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Antiviral plant compounds

Antiviral plant compounds

Endurance training for cyclists Virol 76 compoundw — An updated and comprehensive review of the antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents with special focus on their mechanism of action against various influenza and coronaviruses. tiff Additional file 3: UV spectra of purified apigenin.

Antiviral plant compounds -

Echoviruses, a serotype of enteroviruses, infect millions of people globally and there is no specific drug treatment or vaccine available for its management. The screening of medicinal plants used locally for the treatment of infectious diseases, can provide a reliable option in the discovery of potent therapeutic compounds.

This study was carried out to investigate the antiviral activities of 27 medicinal plant extracts, belonging to 26 different plant species, selected from Nigerian ethnobotany, against echovirus 7, 13 and 19 serotypes E7, E13 and E19, respectively. The plants were macerated in methanol and the cytotoxicities of the crude extracts were evaluated on the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line using the MTT assay.

The antiviral activity of the plant extracts and fractions against echoviruses E7, E13, and E19 was determined using the neutralisation assay, an assay that measures the inhibition of cytopathic effect on cell culture.

The crude extract of Macaranga barteri leaves had the highest cytotoxicity with CC 50 value of 0. This was followed by Crinum jagus 9. The antiviral screening showed that ten out of the 27 crude plant extracts tested were active on E7 and E19, inhibiting the cytopathic effect of the virus in tissue culture.

None of the extracts inhibited the cytopathic effect caused by E13 serotype. Amongst the active plant extracts, the methanol extract of M. barteri leaves had the highest antiviral activity on both E7 and E9 with IC 50 values of 0. Amongst the fractions of M.

Our research has demonstrated that Macaranga barteri extracts has potent antiviral activity against echoviruses E7 and E19, and our findings suggest that this extract may have potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of enteroviral infections. The use of traditional medicine is popular in Africa, with almost three-quarter of the populace of this continent consulting traditional medical practitioners TMPs , mainly traditional doctors, when faced with a medical problem.

This is mainly because traditional healthcare system is easily accessible, culturally acceptable and comparatively cheaper to the costly orthodox medicine. In Nigeria and most developing countries, medicinal plants are traditionally used to treat a variety of ailments, especially infectious diseases [ 1 ].

Although medicinal plants have been widely regarded as a constant source of safe and effective medicines with potential to yield newer drugs, this potential is under threat due to the alarming biodiversity loss, with recent estimates indicating that every fifth plant species on earth is threatened with extinction [ 2 ].

Hence, scientists in drug discovery are making urgent effort to document and research into bioactivity of medicinal plants used in various ethnobotany, in order to establish correlation between the ethnomedical usage of medicinal plants and drug discovery in modern medicines [ 3 , 4 ].

Enteroviruses EVs are single positive-stranded genomic RNA viruses of the family Picornaviridae that consists of more than serotypes. They have emerged as one of the important etiological agents for encephalitis, especially in children and adults.

For instance, enteroviruses such as coxsackievirus A9, A10 and B5; echoviruses 4, 5, 9, 11, 19 and 30; and EV 71, 75, 76 and 89, from various parts of the world have been reported in encephalitis cases and epidemics [ 5 ].

Echoviruses enteric cytopathic human orphan viruses are small ~ Å in diameter - 27 nm , non-enveloped icosahedral viruses which belong to enterovirus species B of the family Picornaviridae with 29 serotypes E1—E The most frequent clinical diseases of echoviruses include fever of short duration and sometimes a rash or mild upper respiratory symptoms [ 6 ].

Clinical syndromes associated with infections by echoviruses include aseptic meningitis, paralysis, encephalitis, ataxia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, exanthema, respiratory disease, diarrhoea, pericarditis, myocarditis and hepatic disturbance.

Echoviral infection, like other enteroviruses, occurs via faecal-oral route transmission [ 7 ]. There is no specific drug treatment in clinical use available for enteroviruses, and at the moment, development of vaccine against all EVs is not feasible due to the great number of serotypes [ 8 , 9 ].

Added to this is the general problem of viral resistance towards antiviral agents, especially RNA viruses, which can mutate at high frequencies and evolve rapidly into drug-resistant strains [ 10 ]. Therefore, the increasing need for search of new effective compounds with anti-enteroviral activity is imperative.

Natural products from medicinal plants have proved to be effective against a wide variety of viral diseases by inhibiting the replication cycle of various DNA and RNA viruses [ 11 ].

This validated the use of plant-based antivirals as an integral part of many traditional systems of medicine [ 12 ]. Therefore, this work aimed at determining the antiviral activities of 27 plant extracts against echovirus 7, 13 and 19 serotypes.

Twenty-seven different morphological parts from 26 plants Table 1 , selected based on their ethnobotanical use in the treatment of infectious diseases, were collected from various locations in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria, identified and authenticated at Forestry Herbarium Ibadan FHI.

Plant parts used were air-dried, pulverized and extracted by maceration in methanol for 72 h at room temperature 26—33 °C.

The resulting extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo using the rotary evaporator. The most active crude extract Macaranga barteri was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using liquid-liquid partitioning and vacuum liquid chromatography VLC. Briefly, g of the crude methanol extract of M.

Based on the similarity of their analytical TLC profiles, the fractions obtained were pooled into six sub-fractions DCMA — DCMF. Three serotypes of echovirus E7, E13, and E19 used in this study were obtained from stool isolate at the WHO Polio Laboratory, Department of Virology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

The human rhabdomyosarcoma RD cells were obtained by Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. Crude extracts and fractions, 10 mg each were dissolved in 1 mL dimethlysulfoxide DMSO and filtered through a sterile syringe filter 0. Ten-fold serial dilutions of the virus stock was made and μL of each dilution was inoculated into the wells.

A well that contained only RD cells without any virus served as the cell control. The microtitre plate was incubated at 37 °C, and daily CPE scoring was done till the control wells started dying.

The procedure was done in triplicate and repeated for the E13 and E The MTT 3- 4,5-dimethythiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay, which is known to be a reliable measure of cell viability, was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the plant extracts and fractions.

The principle of this assay involves the reduction of yellow MTT dye by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase to an insoluble, coloured dark purple formazan product. The purple formazan-containing cells are then solubilized with an organic solvent such as DMSO to release the solubilized formazan reagent which is measured by spectrophotometry.

The assay was carried out based on the protocol described in an earlier literature [ 13 ]. In brief, ten-fold serial dilutions to 0. The minimum dilution of extract with no toxic effect on the cells was referred to as the maximum non-toxic concentration MNTC. thereafter, the MTT solution was removed from the wells and DMSO 75 μL was added to dissolve formazan crystal.

Optical density was measured spectrophotometrically Multiscan , MTX lab at nm. The method previously described in the literature was modified and used in this assay [ 14 ]. Briefly, RD cells were seeded in a well microplate and incubated for 24 h to grow to confluency.

After the incubation period, 50 μL of TCID 50 virus suspension were added to confluent cell monolayers in a well plate and allowed to stand for 1 h to enable virus adsorption. Thereafter, ten-fold serial dilutions, obtained from the MNTC of each extract were added in triplicate into all the wells with the exception of the negative control wells that contained only RD cells and the virus control that contained an equal virus concentration but lacked the plant extract.

The selectivity index SI , defined as CC 50 over IC 50, for each active extract and fractions were also determined. Since there are no antiviral drugs approved for the treatment of enteroviral infections, no drug control was used in this study.

All experiments were carried out in triplicates. The experiments were conducted in triplicate. The selectivity index for each active extract and fractions were also determined. Selective index is a comparison of the amount of a test agent that causes the inhibitory effect to the amount that causes toxicity.

The plant extracts encountered in this study displayed varying MNTC to RD cells in tissue culture medium. As presented in Table 1 , the extract of Macaranga barteri leaves had the lowest MNTC 0.

barteri leaves had the highest cytotoxicity with CC 50 value of 0. The DCM fraction of M. barteri showed the highest cytotoxicity amongst the fractions with CC 50 value of 0. Other fractions including n -hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous had CC 50 values of Amongst the VLC sub-fractions of M.

barteri , sub-fraction A DCMA displayed the highest cytotoxicity on the RD cells with CC 50 value of 0. The preliminary antiviral screening showed that only ten out of the 27 crude plant extracts tested were active on E7 and E19, inhibiting the cytopathic effect of the virus in tissue culture Table 2.

On E7, M. Amongst the active plant extracts, the crude methanol extract of M. Amongst the liquid-liquid partitioned fractions of M. However, both the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of M.

barteri were inactive against E7 and E In addition, yellow spots were observed at short nm and long nm wavelengths of UV light when the sub-fraction was sprayed with aluminium chloride.

Enteroviruses have continued to pose a great burden to global health. Its faecal-oral route of transmission has enhanced the spread of these infectious agents, especially in developing nations, where there is poor sanitation and hygiene. Since the indigenes of these low and middle-income countries utilise medicinal plants to treat diseases caused by viruses, it is therefore imperative to investigate the antiviral potentials of indigenous medicinal plants.

In this study, 27 plant extracts selected from Nigerian ethnobotany were screened for their anti-enteroviral activity and we identified ten extracts with potent inhibitory activity against E7 and E Generally, the cytotoxic and anti-echovirus activities of all the extracts, partitioned or VLC fractions in this work were observed to be concentration dependent.

It was observed that the cytotoxicity evaluation of the extracts seemed to correspond directly to their anti-echovirus activities, a finding similar to our earlier result [ 15 ].

Other plants with potent antiviral activity encountered in this study include Mondia whitei , Ageratum conyzoides and Terminalia ivorensis. The most active plant extract, M. Thus, it is safe to state that the anti-enteroviral property of M.

barteri lies majorly in the moderately polar DCM fraction. The DCM fraction of some Macaranga species have been shown to be responsible for various bioactivity observed in the genus, especially against bacteria, cancer cells and Plasmodium falciparum [ 16 , 17 ].

Fractionation of the DCM fraction using VLC led to a reduction in both the cytotoxic and antiviral activity Table 3.

This suggests the possibility of synergistic effect in the DCM partitioned fraction, prior to VLC fractionation.

Macaranga barteri , the most active of the 11 crude extracts, belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, and it is used in Nigeria ethnomedicine as vermifuge and to treat dysentery a gastroenteric infection which could be caused by virus, bacteria or parasitic worm infections [ 18 ].

Therefore, the anti-enteroviral activity demonstrated by M. barteri in this study could justify the ethnomedicinal use of this plant in Nigeria. In addition, antimicrobial activity has been identified and generally implicated in the genus Macaranga [ 19 ].

An earlier research by Cos and co-workers reported that the leaves extract of another member of the Macaranga genus, M. kilimandscharica displayed high anti-measles activity, alongside a potent antiviral activity against Herpex simplex type 1 and Coxsackie viruses [ 20 ].

On spraying the most active sub-fraction with aluminium chloride, yellow spots were observed which indicated the presence of flavonoids. Flavonoids especially prenylated flavonoids and stilbenes have been reported as the major constituents of Macaranga and are said to be most likely responsible for most of the bioactivities of this genus [ 16 ].

Also, a wide range of flavonoids has been shown to possess antiviral activities against a variety of RNA viruses such as poliovirus, sindbis virus, respiratory syncytial virus RSV , and DNA virus such as herpes simplex virus HSV [ 21 ].

The proposed antiviral mechanisms of action of flavonoids include inhibition of viral polymerase and binding of viral nucleic acid or viral capsid proteins [ 15 ]. Previous HPLC profiling of the DCM extract of M.

barteri leaves revealed 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, acteoside, kampferol O -glucoside and bastadin as its major constituents [ 17 ]. Kaempferol O -glucoside is a flavonol glucoside which possessed potent antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus HSV and HIV-1 [ 22 ].

Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have also been reported [ 23 ]. The anti-infective activities antiviral and antimicrobial of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid DCQA , acteoside, kampferol O -glucoside which had been reported in literature and are present in DCM partitioned fraction of M.

barteri could support the anti-echovirus activity of M. barteri reported in this study. The relatively high selectivity of the M.

To summarize our findings, we have reported the antiviral activity of 26 medicinal plants selected from Nigerian flora against three serotypes of enteroviruses E7, E13 and E Ten of the medicinal plant extracts exhibited potent antiviral activity against E7 and E19, with Macaranga barteri being the most active.

In addition, the DCM fraction M. barteri displayed the most potent antiviral activity amongst the fractions. Further research is in progress to isolate and elucidate the bioactive components that may be responsible for the antiviral activity of this plant and to determine their mechanism of action.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the antiviral activity of M. barteri and indicates that the ethnobotanical use of these drugs may provide some benefits in the treatment of infectious diseases, thereby warranting further investigation.

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Flavonoids: Amentoflavone, theaflavin, iridoids, phenylpropanoid glycosides, agathisflavone, robustaflavone, rhusflavanone, succedaneflavanone, chrysosplenol C, morin, coumarins, galangin 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone , baicalin. These active component isolated from the ethanol extract of Selaginella sinensis.

Prunella vulgaris L. Lamiaceae and Rhizomacibotte. Elsholtziarugulosa Hemsl. Lamiaceae , a common Chinese herb. Achyrocline flaccida , Bostrychia montagnei , Cedrela tubiflora , Prunella vulgaris , Sclerotiumglucanicum , Stevia rebaudiana , Rhizophora mucronata.

Terpenoids Terpenoids: sesquiterpene, triterpenoids moronic acid, ursolic acid, maslinic acid and saponin. Cokanthera sp. Miscellaneous phenolic compounds: anthraquinonechrysophanic acid, caffic acid, eugeniin, hypericin, tannins condensed polymers , proanthocyanidins, salicylates and quinines naphthoquinones, naphthoquinones and anthraquinones in particular aloe emodin.

Aloe barbadensis , Aster scaber , Cassia angustifolia , Dianella longifolia , Euodia roxburghiana , Geum japonicum , Hamamelis virginiana , Hypericum sp. Aspilia , Chenactis douglasii , Dyssodia anthemidifolia , Eclipta alba , Eriophyllum lanatum.

Lastly, fine correlation was obtained between in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption, indicating that the in vitro assay may be a good predictor of drug absorption in vivo. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound with various medical applications including known antivirus activity, is poorly water-soluble and has low oral bioavailability.

With N-acetyl L-cysteine and different levels 20, 50, and mg of polyethylene glycol PEG , nanostructured solid lipid carriers were synthesized to obtain curcumin mucoadhesion and mucus penetration [ ].

Drug release was characterized in vitro for curcumin solution, curcumin-loaded nanolipid carrier, and curcumin-loaded nanolipid carrier with N-acetyl L-cysteine PEG. An SPIP study in rats was then conducted, and results were similar for all three parts of the small intestine: nanolipids allowed enhanced curcumin permeation relative to solution, and so did higher N-acetyl L-cysteine content.

Pharmacokinetic study of curcumin solutions P. O and I. V and curcumin nanolipid carriers with N-acetyl L-cysteine PEG content of 0, 20, 50, and mg was conducted. Similar to the results of the permeability experiment, plasma curcumin concentrations were higher with nanolipid carriers relative to solution either P.

V and increased further with higher N-acetyl L-cysteine PEG levels. The area under the curve was substantially larger with the modified nanolipid carriers compared to either curcumin solution or to the unmodified delivery system.

Indeed, modern drug delivery technologies are numerous, and tailoring the most appropriate formulation to the medicinal phytochemical in question is not just a matter of trial and error; rather, the physicochemical properties of the specific natural drug substance determine the delivery issues that the formulator may face, and the excipients that can be used to overcome these challenges [ , ].

These parameters will determine the likelihood of the active substance to precipitate in the gastrointestinal lumen, in which case the use of amorphous formulations may be preferred over other oral carriers. Also, generally speaking, higher molecular weight substances may be better incorporated into lipid-based drug delivery systems [ , , ].

This solubility-permeability interplay was shown for formulations based on cyclodextrins [ , , ], surfactants [ ], cosolvents [ ], and hydrotropes [ , ]. In amorphous solid dispersions ASD , on the other hand, the solubility increases via supersaturation with unchanged permeability, and thus, ASD may be preferred over other carrier systems, given supersaturation can be achieved and maintained for sufficient time [ ].

Altogether, the evidence presented in this work supports the notion that medicinal plants have promising therapeutic potential, especially in the case of herb products against viral infections.

Further research on the mechanisms by which phytochemicals exhibit their antiviral effect will allow the developing of successful target-specific drug delivery systems.

At the moment, we cannot ensure the plant phytochemicals directly reach viruses or the correct structures inside cells. Ideally, we would have smart pharmaceutical nanotechnologies and targeting strategies that can avoid cellular defenses, transport drugs to targeted intracellular sites, and release the drugs in response to specific molecular signals.

Literature also lacks randomized clinical trials to discern the strength of new herbal antiviral drug delivery systems. It is our hope that in the future more high quality clinically relevant studies will accumulate in the literature, which will shed light on the full potential of phytochemicals as novel antiviral agents in adequate delivery systems.

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Open access peer-reviewed chapter. Submitted: Beetroot juice and cancer-fighting antioxidants February Endurance training for cyclists comoounds May Ccompounds 20 December com customercare cbspd. Viral infections remain a challenge in human Antiviral plant compounds compoundw medicine due to factors such as viral mutations, new viruses, toxic effects, disease severity, intracellular viability, high costs, and limited availability of antiviral drugs. Despite advancements in immunization and antiviral drugs, there is a need for new and more effective antiviral compounds. Plants produce secondary metabolites that have shown antiviral activity, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and essential oils. Virology Journal volume 15Article Anfiviral Cite this Antiviral plant compounds. Metrics details. Echoviruses, olant serotype of fompounds, infect millions of people Antivkral and there is Energy metabolism catechins specific drug treatment or vaccine Antivirap for its management. The screening of medicinal plants used locally for compounfs treatment Cayenne pepper for skin health infectious Lpant, can provide a reliable option in the discovery of potent therapeutic compounds. This study was carried out to investigate the antiviral activities of 27 medicinal plant extracts, belonging to 26 different plant cmopounds, selected from Nigerian ethnobotany, against echovirus 7, 13 and 19 serotypes E7, E13 and E19, respectively. The plants were macerated in methanol and the cytotoxicities of the crude extracts were evaluated on the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line using the MTT assay. The antiviral activity of the plant extracts and fractions against echoviruses E7, E13, and E19 was determined using the neutralisation assay, an assay that measures the inhibition of cytopathic effect on cell culture. Antiviral plant compounds

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