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Chitosan research and studies

Chitosan research and studies

Rewearch mass index, Chhitosan girth, and Chitosan research and studies ratio as indexes of total and regional adiposity in women: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev — Chitosan composite sponges can absorb water in the blood and increase blood viscosity.

Chitosan research and studies -

fiorniae and P. expansum compared to fruit dipped in water only. This research suggests that chitosan may have potential as a new tool for growers to use as part of their IPM programs. However, additional research is needed to investigate application rate, application timing and compatibility with other grower practices.

This research was partially supported by the Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program under subaward number GNE and by the U. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Marketing Service.

The authors thank the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center and a number of New Hampshire farms for space to conduct trials. An apple with apple scab, one of the diseases that chitosan can reduce. Research orchard at the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center in Biglerville, PA, where some of the research took place.

Skip to main content. Academics Programs of Study Scholarships Study Abroad EcoQuest UNH-in-Italy Why UNH-in-Italy? College of Life Sciences and Agriculture Rudman Hall 46 College Road Durham, NH Phone: Email: colsa.

dean unh. Search Enter your keywords. Using Seafood Byproduct Chitosan as a Natural Disease Suppressant for Apples SHARE. Key Findings. About the Co-Author. Anissa Poleatewich , assistant professor, Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems; the Poleatewich Plant Pathology at UNH Contact information: Anissa.

This research was published in the INSPIRED : A Publication of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station Summer Researchers: A.

Poleatewich , L. Degenring and K. Chitosan can induce and regulate immune cells by altering the microenvironment of the immune system to achieve therapeutic effects by regulating immune function in the skin and soft tissues. Chitosan has been used to synthesize several drug carriers for drug-delivery systems, such as nanoparticles, films, sponges, hydrogels, and scaffolds.

The design of these carriers is based on the biological properties of chitosan and its derivatives. Some of these carriers are currently used in a clinical setting Supplementary Figure S2.

In recent years, nanomaterials have gained increasing attention in the biomedical field Zhang E. Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biological properties of chitosan while improving the stability of the loaded drugs and controlling the drug-release rate Rizeq et al.

There is evidence that chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drugs could be used to target malignant tumors, thereby prolonging the drug action duration, enhancing the anticancer effect, and reducing toxicity Assa et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles are safe, biodegradable, and easy to form DNA or protein complexes for use as a potential gene delivery system Bowman and Leong, Chitosan-coated silica nanoparticles have been shown to induce a strong immune response in vivo and can be used for oral delivery of protein vaccine Wu et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan, which is a valuable property and a promising therapeutic approach in targeted therapy when used in combination with anticancer drugs.

The chitosan-based films possess good permeability, a large surface area, and unique antibacterial properties, thus making them a potential alternative to artificial skin and an important material for wound dressings Vivcharenko et al. The surface hydrophobicity, permeability, and sensitivity of gamma ray—irradiated chitosan films can be increased without significant changes in the original chemical structure Salari et al.

Introducing montmorillonite-copper chloride into chitosan films can increase their tensile strength and elongation at break and also confer higher antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens, further highlighting their use as a wound dressing to combat infections Nouri et al.

Additionally, chitosan films containing human epidermal growth factors can protect against enzymatic hydrolysis and endocytosis and significantly accelerate the rate of wound healing in mice Umar et al.

These antibacterial properties and regenerative effects of chitosan make it a suitable material for wound dressing. The porous structure, biocompatibility, and liquid-absorption properties of the chitosan sponge make it a suitable biomaterial for hemostasis Zhang K.

Chitosan composite sponges can absorb water in the blood and increase blood viscosity. Moreover, they are non-toxic and biodegradable, hold antibacterial drugs, and promote blood coagulation in wounds Hu S.

Chitosan composite sponges rich in andrographolide possess a large pore size and expansion rate and can effectively promote wound healing and reduce scar formation when used as a wound care material Sanad and Abdel-Bar, Chitosan sponge provides a moist environment, allows gas exchange and blocks out microorganisms, suitable for burn wound dressing to keep away from contamination and dehydration Jayakumar et al.

Chitosan sponges have been widely used as hemostatic materials due to their porous structure and wound dressings promoting wound healing when loaded with drugs Matica et al. Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymers with high water content and good biocompatibility. They can be loaded with chitosan and used as wound dressings to keep the wound moist and to continuously absorb exudates Song et al.

Chitosan hydrogels loaded with metal ions can improve the imbalance in metal ions that cause delayed wound healing. Moreover, they inhibit infections and accelerate healing by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors and macrophages polarization Xiao et al. An imbalance in metal ions can also lead to scar growth.

Modulating the cation in chitosan hydrogel or adding aloe gel can lead to effective scar inhibition Zhang N. Chitosan hydrogels can also be used as hemostatic dressings.

Chitosan sponges are often used as a hemostatic material. Hydrogels are commonly used as antibacterial dressings because their hydrophilicity and absorbability can suitably isolate infections from foreign substances and keep the wound moist.

Tissue engineering is a research hotspot in regenerative medicine. Functional scaffolds composed of natural polymers have been widely used in surgical reconstruction Rodríguez-Vázquez et al. Chitosan scaffolds surrounded by microcellulose arranged with twisted polylactic acid can simulate the extracellular matrix of tendons, provide structural support for tendon regeneration, and facilitate tendon-cell attachment and proliferation Nivedhitha Sundaram et al.

Composite chitosan-gelatin scaffold with a double-tubular structure having large internal pores and nonporous outer layers simulate blood vessels and significantly promote the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts after being inoculated, and can be used for angiogenesis reconstruction Badhe et al.

Nano-scaffolds made of chitosan, sulfonated chitosan, polycaprolactone, and phosphoric acid can enhance the activity and adhesion of osteoblasts, making them excellent materials for bone tissue regeneration Ghaee et al. Chitosan scaffolds have plastic structure and the ability to promote adhesion and proliferation of tissue cells, improving soft tissue and bone tissue regeneration.

Soft tissue injury refers to laceration and contusion of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscle caused by an external force, bleeding, and local swelling. Wound healing depends on the nature and degree of tissue defects, whereas age, nutritional status, and underlying diseases are systemic factors affecting wound healing Wilkinson and Hardman, Promoting wound healing and reducing scar formation are urgent medical problems to be solved for patients with wounds and defects in body function.

The antibacterial properties of chitosan and its ability to promote tissue regeneration have increased its usage in wound dressings combined with different materials, which have the overall effect of promoting wound healing Figure 1B.

Impregnating chitosan hydrogels with silver nanoparticles can significantly improve antibacterial and antioxidant properties and enhance wound healing in vivo Masood et al. The anti-biofilm formation ability of chitosan-immobilized ficin can inhibit S.

aureus infections and promote the formation of smoother epithelial tissue Baidamshina et al. Vaccinin-chitosan nanoparticles can promote vascular tissue production by upregulating IL-1β and PDGF-BB, thereby highlighting its potential in wound healing Hou et al.

The curcumin-loaded chitosan membranes can effectively inhibit bacterial pathogens in wounds by increasing the formation of fibrous connective tissue.

Additionally, they have an obvious healing effect on wounds resulting from second-degree burns Abbas et al. A study reports that macrophage dysfunction can lead to chronic inflammation and inhibit diabetic wound healing Chen et al. Chitosan sulfate can improve macrophage function by inducing the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages and promoting the production of anti-inflammatory factors, thus effectively promoting diabetic wound healing Shen et al.

Chitosan has antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects that can prevent the infection of wounds and promote healing through soft tissue regeneration, making it a natural wound-dressing material. Soft tissue infection is an inflammatory condition caused by pathogenic bacteria that invade the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

Elimination of necrotic tissue and pathogenic bacteria is the cornerstone of treatment in such infections Burnham and Kollef, The effectiveness of different wound dressings in controlling and treating infection has been clearly demonstrated, highlighting their wide use in clinical practice Simões et al.

Chitosan is an effective carrier of anti-infective drugs due to its mucous membrane dependence and the ability to prolong drug activity by retarding the biodegradation rate Rajitha et al.

The inhibitory effects of antibacterial materials based on chitosan and its derivatives on different pathogens are listed in Table 1. TABLE 1. Antibacterial effect of chitosan and its derivatives on different microorganisms.

Skin injuries or necrosis caused by crush, burn, or cut injuries are medical problems warranting urgent care. Common treatment methods include autogenous skin transplantation and free or pedicled skin-flap transplantation, which can cause problems, such as graft tissue necrosis, scar contracture, and poor cosmetic appearance Przekora, ; Li et al.

The tissue-repair function of chitosan provides a novel solution for skin reconstruction Wei et al. Hydrogels synthesized from chitosan and cellulose can accelerate epithelial tissue formation on wounds and mimic skin structure, induce skin regeneration, and can be loaded with antibacterial agents to prevent wound infections Alven and Aderibigbe, Lithium chloride—loaded chitosan hydrogels can significantly reduce wound inflammation, promote angiogenesis, and accelerate epithelial regeneration, thereby showing a potential dressing for skin regeneration Yuan et al.

Chitosan wound dressings containing exosomes derived from overexpressed miRNA synovial mesenchymal stem cells can promote epithelium formation, angiogenesis, and collagen maturation in diabetic rats Tao et al. Chitosan can promote skin regeneration by promoting angiogenesis and epithelium formation.

Tendons are one of the major components responsible for maintaining the movement of various joints in the body. Tendon rupture due to trauma can lead to irreversible impaired movement.

The tendon structure simulated by poly l -lactic acid nanofibers can promote the regeneration of the broken flexor tendons and alginate gel, a novel natural biological scaffold suitable for tendon repair in the outer layer, and can prevent tendon adhesion Deepthi et al.

Biomaterials based on chitosan and its derivatives can promote tendon healing and prevent adhesion around tendons, which is beneficial for treating patients with tendon rupture.

Peripheral nerves are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Damage to these nerves can lead to motor and sensory impairments. The biological materials with chitosan as the primary polymer are effective in nerve-injury repair. The related mechanisms are shown in Figure 1C.

Chitosan nanofiber hydrogels prepared by electrospinning and mechanical stretching can stimulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, promote Schwann cell proliferation, and secrete neurotrophic silver to repair sciatic nerve defects in the sciatic nerve—defect model of mice Rao F.

Additionally, sciatic nerve defects in rats were repaired using a nerve catheter containing chitosan reinforced with chitosan membrane in the longitudinal direction, and the result was anastomosed with autologous nerve transplantation Meyer et al.

The effective proliferation of Schwann cells accelerates the rate of nerve regeneration. Chitosan derivatives can affect nerve regeneration through immunomodulatory effects. As a degradation product of chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharides can promote nerve regeneration by regulating the microenvironment of macrophages infiltrating around injured sciatic nerves Zhao et al.

Compared with traditional surgical repair techniques, chitosan and its derivatives are more coherent for soft tissues regeneration, with less damage, easier acquisition, and more satisfying outcomes. Bleeding due to trauma is a serious symptom that needs immediate attention during surgical emergencies.

Chitosan can promote coagulation by enhancing red blood cell agglutination and platelet adhesion and is a potential hemostatic material Figure 1D Hu Z.

Carboxymethyl chitosan sponges grafted with marine collagen peptides can promote coagulation both in vivo and in vitro through the synergistic effect of the collagen peptide and carboxymethyl chitosan Cheng et al. Different chitosan materials exhibit varying absorbability and coagulation-promoting effects and serve as convenient and effective hemostatic materials to arrest acute bleeding of the skin and soft tissues.

Soft tissue malignancy or sarcomas are tumors that originated from the mesenchymal tissue and mainly occur in the muscles, ligaments, periosteum, fat, and other sites. The efficacy of chitosan in drug-delivery systems for the targeted therapy of malignant tumors in sarcoma has been well documented Tan et al.

Methylglyoxal-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles can enhance the anticancer effect of methylglyoxal alone in tumor-bearing mice and protect it from enzymatic degradation in vivo by upregulating cytokines and surface receptors of macrophages Chakrabarti et al. Thus, the immunomodulatory effects of macrophages should be activated to achieve the antitumor effect.

Low-molecular-weight chitosan obtained through enzymolysis can increase the natural killing activity of tumor-bearing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in mice and inhibit tumor growth by activating their intestinal immune function Maeda and Kimura, , suggesting that chitosan can achieve antitumor effects by regulating the immune system.

Additionally, chitosan can reduce gastrointestinal tract injury caused by adriamycin in sarcoma—bearing mice without affecting the tumor-inhibition effect Kimura et al. Chitosan can be used to prevent weight loss and spleen weight loss caused by cisplatin in tumor-bearing mice without reducing the antitumor activity of the drug Kimura et al.

Therefore, chitosan can be considered to alleviate the toxic and side effects of chemotherapy in individuals with sarcoma. Chitosan can increase the anticancer effect of drugs, reduce damage to the body, and achieve antitumor effects through immune regulation when used as a targeted drug carrier.

These factors highlight its usage as a curative material in treating soft tissue tumors. Chitosan and its derivatives exhibit good biocompatibility. They are biodegradable, nontoxic, and also exert antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects.

Chitosan can be used to synthesize different types of drug carriers based on the intended use, as it plays a significant role in soft tissue diseases treatment Supplementary Table S1 Wang W.

Chitosan nanoparticles can improve drug stability while retaining the biological properties of chitosan, thereby rendering them suitable as carriers of targeted drugs Aibani et al. Chitosan nanoparticles are associated with fewer drug-loading and biological distribution limitations compared with lipid-based nanoparticles.

Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles are nontoxic and not radioactive as inorganic nanoparticles Dadfar et al. Chitosan films can be made into antibacterial dressings to enhance the antibacterial effect of chitosan Rashki et al. Skin irritation or local side effects are rare due to the biodegradability and biocompatibility of chitosan.

Thus, the incidence of contact dermatitis is lesser with the use of chitosan than with the use of traditional antibacterial agents Homaeigohar and Boccaccini, ; Zheng et al. Chitosan sponges possess good absorbability and a porous structure and are not associated with immunogenicity and virality compared with other thrombin- and fibrin-based products Yu and Zhong, Chitosan sponges are degraded in vivo after exerting their hemostatic role; these sponges are less toxic and exhibit fewer side effects than mineral hemostatic materials Hickman et al.

Chitosan hydrogels have a high-water content, which can keep wounds moist and prevent secondary damage caused by traditional gauze while changing dressings Thapa et al. The drug-loaded chitosan hydrogels can slowly release drugs and prevent tissue damage caused by the burst effect due to sudden drug release Teixeira et al.

The ductility and absorbability of chitosan hydrogels render them suitable for application to limb injuries and avoid sliding of the dressing and wound exposure caused by joint movement Zhang A. Chitosan scaffolds are important components in bone tissue engineering.

They can be used to repair bone defects and carry mesenchymal stem cells for nerve and tendon regeneration, which is a major breakthrough in regenerative medicine Cofano et al. Compared with other drug carriers, chitosan and its derivatives could be a potential approach for preventing and treating of skin and soft tissue diseases.

Bacterial resistance limits the systemic effects of antibiotics and is one of the major factors delaying the healing of chronic infections of the skin and soft tissues Theuretzbacher et al.

Chitosan can directly interact with bacteria at the site of infection to exert antibacterial effects and eradicate the infection at the site Jyoti et al.

Chitosan can regulate the immune microenvironment of the body, activate immune cells, and exert anti-infective effects by enhancing immunity Moran et al. Compared with silver nanoparticles, chitosan exhibits better antibacterial properties while promoting tissue regeneration Tang and Zheng, , making it more suitable as an antibacterial agent to treat skin and soft tissue infections.

For bleeding caused by skin and soft tissue trauma, compression or tourniquet is often used to stop bleeding. However, this method has limited hemostatic effect and is easy to form thrombus and hematoma Weiskopf, Chitosan and its derivatives can stop bleeding by inducing erythrocyte agglutination and platelet adhesion, thereby accelerating blood coagulation and promoting wound healing He et al.

However, there is little evidence on whether chitosan hemostatic material can induce thrombosis. At present, soft tissue sarcomas treatment relies on surgery.

For patients who cannot suffer from surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy become the first choices Hoefkens et al. Chitosan and its derivatives can carry anti-tumor drugs to achieve a targeted treatment of soft tissue sarcoma, which can increase the anti-tumor efficiency of drugs and reduce the toxicity and side effects Kimura et al.

The role of chitosan in bone tissue engineering has been widely studied, but there is little evidence of the skin and soft tissue regeneration Ghaee et al. Therefore, studies should pay more attention to the chitosan regeneration on the skin and soft tissue, especially peripheral nerves, as nerves take a long time to regenerate and are more prone to secondary rupture.

In conclusion, as a natural polymer, chitosan and its derivatives have been isolated from a wide range of sources. The advantages include ease of preparation and good biological characteristics, which are useful attributes in the prevention and treatment of soft tissue diseases.

YX and DOW wrote the manuscript. DL, JS, YJ, DUW, BH, ZJ and BL collected the references and prepared figures. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant Nos. JLSCZD and JLSWSRCZX , the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province Grant No. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Abbas, M. PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Abd El-Hack, M. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan and its Derivatives and Their Applications: A Review.

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Natural Metallic Nanoparticles for Application in Nano-Oncology. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Alqahtani, F. Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles against Pathogenic N. Nanomedicine 15, — Alven, S. Chitosan and Cellulose-Based Hydrogels for Wound Management.

Amato, A. Antimicrobial Activity of Catechol Functionalized-Chitosan Versus Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Anwar, Y. Antibacterial and Lead Ions Adsorption Characteristics of Chitosan-Manganese Dioxide Bionanocomposite.

Ardean, C. Factors Influencing the Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan and Chitosan Modified by Functionalization. Assa, F. Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Systems. Badhe, R. A Composite Chitosan-Gelatin Bi-Layered, Biomimetic Macroporous Scaffold for Blood Vessel Tissue Engineering.

Baidamshina, D. Anti-biofilm and Wound-Healing Activity of Chitosan-Immobilized Ficin. Bowman, K. Chitosan Nanoparticles for Oral Drug and Gene Delivery. Nanomedicine 1 2 , — Burnham, J. Treatment of Severe Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: A Review.

Cabañas-Romero, L. Bacterial Cellulose-Chitosan Paper with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities. Biomacromolecules 21 4 , — Cai, J. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of O -Acetyl-Chitosan- N hydroxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride.

Cao, W. High Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan - Molybdenum Disulfide Nanocomposite. Chakrabarti, A. Immunomodulation of Macrophages by Methylglyoxal Conjugated with Chitosan Nanoparticles against Sarcoma Tumor in Mice.

Chang, S. Chen, E. Acta Biomater. Chen, T. Biomaterials , Cheng, Y. Marine Collagen Peptide Grafted Carboxymethyl Chitosan: Optimization Preparation and Coagulation Evaluation. Choi, D. Selective Anticancer Therapy Using Pro-Oxidant Drug-Loaded Chitosan-Fucoidan Nanoparticles.

Cofano, F. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Injury: Current Options, Limitations, and Future of Cell Therapy. Dadfar, S. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Theranostic Applications. Drug Deliv. Dasagrandhi, C. Antibacterial and Biofilm Modulating Potential of Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.

Deepthi, S. Deng, J. Immunomodulatory Effects of N-Acetyl Chitooligosaccharides on RAW Drugs 18 8 , Chitosan reacts readily with most aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to produce Schiff bases—imines. The Schiff base formed after the reaction of aldehyde and chitosan could be reduced by sodium borohydride to synthesize N -derivatives of chitosan [ 66 , 67 ].

They could chelate transition metal ions in aqueous solution to form insoluble metal chelates, which could be separated. This reaction is very useful for the application of chitosan for removal of toxic metals.

Modifications of chitosan biopolymers via quaternization reaction are carried out by means of a free amino group on the chitosan.

It includes introduction of quaternary ammonium groups or small molecule quaternary ammonium salts on the amino group of chitosan. These groups have strong hydration ability and large steric hindrance.

The quaternized chitosan has increased solubility in water and good antibacterial properties [ 68 , 69 , 70 ]. Modifications of chitosan biopolymers via alkylation and acylation reactions are carried out with halogenated hydrocarbons, anhydrides, acid halides as acylating agents in a certain reaction medium.

Synthesized compounds destroy the hydrogen bonds among chitosan molecules, change the original crystal structure, greatly improving the solubility and widening application range of chitosan [ 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 ]. Modifications of chitosan biopolymers via carboxylation and carboxymethylation reactions involve the introduction of acid groups into the main chain of chitosan in order to improve the solubility, moisturizing and film-forming properties of the compound [ 75 , 76 ].

Carboxymethylation can occur both at the hydroxyl and amino groups of chitosan with the formation of O-carboxymethyl and N-carboxymethyl derivatives, respectively. Carboxymethyl chitosan, a water-soluble anionic polymer was selectively modified to prepare antitumour drug conjugates [ 77 , 78 ], also was reported as a potential vehicle for targeted drug delivery to the liver due to its preferentially located and long retainment in the liver and spleen after intravenous injection [ 79 ].

The modification of chitosan with sugars on amino groups allows to introduce cell-specific sugars recognized by cells, viruses and bacteria into carriers of specific drugs, DNA and antibodies [ 80 , 81 ]. Based on this modification and a molecular imprinting technique, chitosan could be used for special absorption of template molecules mimicking natural recognition materials such as antibodies for diagnostics [ 87 ].

Recently composites of chitosan with various polymers polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, polypyrrole, collagen, starch and with inorganic materials bioactive glass, ceramics have been intensively studied for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other medical applications [ 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 ].

Hyaluronic acid, alginate, chondroitin sulfate, hydroxyapatite are used with chitosan for preparation of multilayer-structured biomaterials based on the layer-by-layer technique for applications in tissue engineering [ 92 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 ].

Modifications of chitosan biopolymers via cross-linking allow to obtain chitosan derivatives with stable chemical properties, insoluble in acids and bases and which are used as a carrier for the adsorption of drugs, immobilized enzymes, heavy metal adsorbents, etc.

Researchers have compared the composition of metal complexes formed by the coordination of chitosan with some heavy metal ions before and after cross-linking. Other chemical modifications of chitosan such as esterification, hydroxyalkylation, sulfonation, etc.

are known and studied [ 98 , 99 , , ]. At present, chitosan is also physically modified through mechanical grinding , ionizing radiation and ultrasonic treatment to prepare biomaterials for the various applications [ ]. The presence of amino and hydroxyl groups in chitosan opens the great opportunities for many industrial and biomedical applications.

Use of chitosan biopolymers is uninterruptedly growing in such fields as medicine, pharmaceutical research, paper, textile, agriculture and food industries, cosmetology, tissue engineering, ecology, biotechnology, wastewater treatment Fig.

Chitosan-based materials have also found application in veterinary medicine, medical nutrition, production of dietary supplements, biopesticides, biosensors, chromatographic materials [ , , , , , , , , , ]. The use of chitosan has been described in direct tablet compression, as tablet disintegrant, for the production of controlled release dosage form or for the improvement of drug dissolution [ ].

Application potential of chitosan. Unique properties of chitosan and its derivatives find the application in various fields of human activity. Recent applications are in ophthalmic, nasal, sublingual, buccal, periodontal, gastrointestinal, colon-specific, vaginal, mucosal-vaccine and gene carrier fields.

Chitosan, being an adsorbable and nontoxic polymer, is favored in drug delivery because of antiulcer and antacid properties, which help in preventing drug irritation [ , ]. During the last years the use of chitosan composite-based scaffolds as a biomaterial has been reported for tissue engineering [ , ] due to the cationic nature and ability to form interconnected porous structures.

Chitosan with other biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass ceramic are used for bone repair and reconstruction to form a carbonated apatite layer to enhance the mechanical properties [ , , , , ]. Owing to unique properties toughness, biocompatibility, oxygen permeability chitosan-based biomaterials in the form of fibers, mats, sponges have been used for burn treatment and wound dressings [ ].

Influence of chitosan biomaterials on the synthesis of collagen for wound healing was studied [ ]. Chitosan has been modified by authors [ ] for using as a dressing material for treatment of wounds and burns.

It was found that dressing materials based on chitosan and its modified forms, having haemostatic and analgesic properties, and also possessing properties of high strength, non-toxicity, good water absorption capacity and biocompatibility, together with other polymers both synthetic and natural accelerate the process of wound contraction and healing [ ].

Researches carried out in the field of infectious diseases show the effectiveness of the use of chitosan in this area. Systems developed on the base of chitosan with different properties have been proposed [ ]. It has been shown that these systems reduce the side effects of drugs and increase the effectiveness of treatment.

Further work on the development of systems is proposed that will be widely used in clinical practice, in particular, for the treatment of infectious diseases Fig. Applications of chitosan-based biomaterials in infection diseases [ ].

Chitosan biomaterials having good biocompatibility, bioactivity and biosafety, demonstrate great potential in the field of infection control.

From year to year, the spread of dangerous pathogenic bacteria is very serious for all mankind and that requires the creation of new materials for the treatment of bacterial infections. Thus, antibacterial and antibiotic properties of the chitosan biomaterial with grafted ferulic acid CFA against Listeria monocytogenes LM , Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA , and Staphylococcus aureus SA were studied [ ].

It was found that CFA exhibits bactericidal action against LM and SA and bacteriostatic action against PA within 24 h of incubation. In dependence on the concentration it suppresses the viability of pathogenic bacteria, which was associated with a change in membrane properties.

Silver nanoparticles functionalized with chitosan CS-AgNP using ethanolic buds extract of Sygyzium aromaticum have been studied by authors of the given research [ ].

Decrease in the level of fibrinogen was observed, platelet aggregation was decreased at relatively high concentrations of CS-AgNP. It has been shown, that due to the stable nature, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antiplatelet and thrombolytic activity, CS-AgNP can be used as effective antibacterial agents and anticoagulants with low toxicity in the biomedical field.

The antibacterial efficacy of chitosan has been confirmed as a drug for pulpectomy of infectious teeth [ ]. Chitosan can play an important role in preventive dentistry as an agent to prevent dental diseases caries, periodontitis , an ingredient in dentifrices toothpaste, chewing gum having antibacterial effects, increasing salivary secretion, dental adhesives, etc.

Blend hydrogels based on poly vinyl alcohol and carboxymethylated chitosan were prepared by electron beam irradiation at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of the hydrogels was studied by optical density method.

It was found that the hydrogels exhibited satisfying antibacterial activity against E. and can be widely used in the field of biomedicine and pharmacy [ ]. A new antifungal denture base material was proposed by modifying polymethyl methacrylate PMMA with chitosan salt chitosan hydrochloride CS-HCl or chitosan glutamate CS-G [ ].

When studying its properties in vitro, the analyses carried out showed that, despite the antifungal effect of CS salts in solution, modification of the PMMA polymer with these CS salts does not improve the antifungal, antibiofilm and antiadhesive properties of the base material of PMMA dentures.

Possible applications of biomaterials based on chitosan, antibiotics and antifungal drugs, considering the factors and mechanisms of the antimicrobial and antifungal action of chitosan, and also clarifying the question of the genetic response of microorganisms to chitosan are described [ , ].

It was established that there are electrostatic interactions between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged cell surface of the microorganism teichoic acid in gram-positive bacteria, lipopolysaccharide LPS in gram-negative bacteria and phosphorylated mannosyl in fungi.

In addition, chitosan chelates environmental ions and nutrients which are necessary for the survival of bacteria. The research indicates that despite the fact that chitosan exhibits a high antimicrobial effect, its use on a large scale is limited by some of its properties, such as low solubility in water, lack of a certain molecular weight and purity.

Nanoparticles based on chitosan and its modified forms are widely tested as drug carriers in ophthalmology for the treatment of bacterial and viral infections, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy.

Authors summarize recent advances in chitosan-based nanotherapy for drug delivery to the eye and the problems that arise during this process [ ]. It has been shown that a high degree of cross-linking in chitosan nanoparticles allows to increase drug retention and facilitates penetration into the eyes.

The following research describes in detail the recent developments of chitosan blends with an emphasis on electrospun nanofibers, which represent a new class of biomaterials, in the field of biomedical applications drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, biosensing, regenerative medicine Fig.

Electrospun nanofibers [ ] as a novel class of materials that can be used in various biomedical applications. A new method electrospinning for the production of chitosan nanofibers with a large surface area and porosity was considered [ ]. Specialists working with this material can optimize the properties of these fibers and expand their range of applications.

Thus, it is indicated that the development of complex organ structures will be achieved by the method of electrospinning in combination with 3D printing technology, three-dimensional scaffolds will be designed, integrated with growth factors and cells with high viability.

It is noted that despite the fact that specialists were able to simulate the structure and morphology of natural tissue, these studies need further clinical trials until they can be reliably applied in medical practice. It was found that the composite hydrogels displayed high pH-sensitivity.

The cumulative release ratios of diclofenac sodium from the hydrogel were 3. It has been noted that such pH-sensitive polymeric materials can be offered for the development of new controlled drug delivery systems. Hydrogels based on different ratios of chitosan and sodium alginate were synthesized by gamma irradiation in the presence of glutaraldehyde, as a cross-linking agent.

It was found that these blend hydrogels exhibited high water swelling and showed high thermal stability. Also, pH responsive release character of ketoprofen drug was studied in this research [ ].

The recent developments in chitosan delivery systems for the treatment of brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases are presented [ ]. It has been found that chitosan nanoparticles improve therapeutic efficacy in various brain diseases due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, controlled release, mucoadhesiveness and effective absorption by nasal mucosa and tumor cells.

Chitosan nanoparticles are also often used as carriers for the delivery of therapeutic agents, successfully increasing their concentration in the brain, and when administered intranasally chitosan nanoparticles are commonly used to deliver drugs to the brain and can increase nasal residence time and absorption by the nasal mucosa.

It is known that chitosan composites are widely used in medical practice treatment of burns, artificial kidneys, blood anticoagulation and bone, tendon or blood vessel engineering , and also developed for use in biosensors, packaging, separation processes, food or agricultural industries, and catalytic processes.

It is planned to create modulated three-dimensional structures of chitosan using cross-linking processes that improve its use in various fields of medicine, as well as the development of porous catalysts based on chitosan in order to increase the efficiency of catalytic processes by increasing the number of available active sites [ ].

The presence of electron-donating amino and hydroxyl groups allows to use chitosan biopolymers in the separation and purification of biologically active compounds nucleic acids and products of their hydrolysis, steroids, amino acids. Recent studies have indicated usage of chitosan-based compounds as effective materials to inhibit biofilm formation and attenuate of virulence properties by various pathogenic bacteria [ ].

Environmental pollution with heavy toxic metals is dangerous for all living organisms. Currently, methods such as bioadsorption, solvent extraction, remediation by plants and microbial communities, green separation by hydrogel polymers, immobilization, and others are being developed for the extraction of heavy metals from soil and wastewater.

Taking into account the ingestion of heavy metals by humans with food and to prevent serious risks to human health, development of effective methods for removal of heavy toxic metals and to eliminate the toxicity of these metals in air, soil, and water is of great importance.

The food chain of the adsorption process of heavy toxic metals by humans is shown in Fig. Adsorption process of heavy metals from water, soil, air to food chain and finally to human [ ].

In work [ ] it was shown that chitosan hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis of high-molecular-weight chitosan by the fenton reaction can be used as potent agents that block or form tight complexes with fine dust in the air, containing some solid particles and unknown species of microorganisms.

This data can be used in the future for the production of various dust-proof masks and filters for the purpose of human healthcare. Nanomaterials prepared on the basis of chitosan and its modified forms together with carbon nanotubes have been used as bacterial disinfectors of various pollutants in the field of water purification [ ].

The use of these materials compared to ozonation, chlorination and other disinfection methods has demonstrated the absence of treatment by-products. In the future, the authors plan to develop materials with increased stability and low toxicity, and pay special attention to the design of nanomaterials, which affects the properties and efficiency of the material, in order to eliminate undesired adsorption of biomolecules and increase antibacterial activity.

A promising direction for application of chitosan biopolymers is the sphere of environmental protection, for development of drugs with radioprotective properties, sorbents for the isolation of radionuclides [ ].

Chitosan can also be used as a flocculant for water treatment, surfactants and membranes in ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation, purification of industrial effluents containing heavy metal ions [ , , , , ]. Chitosan is capable of forming complexes with transition metals [ , ].

Chitosan granules obtained by cross-linking chitosan with tripolyphosphate have significant adsorption properties towards the metal ions and could be effectively used in wastewater treatment [ , , ].

The nature of the cation is very important in the mechanism of interaction; the affinity of chitosan for cations absorbed on film shows selectivity in the following order [ ]:.

One of the important applications of chitosan biopolymers is connected with their ability to bind heavy and toxic metal ions. The adsorption capacity values of modified chitosans MChs for metal ions removal were reported by Zhang et al.

It has been noted that adsorption process depends not only on adsorbent structure modifications of chitosan but also on conditions of the process pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage, contact time, co-existing ions. The following results for Cu II ions adsorption were observed on various MChs Table 1.

Authors of research [ ] developed monodisperse microspheres of chitosan by the microfluidic method and carried out experiments to study the adsorption characteristics to remove copper ions from waste water.

The adsorption mechanism was developed based on various adsorption kinetics and isotherms models. The research results showed a high adsorption capacity The adsorption capacity in the presence of other competing ions was also studied by the density functional theory DFT analysis.

It was shown that the most energetically favorable structure of the studied metal complexes is the central model, where metal ions are coordinatedly bound to several amino groups Fig. Structures of investigated divalent metal-CS complexes [ ]. The influence of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, selectivity of sorption and desorption processes were studied on the adsorption of lead ion.

Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption process were investigated and adsorbent was studied by XRD, VSM, SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and BET analyses. It has been established that nitrogen of amino group and oxygen of hydroxyl group in Pb II imprinted magnetic biosorbent were coordination atoms [ ].

A method of heavy metal ions removal by bioadsorption with hybrid 3D printing technology was proposed [ ]. For this purpose, 3D chitosan composite of a monolithic structure of reusable application was prepared, which showed high efficiency in contrast to conventional biosorbents. The adsorption capacity of this material was about The analyses performed showed that the —NH 2 and —OH functional groups of chitosan are actively involved in the adsorption process, which indicates the possibility of this sorbent using to remove numerous metal ions from different solutions.

In work [ , ] recent data on removal of lead Pb , cadmium Cd , mercury Hg and arsenic As by chitosan-based magnetic adsorbents from various aqueous solutions are presented. It has been shown that these adsorbents have a high adsorptive capacity towards toxic metals and can be reused in consecutive adsorption—desorption cycles.

Langmuir isotherm model confirms good monolayer capacity values of Mechanism of monolayer chemical adsorption of toxic metal ions on the surface of chitosan-based magnetic adsorbent [ ].

Metal ions, marked by red circles, are gradually adsorbed on the surface of the magnetic adsorbent. The carried out tests have shown that adsorption process was best satisfied with the Freundlich isotherm [ ].

The results of research showed that sorption process was characterized by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model. High adsorptive capacities of these samples for arsenic, mercury ions, congo red, amaranth Sorption of copper II , cobalt II and iron III ions, using chitosan composite sponges prepared by ice-segregation procedure, was studied for purification of waste water [ ].

Carried out experiments showed high chemical stability and reusability of these sponges in sorption—desorption processes. Nitrogen-enriched chitosan-based activated carbon biosorbent was prepared for separation of Cr VI and Pb II ions from contaminated water.

Thermodynamic parameters have been studied, and kinetics of adsorption of these metal ions is well-fitted by a pseudo-second-order model. High efficiency, availability, recyclability, and cost effectiveness make it possible to use this biosorbent for wastewater treatment [ , ].

Magnetic phosphorylated chitosan composite P-MCS as an adsorbent for Co II ions was prepared by authors [ ]. Adsorption capacity for Co II was equal to Adsorption isotherms and kinetic models of these ions well fitted the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model, respectively.

The carried out experiments have shown dependence of Co II adsorption process on surface chelation between functional groups and metal ions, and possibility of use P-MCS for treatment of wastewater. In order to eliminate the limitations in the use of chitosan as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals, such modifications as cross-linking, grafting, and the use of magnetic chitosan modified with Fe 3 O 4 were carried out [ ].

It was suggested in further studies to focus attention on: issues of regeneration and desorption; replacing glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrin as crosslinking agents with less toxic ones; the use of an adsorbent that does not depend on pH; the use of various optimization tools for example, the response surface methodology and other issues in order to use chitosan on an industrial scale.

New class of crystalline porous composite consisting of metal ions and multidentate organic ligands is metal organic framework MOF , which showed an appreciable capability in wastewater treatment for the removal of heavy metal ions.

Functionalization of chitosan with ionic liquids new class of salts with combination of organic and inorganic ions and with very unique and novel properties was found to have increased adsorption capacity. They are immobilized on a solid support or they chemically react due to their high reactivity in adsorption process.

Analyses carried out in work [ ] showed that introduction of ionic liquids in chitosan improves thermal stability and heavy metal uptake properties. Chitosan conjugated magnetite nanoparticle CH-MNP as an effective adsorbent was synthesized for the removal of Pb II ions by means of controlled co-precipitation technique and studied by response surface methodology RSM for optimization of process parameters [ ].

Optimum value of pH, adsorbent concentration and contact time were obtained as 5. Adsorption isotherm data were correlated well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, and the equilibrium data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and intraparticle diffusion kinetic model.

Experiments data have been shown high adsorption capacities for Pb II and Zn II Adsorption and removal of chromium VI ions from aqueous solutions, using chitosan hydrogel cross-linked with polyacrylic acid and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide, has been studied in paper [ ].

Evaluation of adsorption mechanism was carried out using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips nonlinear isotherms.

The removal of chromium VI at pH 4. It was proposed to use chitosan hydrogel as an economical and environmentally friendly adsorbent of heavy metal ions for water and wastewater treatment.

A new efficient method of adsorption and removal of heavy metal ions with electric field-driven from wastewater has been proposed [ ].

A composite adsorbent based on chitosan CS and sodium phytate SP deposited on a polyethylene glycol terephthalate PET material was used and placed near the cathode in a pair of titanium plate electrodes. The adsorption mechanism was correlated to the Langmuir isotherm model and the kinetic equation of the pseudo-second order.

Chitosan and silica gel-based composite was prepared with the purpose to study the adsorption of heavy metal ions in various solutions [ ].

This composite was studied by FTIR and SEM—EDS methods in order to obtain information about the presence of active sites and surface morphology.

The study of the adsorption process by this material showed the maximum percentage of removal of Cu Adsorption of Pb is best satisfied to pseudo-first order, whereas pseudo-second order is best fitted to the adsorption of Cu, Ni and Hg.

Obtained values of change in enthalpy testify to the effect that both physical and chemical adsorption occur in this process. It was confirmed that adsorption follows the Freundlich model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The cross-linked Schiff base has been found to be an effective, environmentally friendly and inexpensive adsorbent.

Development of a new economical and environmentally friendly chitosan nanoadsorbent has been proposed for water purification [ ]. Use of inorganic nanomaterials, agricultural waste, adsorbents based on polymer nanocomposites for removing of heavy metal ions such as Hg II , Cu II , Cr VI , Zn II , Co II , Cd II , Pb II from wastewater has been studied.

Experiments have shown that polymer-based materials have a strong chelating ability towards heavy metal ions, fast adsorption kinetics, and are well regenerated due to the synergistic effect of polymers and various nanofillers present in nanocomposites.

Hydrogels based on different ratios of carboxymethyl cellulose CMC and carboxymethyl chitosan CMCh and prepared by γ-irradiation showed high adsorption capacities for Pb and Au ions. Properties of the obtained hydrogels gel fraction, swelling ratio, gel strength were also studied [ ].

Carboxymethylated chitosan hydrogels were obtained by γ-ray irradiation crosslinking method. Kinetic studies of sorption process were carried out with a purpose to determine favourable conditions for the adsorption of Fe III ions on these hydrogels and showed that maximum uptake of Fe III ions was equal to Favorable adsorption behavior was explained due to the coordination of Fe III ions with amino, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in the structures of the proposed hydrogels.

Chitosan is widely used in cosmetology as a moisturizer, emulsifier, antistatic, emollient for hair and skin care. Chitosan biopolymers are polycation hydrocolloids that become viscous at interaction with acid and can act as abrasive film formers interacting with integuments and hair. Its use as an antioxidant agent and gelling agent in the food industry has also been proven [ , ].

This biopolymer is used as a food wrap owing to its ability to form semipermeable tough, long-lasting, flexible films, thus extending the shelf life of food [ , ], inhibiting microbial growth [ , ]. Chitosan has been used in agriculture as antifungal agents and also to accelerate the growth of plant and decelerate root knot worm infestations [ ].

In the paper and textile industry, chitosan is applied to cellulose fiber during the formation of paper, while the strength of the paper sheet is significantly increased, the resistance to bursting, tearing, and image stability are improved.

Chitosan is used to improve the dyeing quality of fabrics made from various fibers. There are known data on the use of this biopolymer for the preparation of antistatic, stain-resistant, printing and finishing materials, for the removal of dyes and the manufacture of textile seams, threads and fibers as well [ ].

While research has indicated the availability of other sources, these are currently the most sources actively explored on a commercial scale. Chitosan market volume is expected to reach 2. Although many articles have been published during the last twenty years, chitosan applications in the biomedical field are still limited, mainly due to the difficulty of obtaining of the biopolymer with high purity and reliability at its source.

Furthermore, production of new chitosan-based materials is quite limited, mainly due to their cost, which remains higher than that of petroleum-based polymers with similar properties [ ]. It is required to develop more economical and environmentally friendly methods in order to obtain chitosan and convert it into useful products.

On the other hand, the production cost of crustaceans based chitosan is cheap compared with fungal based chitosan. Crustaceans raw materials are readily available and cheap whereas the cost of raw materials is the main bottleneck for fungal chitosan production. Crustaceans chitosan can be found from 10 US dollar per kg to US dollar per kg.

It also depends on product quality and application [ ]. It should be noted that some commercial products of chitosan are known in the world market. Reaxon® Medovent, Germany is a chitosan-based nerve conduit which is resistant to destruction, prevents irritation, inflammation and infection, inhibits scar tissue and neuroma formation.

are for sale as safe weight loss supplement, cholesterol-reducing agents, and also as antioxidant agents. are also commercially available for cosmetic and hygienic usage. At present, chitosan due to the availability, renewability of raw material and the unique properties is a subject of researches and is widely used in various fields of biotechnology, medicine, pharmacy and industry.

In the coming years, demand for polymer-based biomaterials with better performance will be unquestionably the highest. Distribution of chitosan-based biomaterials at the larger scale can contribute as a sustainable and renewable material for the scientific developments in future.

Furthermore, in the past decade in various fields of researches significant advancement has submitted but is still incomplete and applications of chitosan in the biomedical area are still limited. There are still many unresolved issues and challenges. Bioactivity of chitosan-based polymers has been studied for many years, however, the structure activity relationship and the mechanism of activity needs further investigation.

This might be connected with poor bioavailability, and lacked of human clinical trials, and all these factors required further analysis.

At present time, there is not enough literature information on the application of polymer-based enterosorbents in medical practice, which is considered as one of the promising directions in the treatment and prevention of diseases of various etiologies [ , ]. Preparation and application of enterosorbents reduces the intensity of antibiotic and hormone therapy.

The development of this direction depends on both technological possibilities and the state of the environment. The datasets analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Pattanashetti NA, Heggannavar GB, Kariduraganava MY Smart biopolymers and their biomedical applications.

Procedia Manuf — Article Google Scholar. Augustine R, Rajakumari R, Cvelbar U, Mozetic M, George A In: Thomas S ed Biopolymers for health, food, and cosmetic applications. Handbook of biopolymer-based materials. KGaA — Soni S, Gupta H, Kumar N, Nishad D, Mittal G, Bhatnagar A Biodegradable biomaterials.

Recent Patents Biomed Eng — Article CAS Google Scholar. Tunakova YA, Mukhametshina ES, Shmakova YA Assessment of the sorption capacity of biopolymer sorbents based on chitosan in relation to metals. Bullet Kazan Technol Univ — Google Scholar. Biochemistry — Hu Y, Abidi N Distinct chiral nematic self-assembling behavior caused by different size-unified cellulose nanocrystals via a multistage separation.

Langmuir 32 38 — HuY, Catchmark JM In vitro biodegradability and mechanical properties of bioabsorbable bacterial cellulose incorporating cellulases. Acta Biomaterialia 7 7 — Hu Y, Catchmark JM, Vogler EA Factors impacting the formation of sphere-like bacterial cellulose particles and their biocompatibility for human osteoblast growth.

Biomacromolecules 14 10 — Hu Y et al Engineering of porous bacterial cellulose toward human fibroblasts in growth for tissue engineering. J Mater Res 29 22 — Hu Y et al Preparation, characterization, and cationic functionalization of cellulose-based aerogels for wastewater clarification.

J Mater. Article ID Hu Y et al Bioabsorbable cellulose composites prepared by an improved mineral-binding process for bone defect repair.

J Mater Chem B 4 7 —

Chitosa Dong, Appetite suppressant foods. Chitosan research and studiesStuvies. This output contributes to the following UN Chitosan research and studies Development Goals SDGs. Govers, Rsearch. Project : LNV project. N2 - Chitin and chitosan have been recognised for their beneficial health effects since the s. Over the past few decades, numerous studies and several clinical trials have been performed which demonstrated that these compounds can reduce body weight and cardiovascular disease CVDimprove wound healing, but can also modulate the immune system and demonstrate antifungal and antibacterial activity.

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UN SDGs This output contributes to the following UN Sustainable Development Goals SDGs. ch6 Licence: Publisher. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Beneficial health effects of chitin and chitosan'.

Together they form a unique fingerprint. View full fingerprint. Projects 1 Finished. Projects per year. Immunomodulatie door vezels KB Govers, C. Cite this APA Author BIBTEX Harvard Standard RIS Vancouver Dong, L.

van den Broek, C. Stevens Eds. Wiley Series in Renewable Research. Dong, Liyou ; Wichers, H. Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications. van den Broek ; Carmen G.

Boeriu ; Christian V. Wiley, Furthermore, we purposely discriminate between data on chitin and chitosan as they are chemically distinct and therefore possibly demonstrate unique effects on health",.

Wiley Series in Renewable Research, Wiley, pp. van den Broek; Carmen G. Boeriu; Christian V. TY - CHAP T1 - Beneficial health effects of chitin and chitosan AU - Dong, Liyou AU - Wichers, H.

AU - Govers, C. Furthermore, we purposely discriminate between data on chitin and chitosan as they are chemically distinct and therefore possibly demonstrate unique effects on health AB - Chitin and chitosan have been recognised for their beneficial health effects since the s.

Furthermore, we purposely discriminate between data on chitin and chitosan as they are chemically distinct and therefore possibly demonstrate unique effects on health KW - Anti-pathogenic effects KW - Anti-tumour effects KW - Beneficial health effects KW - Chitin KW - Chitosan KW - Human clinical trials KW - Immune modulation KW - In vitro studies KW - Preclinical animal studies KW - Scientific literature U2 - ch6 DO - ch6 M3 - Chapter SN - T3 - Wiley Series in Renewable Research SP - EP - BT - Chitin and Chitosan A2 - van den Broek, Lambertus A.

The ammonium ions in chitosan interact with the anions of lipopolysaccharides present on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, leading to a bacteriostatic effect Ardean et al.

Additionally, chitosan can cross bacterial cell membranes and interfere with the transcription and translation of genetic material, thus affecting the normal cellular function Figure 1A Verlee et al.

The antibacterial performance of chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis significantly increased when the compound was functionalized with catechol, as demonstrated by a decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration of the polymer Amato et al.

The antibacterial properties of chitosan when formulated as hydrogels, films, sponge wound dressings make it a good wound-treatment material for the prevention and treatment of infections. A novel lignin-chitosan-PVA composite hydrogel designed as a wound dressing shows good adsorption capacity and bacteriostatic effects Zhang Y.

Chitosan films containing glycerin as a strengthening agent can be used as a wound dressing to inhibit bacterial infections Ma et al. The composite sponge prepared using hydroxybutyl chitosan and chitosan combined the hydrophilic properties of hydroxybutyl chitosan and the antibacterial properties of chitosan, highlighting its potential as a wound dressing Hu S.

The successful use of these preparations in treating skin and soft tissue infections is indicative of the antibacterial effects of chitosan.

FIGURE 1. A Electrostatic interaction of the positively charged ammonium ion with the negatively charged teichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria. The positively charged ammonium ion interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged phospholipid molecule in Gram-negative bacteria.

Chitosan molecules enter through protein channels on the bacterial membrane and interfere with physiological functions. Electrostatic interaction of the positively charged ammonium ion with the negatively charged nucleic acid group. B Chitosan wound dressings allow the permeation of oxygen and water to keep the wound moist while preventing bacterial contamination and wound infection.

C Chitosan promotes nerve regeneration by promoting Schwann cell proliferation. D Chitosan promotes erythrocyte aggregation and platelet adhesion. The body maintains an oxidation balance under normal physiological conditions.

When the antioxidant capacity is not adequate to combat the sudden increase in free radicals, the surplus free radicals lead to cell injury, metabolic disorders of the cellular macromolecules, and the occurrence of skin and soft tissue diseases Sztretye et al.

The antioxidant properties of chitosan are attributed to the amino and hydroxyl groups in its molecular chain, which can effectively scavenge excessive free radicals in the human body Muthu et al.

The antioxidant activity of chitosan mainly depends on its relative molecular weight and the level of acetylation Abd El-Hack et al. Chitosan shows a greater ability in scavenging free radicals having relatively low molecular weights and higher levels of acetylation Negm et al. Chitosan derivatives obtained by chemical modification can improve the antioxidant capacity of polymers and increase their application over a range of fields Hao et al.

Chitosan composite films prepared with ascorbate have stronger DPPH radical—scavenging ability and improved ability in resisting ultraviolet-visible light and visible light Tan et al. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by doxorubicin can significantly enhance the scavenging ability of free radicals and reduce the cell viability of liver, stomach, lung, and breast cancer cells, which can be used as a potential drug carrier for tumors Mi et al.

The antioxidant capacity of chitosan can be regulated by adjusting its molecular weight, acetylation level, and the extent of chemical modification, thereby conferring tremendous application prospects in medical cosmetology and the treatment of soft tissue diseases and tumors.

Cancer is one of the most challenging conditions to cure, with surgical resection being the most efficient and effective management technique. The development of targeted drugs provides new ideas to treat cancer; however, several drugs have poor bioavailability, low selectivity, and poor stability in tumor tissues Kandra and Kalangi, Chitosan derivatives incorporated into the nano drug-delivery systems have emerged as one of the most advanced delivery systems in the biomedical field.

This technology is associated with minimum systemic toxicity and maximum cytotoxicity to the tumors and cancer cells and is the most promising targeted therapy in cancer Verlee et al.

Chitosan can directly inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce cell necrosis and apoptosis, and enhance immunity to achieve its antitumor effect Yu et al. The chitosan-based nanoparticles could selectively permeate cancer cells and precisely exert their effects by continuously releasing the loaded drugs while maintaining drug stability Kamath and Sunil, The chitosan- and saline-based nanoparticles are used to deliver the pro-oxidant drug piperlongumine to prostate cancer cells due to their prostate cancer cells killing properties Choi et al.

The antitumor properties of chitosan make it a potential antitumor drug carrier for treating melanoma and sarcoma of skin and soft tissues. Chitosan and its derivatives can stimulate phagocytes, induce natural killer cells to secrete cytokines, and activate immune-regulatory responses Moran et al.

Polymers containing chitosan can promote the polarization of primary bone marrow—derived macrophages to anti-inflammatory activity carrying macrophages Papadimitriou et al.

Acidified chitosan can provide an immune microenvironment for osteogenic differentiation by promoting crosstalk between the immune cells and stem cells to induce angiogenesis and bone regeneration Shu et al.

Hydrogels containing chitosan can promote the wound healing capacity of the skin of diabetic rats by downregulating the pro-inflammatory factors like tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin IL -1β Chen et al.

Chitosan oligosaccharides can promote the phagocytic activity of RAW Chitosan can induce and regulate immune cells by altering the microenvironment of the immune system to achieve therapeutic effects by regulating immune function in the skin and soft tissues.

Chitosan has been used to synthesize several drug carriers for drug-delivery systems, such as nanoparticles, films, sponges, hydrogels, and scaffolds. The design of these carriers is based on the biological properties of chitosan and its derivatives.

Some of these carriers are currently used in a clinical setting Supplementary Figure S2. In recent years, nanomaterials have gained increasing attention in the biomedical field Zhang E. Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biological properties of chitosan while improving the stability of the loaded drugs and controlling the drug-release rate Rizeq et al.

There is evidence that chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drugs could be used to target malignant tumors, thereby prolonging the drug action duration, enhancing the anticancer effect, and reducing toxicity Assa et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles are safe, biodegradable, and easy to form DNA or protein complexes for use as a potential gene delivery system Bowman and Leong, Chitosan-coated silica nanoparticles have been shown to induce a strong immune response in vivo and can be used for oral delivery of protein vaccine Wu et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan, which is a valuable property and a promising therapeutic approach in targeted therapy when used in combination with anticancer drugs.

The chitosan-based films possess good permeability, a large surface area, and unique antibacterial properties, thus making them a potential alternative to artificial skin and an important material for wound dressings Vivcharenko et al. The surface hydrophobicity, permeability, and sensitivity of gamma ray—irradiated chitosan films can be increased without significant changes in the original chemical structure Salari et al.

Introducing montmorillonite-copper chloride into chitosan films can increase their tensile strength and elongation at break and also confer higher antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens, further highlighting their use as a wound dressing to combat infections Nouri et al.

Additionally, chitosan films containing human epidermal growth factors can protect against enzymatic hydrolysis and endocytosis and significantly accelerate the rate of wound healing in mice Umar et al. These antibacterial properties and regenerative effects of chitosan make it a suitable material for wound dressing.

The porous structure, biocompatibility, and liquid-absorption properties of the chitosan sponge make it a suitable biomaterial for hemostasis Zhang K. Chitosan composite sponges can absorb water in the blood and increase blood viscosity. Moreover, they are non-toxic and biodegradable, hold antibacterial drugs, and promote blood coagulation in wounds Hu S.

Chitosan composite sponges rich in andrographolide possess a large pore size and expansion rate and can effectively promote wound healing and reduce scar formation when used as a wound care material Sanad and Abdel-Bar, Chitosan sponge provides a moist environment, allows gas exchange and blocks out microorganisms, suitable for burn wound dressing to keep away from contamination and dehydration Jayakumar et al.

Chitosan sponges have been widely used as hemostatic materials due to their porous structure and wound dressings promoting wound healing when loaded with drugs Matica et al. Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymers with high water content and good biocompatibility.

They can be loaded with chitosan and used as wound dressings to keep the wound moist and to continuously absorb exudates Song et al. Chitosan hydrogels loaded with metal ions can improve the imbalance in metal ions that cause delayed wound healing.

Moreover, they inhibit infections and accelerate healing by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors and macrophages polarization Xiao et al. An imbalance in metal ions can also lead to scar growth. Modulating the cation in chitosan hydrogel or adding aloe gel can lead to effective scar inhibition Zhang N.

Chitosan hydrogels can also be used as hemostatic dressings. Chitosan sponges are often used as a hemostatic material. Hydrogels are commonly used as antibacterial dressings because their hydrophilicity and absorbability can suitably isolate infections from foreign substances and keep the wound moist.

Tissue engineering is a research hotspot in regenerative medicine. Functional scaffolds composed of natural polymers have been widely used in surgical reconstruction Rodríguez-Vázquez et al.

Chitosan scaffolds surrounded by microcellulose arranged with twisted polylactic acid can simulate the extracellular matrix of tendons, provide structural support for tendon regeneration, and facilitate tendon-cell attachment and proliferation Nivedhitha Sundaram et al. Composite chitosan-gelatin scaffold with a double-tubular structure having large internal pores and nonporous outer layers simulate blood vessels and significantly promote the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts after being inoculated, and can be used for angiogenesis reconstruction Badhe et al.

Nano-scaffolds made of chitosan, sulfonated chitosan, polycaprolactone, and phosphoric acid can enhance the activity and adhesion of osteoblasts, making them excellent materials for bone tissue regeneration Ghaee et al.

Chitosan scaffolds have plastic structure and the ability to promote adhesion and proliferation of tissue cells, improving soft tissue and bone tissue regeneration. Soft tissue injury refers to laceration and contusion of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscle caused by an external force, bleeding, and local swelling.

Wound healing depends on the nature and degree of tissue defects, whereas age, nutritional status, and underlying diseases are systemic factors affecting wound healing Wilkinson and Hardman, Promoting wound healing and reducing scar formation are urgent medical problems to be solved for patients with wounds and defects in body function.

The antibacterial properties of chitosan and its ability to promote tissue regeneration have increased its usage in wound dressings combined with different materials, which have the overall effect of promoting wound healing Figure 1B.

Impregnating chitosan hydrogels with silver nanoparticles can significantly improve antibacterial and antioxidant properties and enhance wound healing in vivo Masood et al. The anti-biofilm formation ability of chitosan-immobilized ficin can inhibit S.

aureus infections and promote the formation of smoother epithelial tissue Baidamshina et al. Vaccinin-chitosan nanoparticles can promote vascular tissue production by upregulating IL-1β and PDGF-BB, thereby highlighting its potential in wound healing Hou et al.

The curcumin-loaded chitosan membranes can effectively inhibit bacterial pathogens in wounds by increasing the formation of fibrous connective tissue. Additionally, they have an obvious healing effect on wounds resulting from second-degree burns Abbas et al.

A study reports that macrophage dysfunction can lead to chronic inflammation and inhibit diabetic wound healing Chen et al. Chitosan sulfate can improve macrophage function by inducing the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages and promoting the production of anti-inflammatory factors, thus effectively promoting diabetic wound healing Shen et al.

Chitosan has antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects that can prevent the infection of wounds and promote healing through soft tissue regeneration, making it a natural wound-dressing material.

Soft tissue infection is an inflammatory condition caused by pathogenic bacteria that invade the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Elimination of necrotic tissue and pathogenic bacteria is the cornerstone of treatment in such infections Burnham and Kollef, The effectiveness of different wound dressings in controlling and treating infection has been clearly demonstrated, highlighting their wide use in clinical practice Simões et al.

Chitosan is an effective carrier of anti-infective drugs due to its mucous membrane dependence and the ability to prolong drug activity by retarding the biodegradation rate Rajitha et al.

The inhibitory effects of antibacterial materials based on chitosan and its derivatives on different pathogens are listed in Table 1. TABLE 1. Antibacterial effect of chitosan and its derivatives on different microorganisms.

Skin injuries or necrosis caused by crush, burn, or cut injuries are medical problems warranting urgent care. Common treatment methods include autogenous skin transplantation and free or pedicled skin-flap transplantation, which can cause problems, such as graft tissue necrosis, scar contracture, and poor cosmetic appearance Przekora, ; Li et al.

The tissue-repair function of chitosan provides a novel solution for skin reconstruction Wei et al. Hydrogels synthesized from chitosan and cellulose can accelerate epithelial tissue formation on wounds and mimic skin structure, induce skin regeneration, and can be loaded with antibacterial agents to prevent wound infections Alven and Aderibigbe, Lithium chloride—loaded chitosan hydrogels can significantly reduce wound inflammation, promote angiogenesis, and accelerate epithelial regeneration, thereby showing a potential dressing for skin regeneration Yuan et al.

Chitosan wound dressings containing exosomes derived from overexpressed miRNA synovial mesenchymal stem cells can promote epithelium formation, angiogenesis, and collagen maturation in diabetic rats Tao et al. Chitosan can promote skin regeneration by promoting angiogenesis and epithelium formation.

Tendons are one of the major components responsible for maintaining the movement of various joints in the body.

Tendon rupture due to trauma can lead to irreversible impaired movement. The tendon structure simulated by poly l -lactic acid nanofibers can promote the regeneration of the broken flexor tendons and alginate gel, a novel natural biological scaffold suitable for tendon repair in the outer layer, and can prevent tendon adhesion Deepthi et al.

Biomaterials based on chitosan and its derivatives can promote tendon healing and prevent adhesion around tendons, which is beneficial for treating patients with tendon rupture.

Peripheral nerves are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Damage to these nerves can lead to motor and sensory impairments. The biological materials with chitosan as the primary polymer are effective in nerve-injury repair. The related mechanisms are shown in Figure 1C.

Chitosan nanofiber hydrogels prepared by electrospinning and mechanical stretching can stimulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, promote Schwann cell proliferation, and secrete neurotrophic silver to repair sciatic nerve defects in the sciatic nerve—defect model of mice Rao F.

Additionally, sciatic nerve defects in rats were repaired using a nerve catheter containing chitosan reinforced with chitosan membrane in the longitudinal direction, and the result was anastomosed with autologous nerve transplantation Meyer et al.

The effective proliferation of Schwann cells accelerates the rate of nerve regeneration. Chitosan derivatives can affect nerve regeneration through immunomodulatory effects. As a degradation product of chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharides can promote nerve regeneration by regulating the microenvironment of macrophages infiltrating around injured sciatic nerves Zhao et al.

Compared with traditional surgical repair techniques, chitosan and its derivatives are more coherent for soft tissues regeneration, with less damage, easier acquisition, and more satisfying outcomes. Bleeding due to trauma is a serious symptom that needs immediate attention during surgical emergencies.

Chitosan can promote coagulation by enhancing red blood cell agglutination and platelet adhesion and is a potential hemostatic material Figure 1D Hu Z. Carboxymethyl chitosan sponges grafted with marine collagen peptides can promote coagulation both in vivo and in vitro through the synergistic effect of the collagen peptide and carboxymethyl chitosan Cheng et al.

Different chitosan materials exhibit varying absorbability and coagulation-promoting effects and serve as convenient and effective hemostatic materials to arrest acute bleeding of the skin and soft tissues.

Soft tissue malignancy or sarcomas are tumors that originated from the mesenchymal tissue and mainly occur in the muscles, ligaments, periosteum, fat, and other sites. The efficacy of chitosan in drug-delivery systems for the targeted therapy of malignant tumors in sarcoma has been well documented Tan et al.

Methylglyoxal-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles can enhance the anticancer effect of methylglyoxal alone in tumor-bearing mice and protect it from enzymatic degradation in vivo by upregulating cytokines and surface receptors of macrophages Chakrabarti et al. Thus, the immunomodulatory effects of macrophages should be activated to achieve the antitumor effect.

Low-molecular-weight chitosan obtained through enzymolysis can increase the natural killing activity of tumor-bearing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in mice and inhibit tumor growth by activating their intestinal immune function Maeda and Kimura, , suggesting that chitosan can achieve antitumor effects by regulating the immune system.

Additionally, chitosan can reduce gastrointestinal tract injury caused by adriamycin in sarcoma—bearing mice without affecting the tumor-inhibition effect Kimura et al. Chitosan can be used to prevent weight loss and spleen weight loss caused by cisplatin in tumor-bearing mice without reducing the antitumor activity of the drug Kimura et al.

Therefore, chitosan can be considered to alleviate the toxic and side effects of chemotherapy in individuals with sarcoma. Chitosan can increase the anticancer effect of drugs, reduce damage to the body, and achieve antitumor effects through immune regulation when used as a targeted drug carrier.

These factors highlight its usage as a curative material in treating soft tissue tumors. Chitosan and its derivatives exhibit good biocompatibility.

They are biodegradable, nontoxic, and also exert antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects. Chitosan can be used to synthesize different types of drug carriers based on the intended use, as it plays a significant role in soft tissue diseases treatment Supplementary Table S1 Wang W.

Chitosan nanoparticles can improve drug stability while retaining the biological properties of chitosan, thereby rendering them suitable as carriers of targeted drugs Aibani et al. Chitosan nanoparticles are associated with fewer drug-loading and biological distribution limitations compared with lipid-based nanoparticles.

Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles are nontoxic and not radioactive as inorganic nanoparticles Dadfar et al. Chitosan films can be made into antibacterial dressings to enhance the antibacterial effect of chitosan Rashki et al.

Skin irritation or local side effects are rare due to the biodegradability and biocompatibility of chitosan.

Thus, the incidence of contact dermatitis is lesser with the use of chitosan than with the use of traditional antibacterial agents Homaeigohar and Boccaccini, ; Zheng et al.

Chitosan sponges possess good absorbability and a porous structure and are not associated with immunogenicity and virality compared with other thrombin- and fibrin-based products Yu and Zhong, Chitosan sponges are degraded in vivo after exerting their hemostatic role; these sponges are less toxic and exhibit fewer side effects than mineral hemostatic materials Hickman et al.

Chitosan hydrogels have a high-water content, which can keep wounds moist and prevent secondary damage caused by traditional gauze while changing dressings Thapa et al. The drug-loaded chitosan hydrogels can slowly release drugs and prevent tissue damage caused by the burst effect due to sudden drug release Teixeira et al.

The ductility and absorbability of chitosan hydrogels render them suitable for application to limb injuries and avoid sliding of the dressing and wound exposure caused by joint movement Zhang A. Chitosan scaffolds are important components in bone tissue engineering.

They can be used to repair bone defects and carry mesenchymal stem cells for nerve and tendon regeneration, which is a major breakthrough in regenerative medicine Cofano et al. Compared with other drug carriers, chitosan and its derivatives could be a potential approach for preventing and treating of skin and soft tissue diseases.

Bacterial resistance limits the systemic effects of antibiotics and is one of the major factors delaying the healing of chronic infections of the skin and soft tissues Theuretzbacher et al. Chitosan can directly interact with bacteria at the site of infection to exert antibacterial effects and eradicate the infection at the site Jyoti et al.

Chitosan can regulate the immune microenvironment of the body, activate immune cells, and exert anti-infective effects by enhancing immunity Moran et al. Compared with silver nanoparticles, chitosan exhibits better antibacterial properties while promoting tissue regeneration Tang and Zheng, , making it more suitable as an antibacterial agent to treat skin and soft tissue infections.

For bleeding caused by skin and soft tissue trauma, compression or tourniquet is often used to stop bleeding. However, this method has limited hemostatic effect and is easy to form thrombus and hematoma Weiskopf, Chitosan and its derivatives can stop bleeding by inducing erythrocyte agglutination and platelet adhesion, thereby accelerating blood coagulation and promoting wound healing He et al.

However, there is little evidence on whether chitosan hemostatic material can induce thrombosis. At present, soft tissue sarcomas treatment relies on surgery.

For patients who cannot suffer from surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy become the first choices Hoefkens et al. Chitosan and its derivatives can carry anti-tumor drugs to achieve a targeted treatment of soft tissue sarcoma, which can increase the anti-tumor efficiency of drugs and reduce the toxicity and side effects Kimura et al.

The role of chitosan in bone tissue engineering has been widely studied, but there is little evidence of the skin and soft tissue regeneration Ghaee et al.

Therefore, studies should pay more attention to the chitosan regeneration on the skin and soft tissue, especially peripheral nerves, as nerves take a long time to regenerate and are more prone to secondary rupture. In conclusion, as a natural polymer, chitosan and its derivatives have been isolated from a wide range of sources.

The advantages include ease of preparation and good biological characteristics, which are useful attributes in the prevention and treatment of soft tissue diseases.

YX and DOW wrote the manuscript. DL, JS, YJ, DUW, BH, ZJ and BL collected the references and prepared figures. All authors reviewed the manuscript. This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant Nos.

JLSCZD and JLSWSRCZX , the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province Grant No. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Like us on Facebook Reseach us syudies Twitter Follow us studeis LinkedIn Stress management techniques for better concentration on YouTube Herbal extract distributors us on Instagram. Apple trees treated with Chitosan research and studies studues bio-pesticides produced fruit with less severe apple scab symptoms comparable to the standard fungicide program. When applied after harvest, chitosan reduced the severity of bitter rot and blue mold symptoms on apples. Anissa Poleatewichassistant professor, Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems; the Poleatewich Plant Pathology at UNH. Contact information: Anissa. Poleatewich unh. edu , Chitosan research and studies Estudio bibliométrico de las aplicaciones de Body toning challenges Perspectivas de reseaech procesos. Estudo Chitosan research and studies de aplicações Chitosan research and studies quitosana: Chtosan de processos. Revista IONvol. Herbal extract distributors Chitosan is a Chigosan compound in the world market and can be obtained, mostly, from crustaceans, as they are shrimps, crabs, and lobsters, but other sources are fungal cell walls and algae. Inthe size of the market is estimated at Through qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the properties of chitosan depends on the deacetylation degrees and molecular weight.

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