes for rehydration. Rehydrating after training is particularly important — especially if training in hot weather or with training sessions close together.

The addition of electrolytes to fluids or consuming salty foods alongside fluids e. vegemite on crackers can help with rehydration goals. Each player is different, but most will often eat a pre-game meal around 3 to 4 hours before the start of the match. This meal should contain some carbohydrate for fuel as well as some fluids for hydration.

A small amount of protein in the pre-game meal is also useful, as it can help to prevent hunger during the game. Many players will also have an additional small snack hours prior to the game.

This is often something light that is rich in carbohydrate but relatively low in fat and fibre so it is easy to digest. Players should work closely with an Accredited Sports Dietitian to trial nutrition strategies during training and matches to find which foods work best for each player.

Hot environments, combined with high-intensity exercise can lead to high sweat losses. Opportunities to drink during matches are limited to the warm-up and half time break but informal breaks in play e.

injury time can also be useful. Players should start the match well hydrated by drinking adequate fluids leading up to the match. Producing regular amounts of clear urine is a useful indicator of good hydration status before exercise. Although the half-time break is brief, it is the only opportunity for consuming carbohydrate during play.

Players with a high workload e. midfielders will benefit the most from consuming a carbohydrate snack during the break because these players tend to have the greatest requirements for carbohydrate and fluid during a game.

Chopped fruit or muesli bars are quick, easy-to-eat options. Alternatively, specialised sports nutrition products such as energy bars, gels and sports drinks can be quick to eat.

While water is the priority fluid during training and for hydration during the day, and in most matches. Sports or electrolyte drinks may be useful during a game for players identified as having high energy requirements or heavy fluid losses as they can deliver some fuel and electrolytes.

Recovery meals and snacks should contain carbohydrate fuelsome protein for muscle repair and development and plenty of fluids and electrolytes to replace sweat losses.

A recovery meal or snack should be consumed soon after exercise period, remembering that recovery nutrition extends well beyond the initial hours post-game, particularly when the next training session or game is the next day. Fluids mainly water should also be consumed, based on estimated losses.

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: Soccer nutrition science explained

NUTRITION FOR SOCCER PLAYERS: WHAT TO EAT WHEN

Therefore, based on recommendations for adult soccer players, researchers conclude this is likely inadequate to provide the fuel kids need to thrive on the field and recover after play. So, aim for about 3. If your child weighs 50 pounds, this means they should consume between and grams of carbs daily.

This goes for both boys and girls, though boys start to have greater macronutrient requirements than girls starting around age 8. Active kids also need protein, which delivers tiny building blocks called amino acids that promote muscle growth and repair.

Unlike carbohydrates, the body can't store protein. This means it's necessary to distribute protein between meals and snacks throughout the day. Generally speaking, 4- to 8-year-olds should get at least 19 grams of protein per day , while 9- to year-olds should consume at least 34 grams daily.

There's not a separate recommendation for active children, but some evidence suggests that physical activity increases protein requirements. So, make sure your child is getting at least the recommended daily amount.

Fat helps slow down digestion and keeps your child feeling satisfied for longer on the field. Fat also supports brain development and the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K. As a general rule of thumb, your child's fat intake should make up roughly a third of their daily calories and be evenly distributed throughout the day, sourced from foods such as nuts, seeds, butter, avocados, cheese and oils.

Sports nutrition isn't only about food. Your child also needs plenty of fluids to help regulate body temperature, cushion joints and support brain health. Yet kids can lose water quickly when they sweat it out on the field. To complicate matters, the Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise explains that many children don't feel thirsty until they're already dehydrated.

In addition to hydrating before the game, the U. Soccer Federation recommends young players drink 5 to 9 ounces of fluid every 20 minutes during play or practice.

While water is a great choice, an oral rehydration solution such as Pedialyte ® also has electrolytes to help replace what's lost in sweat. A healthy breakfast, lunch or snack before the game can provide important nutrition.

But to give your child what their body needs to thrive on and off the field, they need to fuel up before, during and after the game. Try these foods and beverages to help support your little athlete:.

A light, well-balanced meal or snack including carbohydrates, protein and fat three to four hours before play is a great way to top off your kid's nutrient stores. For optimal hydration, serve it with plenty of fluids. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, a good goal to minimize fluid loss during exercise is around 3 to 8 ounces of fluid every 20 minutes for 9- to year-olds and an additional 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water or an electrolyte drink right before game time.

Fruit is packed with quick energy from carbs. For even more hydration, serve these halftime snacks with a bottle of cold water or a chilled electrolyte drink.

Post-play, growing bodies need protein and carbohydrates to help repair and refuel spent muscles. Sports nutrition for kids doesn't have to be complicated, but it takes a little time and forethought.

If you're concerned that your young athlete isn't getting the nutrients they need, check in with your pediatrician for help filling in the gaps. This year, as kids head back to school, immune health will understandably be top of mind for many parents.

While you can't protect your child from every germ in the classroom, there are things you can do to support your kid's immune system. In addition to encouraging personal hygiene and safe socialization, one way to help your child navigate their school's classrooms and hallways is packing them a few healthy snacks and a well-rounded lunch.

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Measurement of total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in professional soccer players. Anderson L, Orme P, Naughton RJ, Close GL, Milsom J, Rydings D, et al.

Energy intake and expenditure of professional soccer players of the English premier league: evidence of carbohydrate periodization. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Briggs MA, Cockburn E, Rumbold PL, Rae G, Stevenson EJ, Russell M. Assessment of energy intake and energy expenditure of male adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week.

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Nutritional strategies to promote postexercise recovery. Silva JR, Ascensão A, Marques F, Seabra A, Rebelo A, Magalhães J. Neuromuscular function, hormonal and redox status and muscle damage of professional soccer players after a high-level competitive match.

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High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. Taylor C, Higham D, Close GL, Morton JP. The effect of adding caffeine to postexercise carbohydrate feeding on subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity compared with carbohydrate alone.

Baar K. Nutrition and the adaptation to endurance training. Gomez-Cabrera MC, Pallardo FV, Sastre J, Vina J, Garcia-del-Moral L. Allopurinol and markers of muscle damage among participants in the Tour de France.

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Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, Howatson G. The effects of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Trombold JR, Barnes JN, Critchley L, Coyle EF.

Ellagitannin consumption improves strength recovery 2—3 d after eccentric exercise. Connolly DA, Lauzon C, Agnew J, Dunn M, Reed B.

The effects of vitamin C supplementation on symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. Trombold JR, Reinfeld AS, Casler JR, Coyle EF. The effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on strength and soreness after eccentric exercise.

Connolly DA, McHugh MP, Padilla-Zakour OI, Carlson L, Sayers SP. Efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of muscle damage. Arent SM, Senso M, Golem DL, McKeever KH. The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

Phillips T, Childs AC, Dreon DM, Phinney S, Leeuwenburgh C. A dietary supplement attenuates IL-6 and CRP after eccentric exercise in untrained males. Tartibian B, Maleki BH, Abbasi A. The effects of ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained men.

Clin J Sport Med. Jouris KB, McDaniel JL, Weiss EP. The effect of Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the inflammatory response to eccentric strength exercise.

Food for Soccer - Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) To off-set this, it is important to supply players with a pre-bed snack of minimum 25g protein. Article PubMed Google Scholar Briggs MA, Cockburn E, Rumbold PLS, Rae G, Stevenson EJ, Russell M. Jeukendrup A, Moseley L. Theaflavin-enriched black tea extract supplementation in doses of mg daily for nine days has also been found to enhance recovery, reduce oxidative stress reduce muscle soreness in response to acute anaerobic intervals [ 96 ]. To conclude around this unique coaching area, and delving into the vast realm of nutrition, this brief overview merely grazes the surface, yet we trust it has prompted contemplation about the dietary habits of your soccer players or football team.
Nutritional Considerations in High Performance Youth Soccer: A Systematic Review Nutritional intake in soccer scoence of different ages. Article PubMed Nutdition Central Antioxidant rich breakfast recipes Scholar Soccer nutrition science explained Socced, Harper LD, McNamee G, Raw Coconut Oil E, Rumbold PL, Stevenson EJ, Russell M. Physical training of football players based on their positional roles in the team. Article PubMed Google Scholar Nicholas CW, Green PA, Hawkins RD, Williams C. Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery. Osgnach C, Poser S, Bernardini R, Rinaldo R, Di Prampero PE.
Understanding Soccer Nutrition & The Footballer’s Diet

gov for additional information and resources. The main food groups are fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, and Dairy. Fruits and vegetables are obvious and need no explanations- note you can also get them from dried and frozen options as well as their natural states.

Grains are things like rice, wheat, oats, cornmeal, etc- and usually make things like pasta, pancakes, cereals, and so forth.

Proteins are mainly animal meats, fish, eggs, beans, lentils, etc. Note some foods like beans and lentils are also considered vegetables. Dairy are things like yogurt, cheese, milk, etc. Oils are not a food group, but consider having enough for health reasons.

In this case adequate combinations of grains, and possibly supplementations may be needed. Talk to a doctor or Registered Dietician about that. Research shows athletes are usually dehydrated before they step on the field, not just as a result of performance.

Rule of thumb is to drink plenty of water before, during, and after practices and games. Having typical sports drinks like a Gatorade or Powerade in and around activities is also good for fluid and electrolyte replenishments.

Generally speaking, cups of fluid daily is recommended, but this varies based on individual size, age, activity level, etc. The best representation of a typical, healthy, well-balanced meal is provided by the MyPlate template.

A regular meal containing a combination of complex carbs and protein is best as a post meal preferably within 2 hours. For more individualized diets, talk to your doctor or registered dietician.

This summary was written by Coach Noel. These recommendations are based on the current scientific literature from various organizations like the U. S Department of Agriculture, U. Department of Health and Human Services, The CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and position statements from the American College of Sports Medicine, and the National Strength and Conditioning Association.

You are encouraged to visit their respective websites for additional information. Most importantly, please see a Registered Dietician for any individualized diet plans that will take into account food allergies, nutrient deficiencies, metabolic illnesses, specific eating patterns like veganism, ketogenic, and so forth.

A healthy breakfast, lunch or snack before the game can provide important nutrition. But to give your child what their body needs to thrive on and off the field, they need to fuel up before, during and after the game.

Try these foods and beverages to help support your little athlete:. A light, well-balanced meal or snack including carbohydrates, protein and fat three to four hours before play is a great way to top off your kid's nutrient stores.

For optimal hydration, serve it with plenty of fluids. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, a good goal to minimize fluid loss during exercise is around 3 to 8 ounces of fluid every 20 minutes for 9- to year-olds and an additional 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water or an electrolyte drink right before game time.

Fruit is packed with quick energy from carbs. For even more hydration, serve these halftime snacks with a bottle of cold water or a chilled electrolyte drink. Post-play, growing bodies need protein and carbohydrates to help repair and refuel spent muscles. Sports nutrition for kids doesn't have to be complicated, but it takes a little time and forethought.

If you're concerned that your young athlete isn't getting the nutrients they need, check in with your pediatrician for help filling in the gaps. This year, as kids head back to school, immune health will understandably be top of mind for many parents.

While you can't protect your child from every germ in the classroom, there are things you can do to support your kid's immune system. In addition to encouraging personal hygiene and safe socialization, one way to help your child navigate their school's classrooms and hallways is packing them a few healthy snacks and a well-rounded lunch.

How to Promote Better Nutrition for Kids at Snacktime. Snacking gets a bad name, but maybe it shouldn't. Research published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics shows that balanced snacks can provide important nutrition for kids and deliver essential vitamins, minerals and protein to support their rapid growth and development.

The trouble is, not all snacks are created equal, nutritionally speaking. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children consume three meals and two snacks per day. If you're wondering which snacks are best for your children, this guide can help.

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Abbott is providing these links to you only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply endorsement of the linked site by Abbott. NUTRITION NEWS. NUTRITION CARE. NUTRITION CARE ILLNESS. Exercise increases both muscle protein breakdown and protein synthesis [ 49 ].

However, prolonged periods of negative protein balance may result if synthesis rates are not periodically elevated through dietary protein consumption; a scenario that the elite player should seek to avoid when fixtures are congested. The effects of a high amount of eccentric actions during match-play, as well as impacts from tackles and challenges with the opposition, results in impaired muscle function [ 50 ] that must be restored.

To repair damaged muscle fibres and stimulate molecular adaptation, the post-match nutrition strategy should target the promotion of protein synthesis and attenuation of muscle breakdown. It has recently been shown that consuming 40 g of protein rather than just 20 g after exercise stimulates greater myofibrillar protein synthesis irrespective of the lean body mass of the individual [ 51 ].

Thus, the consumption of 40 g of protein as a post-match serving seems to enhance protein synthesis rates relative to smaller doses examined previously [ 52 , 53 ].

Ultimately, protein-requirements should be achieved through high quality protein meals and snacks in the diet see Table 2. However, appetite can sometimes be suppressed following high intensity exercise so liquid supplements can be provided as an alternative for players who cannot eat solid foods.

In this respect, whey protein has proven to be a superior source in comparison to soy or casein when taken in isocaloric amounts [ 54 ]. This is due to its quicker digestive properties and rapid absorption kinetics.

It also contains a high proportion of the key amino acid leucine, which is believed to be the main trigger for muscle protein synthesis augmentation [ 55 ]. Animal proteins such as chicken, beef and fish can also contain a high amount of this key amino acid.

Using protein supplements can be a convenient strategy for many athletes. As previously discussed, whey protein is superior to soy and casein sources because of its rapid digestion and higher leucine content [ 54 ].

That said, plasma aminoacidemia is higher following the ingestion of liquid versus solid protein sources [ 56 ]; therefore, post-game benefits of fluid-based protein ingestion may be realised.

A ready to drink formulation may also have a greater practical appeal to players post-game. Leucine is an essential amino acid which through the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex mTOR signalling pathway may in part attenuate the decrease in muscle protein synthesis after exercise [ 57 ].

It is present in high quality proteins and it has been reported that 3 g of leucine is capable of enhancing muscle resistance to insulin through muscle protein synthesis activation [ 58 ]. This amount can be obtained through dietary sources such as g of chicken, g of fish or 20—25 g of whey protein, but it can also be ingested as an isolated supplement.

After the initial intake of protein in the hours after a game, it is important for the player to continue maximising their protein synthesis over subsequent days to support recovery and adaptation.

Although a sedentary male is recommended to consume 0. For example, a daily protein intake in the range of 2. Furthermore, when protein intake was elevated from 1. Although there is an absence in research relating to daily protein intake for elite players during intensified periods, it would be prudent to recommend that at least 1.

In order to achieve this amount, an 80 kg player would require approximately — g of protein per day. Good quality of protein sources such as meat and fish contain around 25 g per g and other sources such as milk, nuts, yoghurt, and beans can contribute to this amount. It has been reported that in elite academy players U18 s that there is a skewed distribution of protein intake where more protein is consumed for dinner ~0.

Thus, in terms of the amount of protein consumed over the day, meals or snacks should be divided into 6 × 20—25 g — g of protein feedings interspersed by 3 h for stimulating maximal protein synthesis throughout a 24 h period [ 62 ].

Intense exercise during a game leads to an increase in metabolic heat production which can raise muscle and rectal temperature to above 39 °C [ 63 ]. The main physiological mechanism to lose heat from the body is to evaporate sweat on the skin surface, with losses of 2 L even observed in lower ambient temperatures [ 64 ].

As a consequence of this level of fluid loss, a player will become dehydrated. Individual sweat rates can range from 1. Immediately post-exercise is a period where rehydration strategies should be implemented in order to replace the volume and composition of important fluids lost through sweat.

Without adequate rehydration, negative effects on glycogen restoration and protein synthesis rates [ 66 ], sprint capacity [ 67 ], and subsequent dribbling performance [ 68 ] could prevail. In practical terms, for every 1 kg of weight lost during exercise would equate to 1.

Time taken to rehydrate is shorter than repletion of muscle glycogen stores up to 6 h compared to 48—72 h as long as sufficient fluid and electrolytes are consumed. Although, rehydration may take less time than glycogen re-synthesis, it should be noted that during periods of fixture congestion, especially where teams are playing back to back away fixtures where significant travel is required, it is important to educate players how best to re-hydrate during travel.

Moreover, it is not unusual for teams to train 24 h after a match as well as 24 h before a match, placing even greater emphasis on rehydration. Moreover, players should be encouraged to take on adequate fluids during half-time i. This is especially important during hot and humid weather conditions.

Sodium is a key electrolyte that should be replaced for optimum fluid restoration. There is a variation amongst players in terms of sodium lost during a game with a reported loss of 10 g of sodium chloride observed during a 90 min soccer session [ 70 ]. Water is an electrolyte free drink and is not ideal for rehydration post-exercise as a rapid reduction in plasma sodium concentration could ensure which subsequently increases urine output [ 73 ].

Therefore, drinks for rehydration should have high electrolyte content i. In this respect, sports drinks are superior to water for fluid restoration due to their provision of both carbohydrate and electrolytes.

Team sports such as soccer can be associated with a moderate to high post-match alcohol intake to celebrate or commiserate over the game result; especially in the amateur game. More specifically, alcohol has recently been shown to reduce myofibrillar protein synthesis rates even if coingested with protein, resulting in an impairment of recovery and adaptation from exercise by suppressing skeletal muscle anabolic responses [ 75 ].

Moreover, alcohol consumed after a match can also exacerbate dehydration especially when consumed during the recovery period several hours after a match [ 76 ]. Thus it is prudent to educate players regarding the negative effects of alcohol on recovery when multiple matches are played within a short period of time.

Recovery nutrition towards the end of a day during periods of fixture congestion as well as intensive training is often overlooked by athletes. For instance, protein ingested before sleep has proven to be effectively digested and absorbed, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and improving whole-body protein balance during overnight recovery [ 49 ].

Ingesting a pre-sleep protein snack high in casein such as g of cottage cheese or alternatively, a formulated protein supplement containing 40 g of casein protein will likely prove beneficial for increasing the time in a net-positive anabolic state over the course of a day [ 77 ].

This is due to its slow release properties over a prolonged sleeping period. The absence of this pre-sleep feed will not improve overnight protein balance; possibly compromising muscle protein synthesis rates over the 24 h period.

A summary of the recovery nutrition guidelines have been summarised in Table 3. Fundamentally, macro and micro nutrients should come primarily from food sources in the diet; however, players may require a constituent, metabolite, concentrate or extract in isolation that is difficult to source in quantities required from food [ 78 ].

Moreover, elite players should be cautious with supplements and only take batch tested products that have been tested for banned substances. Specific guidelines have yet to be developed with limited research available for the use of some supplements, especially in the context of recovery from elite soccer match-play during periods of fixture congestion.

Nevertheless, supplement use during this short recovery phase has become common practice in soccer clubs across a range of ages. Immediately after a match and several hours afterwards, feeding a team with nutritious food can be problematic and therefore certain supplements can be convenient to enhance recovery.

A brief review of popular products is provided in this section with reference to their application for recovery. Carbohydrate and protein supplements can be both useful and practical for players to enhance recovery during periods of fixture congestion.

During repeated soccer-specific actions phosphocreatine stores diminish significantly as a consequence of adenosine triphosphate regeneration through phosphocreatine hydrolysis in the initial seconds of supra-maximal activity [ 80 ]. To increase resting muscle phosphocreatine stores quickly, a creatine loading protocol can be used with the conventional strategy involving 4 × 5 g doses of creatine supplementation per day for 5—7 days proceeded by a maintenance dose of 3—5 g per day [ 81 ].

However, a lower daily dose of ~3 g per day for 28 days will result in a similar increase in phosphocreatine stores [ 81 ] to the loading protocol. It has been reported that muscle glycogen resynthesis can be enhanced following creatine loading [ 82 ].

Practically, creatine can be added to the post-match and post-training recovery drink and it may prove beneficial in optimising refuelling strategies especially during congested fixture schedules. In agreement with data from the general population [ 83 ], empirical observations highlight that sleep deprivation is common on the night s prior to sporting competition; especially, if matches require prior international air travel.

Interestingly, players who self-reported 7—9 h sleep on the night before testing outperformed their sleep-deprived counterparts i. There is some evidence that large amounts of caffeine taken with carbohydrate can enhance glycogen resynthesis post-exercise [ 85 , 86 ].

Muscle biopsy data showed that although no differences were observed in glycogen resynthesis after 1 h post-exercise — Similarly, Taylor et al. Although Taylor et al. Whilst the findings of Pedersen et al. Nonetheless, this strategy could be employed for matches that have early kick off times.

When time is limited between games, dietary components that modulate the inflammatory process may prove beneficial in the acute recovery phase. However, it is important to note that any form of antioxidant or anti-inflammatory supplement should be carefully dosed.

Soccer-specific adaptations are triggered by the inflammatory and redox reactions occurring after a strenuous exercise stimulus. Therefore, chronically high doses in their provision are likely to be detrimental to the long term training effect [ 87 ].

For example, large doses of vitamins C and E have proven to have detrimental effects to cellular adaptation [ 88 , 89 ]. Antioxidant- and polyphenol-rich foods such as cherry and pomegranate juice have been found to enhance recovery following heavy training [ 90 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 ].

For example, 0. Similarly, Montmorency cherry juice has also been shown to enhance recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity in semi-professional male soccer players [ 91 ].

In addition, mL of pomegranate juice has been shown to reduce DOMS after strenuous exercise [ 92 , 94 ]. However, these findings should be interpreted with some caution as participants were fasted and restricted polyphenol based foods beforehand.

Theaflavin-enriched black tea extract supplementation in doses of mg daily for nine days has also been found to enhance recovery, reduce oxidative stress reduce muscle soreness in response to acute anaerobic intervals [ 96 ].

Thus, the potential beneficial effects of antioxidants and polyphenols to accelerate recovery are encouraging but more research is warranted using protocols which demonstrate greater ecological validity, especially in relation to soccer specific activity.

Nevertheless, in situations where players have back-to-back matches with little time for recovery or in tournament situations where adaptation to training is likely not a key priority, certain antioxidant supplements and polyphenol-rich foods may be beneficial for recovery but chronic use should be avoided.

Omega-3 is found naturally in oily fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines, and in a more concentration form as a fish oil supplement. Fish oil supplements contain the long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA.

It should be noted that the research on Omega-3 fatty acid supplements is conflicting as some studies show beneficial effects on reducing inflammation [ 97 ] and delayed onset muscle soreness [ 98 , 99 , ], whereas, other show no benefit [ , ]. Phillips and colleagues [ 97 ] found that fish oil supplementation reduced exercise-induced inflammation.

Similarly, other studies have found that 1. In contrast, other studies have found a reduction in oxidative stress following exercise with fish oil supplementation but no difference in DOMS [ ] and further studies have no effect on DOMS [ ]. Despite the inconsistencies regarding fish oil supplementation, there does seem to be some evidence for using Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in doses of 1.

Fixture scheduling possibly provides the biggest challenge to recovery in elite soccer. It is not unusual for top teams to have 3 games in a 10 day period in 3 different locations see Fig. The timing of kick offs in these games varies from week to week as a consequence of increased television coverage.

For example, a team could play a home match at h on a Saturday, travel to Europe to play an away match on Wednesday night at h and return to play another away match at h on the subsequent Saturday.

It is these types of scenarios where recovery strategies take on extra significance. The selection of foods and timing of intake in and around travel are critical factors for optimal recovery. An example of recovery nutrition timeline after a match is shown in Fig.

Support staff cannot always rely on external catering thus some foods need to be portable to away games without compromising on quality and in these situations, teams could take their own chef who can work closely with the sport nutritionist to devise suitable menus.

Moreover, sleep deprivation will become an issue as a result of late games so timing of recovery nutrition to optimise sleep quality is of significance and this has been reviewed elsewhere [ ].

A timeline guide for optimum recovery after match with a kick of time of to promote glycogen re-synthesis and repair for an 80 kg player. It is easy to formulate a recovery nutrition strategy on paper but implementing it effectively and attaining player adherence in the elite environment can prove a difficult proposition.

This is particularly imperative during a period of congested fixtures where recovery time between matches is limited. This will provide an additional food option during recovery without compromising on the quality of nutrients.

For players, it would also be beneficial to set up a recovery station and buffet style food selection in the changing room after the game which incorporates high-quality sources of carbohydrate and protein recovery snacks.

This strategy will ensure that recovery nutrition is readily available after a game before they travel home. Support staff may also want to consider an individualised approach to recovery nutrition based on player position.

With modern technology such as Global Positioning System GPS and data obtained from match analysis such as total distance and high intensity distance covered, recovery strategies could be individualised.

For example, players working at higher intensities typically the full backs, and attacking midfielders would increase the amount of carbohydrate within the immediate recovery phase. Whereas, the goalkeepers would follow lower carbohydrate diet in order to match the lower energy expenditures.

The growing match play and training demands of a professional soccer player are putting a greater emphasis on the role of nutritional recovery in regaining performance and reducing the risk of injury. Certain dietary practices should commence immediately after a competitive game or high intensity training session before the opportunity to fully optimise the recuperation process diminishes.

Carbohydrate replenishment should take precedence to replace the fuel lost to perform high intensity work with protein consumption playing an important role in muscle repair and rehydration aiding the overall recovery process.

Daily strategies incorporating these key nutrients should become common practice on subsequent recovery days between fixtures, especially during congestive weeks.

Antioxidants and other nutrients can have a modulating role of the inflammatory process during these busy periods but their use needs be strategic rather than chronic to ensure adaptations to training are not blunted. Current practical issues are ever present in an elite environment and need to be counteracted to achieve success in nutritional approach.

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Soccer nutrition science explained Written By: Raw Coconut Oil Dxplained Head of Performance Nutrition, CF Real Nugrition, Safe weight reduction Liga. Sovcer, known universally as soccer, holds an unparalleled position as Affordable lice treatment foremost sport that transcends borders and cultures, captivating the hearts of millions around the globe. This pursuit of excellence propels them to the forefront of innovation, where they forge new frontiers in coaching methodologies, sculpting ingenious game models, and seamlessly integrating a diverse array of football methodologies and tactical paradigms. In this vibrant arena, the emphasis on excellence extends to multifaceted dimensions. Beyond the confines of skill and strategy, a relentless dedication to individual fitness amplifies the capabilities of each player.

Author: Tojasar

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