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Anti-tumor properties of herbs

Anti-tumor properties of herbs

Hur YG, Yun Y, Won J. In order to enhance the accumulation Antk-tumor retention of wogonin in cancer cells, oroperties Pt IV pro-drug Boost your metabolism the natural way developed [ Anti-tumpr. Hyperoside Anti-angiogenesis in bone diseases oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in lung fibroblast cells via an antioxidant effect. Shikonin exerts anti-cancer effects mainly by inducing apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, and by inhibiting cell proliferation, growth and metastasis [, ]. The mutated cell proliferates indiscriminately pathological mitosisusually forming a mass known as neoplasm or malignant tumor. Anti-tumor properties of herbs

Anti-tumor properties of herbs -

However, cancer mortality surprisingly increased in U. After years of intense biomedical research on understanding the mechanisms of tumor genesis and biology of cancer, usual cancer treatment still consists in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, each having its own limitations: surgery and radiation therapy could be effective especially for the primary tumor; chemotherapy with serious side effects associated with severe toxicity to normal cells is commonly used for the whole-body treatment of recurrent disease.

Considerable research activity is devoted to the discovery of more potent treatments, while minimizing their toxic side effects and to discover selective drugs that can kill malignant tumor cells without affecting normal cells [ 5 , 6 ].

Recently, there is a greater global interest in nonsynthetic, natural medicines derived from natural sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines.

Many cancer patients prefer complementary and alternative medicine; herbal medicines were by far the most commonly used group of treatments because they are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects, and less likely to cause dependency [ 7 ]. When we are considering natural antitumor compounds, generally we refer to secondary metabolites.

Secondary metabolites are the products of metabolism not essential for normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Many of them have proved invaluable as antibacterial or antifungal agents, anticancer drugs, cholesterol-lowering agents, immunosuppressant, antiparasitic agents, herbicides, diagnostics, and tools for research [ 8 ].

Nowadays, the increased interest in the obtaining of considerable amounts of secondary metabolites has led to intensive research in the field of cell cultures technology. A lot of efforts have been put into plant cell, tissue, and organ culture as an alternative method to whole plant cultivation for the production of pharmacologically important plant secondary metabolites [ 9 ].

Getting plant metabolites is not the only problem; the delivery of biologically active substances in the human body is also subjected to innovative research such as nanotechnology that has been used for tumor diagnosis and to design and development of targeted drug delivery [ 10 - 11 ].

Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. There are three major types of cell death:. Apoptosis—a naturally occurring programmed and targeted cause of cellular death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes morphology and death [ 12 ]. Autophagy—the basic catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components through the actions of lysosomes.

Autophagy allows the degradation and recycling of cellular components [ 13 ]. Necrosis—a form of cell injury that results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis, caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma that result in the unregulated digestion of cell components.

Necrosis is almost always detrimental to the organism and can be fatal [ 14 ]. The malignant tumor has the abilities to invade surrounding tissues metastasis , migrate around the body in the blood or the lymphatic system, and set up secondary foci of cancerous growths at distant sites.

Every living cell in the human body has the potential to become cancerous. A generic name is usually given to a group of cancers, depending on the type of cells of their origin, which include carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.

Carcinoma: a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells. Sarcoma: cancer arising from a mesenchymal cell connective tissue cell. Sarcoma may arise from the bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, and fibrous tissue.

Myeloma: a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies. Lymphoma: cancer arising from a cell of the lymphatic tissue lymphocytes [ 15 ]. When cancer begins, it invariably produces no symptoms.

Signs and symptoms only appear as the mass continues to grow or ulcerates. General symptoms may include unintentional weight loss, fever, being excessively tired, and changes to the skin. The symptoms of metastatic cancers depend on the location of the tumor and can include enlarged lymph nodes, enlarged liver or enlarged spleen, which can be felt in the abdomen, pain or fracture of affected bones, and neurological symptoms [ 16 ].

Cancer results from a mutation in the chromosomal DNA of a normal cell under the action of carcinogens. The mutated cell proliferates indiscriminately pathological mitosis , usually forming a mass known as neoplasm or malignant tumor.

Cancer can be triggered by both internal factors nutritional imbalance in the diet, aging, immune conditions, hormones, and mutations occurring in metabolism and external factors tobacco, alcohol, chemicals, infectious agents, and radiation.

These causal factors may act together or in sequence to initiate or promote the development of cancer [ 1 , 2 , 15 , 17 ]. A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.

Carcinogens include a wide range of possibilities: chemical and physical pollution, unhealthy lifestyle, stress, aging, viruses, bacteria, heredity, etc. Among the dangerous factors leading to cancer, cigarette smoking also secondhand tobacco smoking is essential.

Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause many genetic mutations. Tobacco smoke generates more than chemical compounds, and more than 45 are known or suspected as chemical carcinogens; nicotine is one of the major cancer promoters [ 18 ].

Polluted environment is another major source of chemical carcinogens. Industrial toxic chemicals and heavy metals having carcinogenic activity may enter and get accumulated in the human body and damage DNA [ 2 ]. Contaminated food. The food containing residues of pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides is one of the three major causes of cancer.

Most of the food additives including preservatives butylated hydroxytoluene , sweeteners saccharin and cyclamates , and synthetic colorants have carcinogenic activity [ 15 ].

Chlorine , used to purify drinking water, may produce certain carcinogenic compounds in the treated water, including chloroform and trichloroethylene, which have carcinogenic activity [ 15 ].

Reactive oxygen species ROS—superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical are also major causes of DNA, protein, and lipid damages, which lead to cancer or aging [ 19 ].

Ionizing radiation emitted by radioactive substances ruptures the DNA strands, leading to mutations in the genes. Ultraviolet radiation induces skin cancer. The electromagnetic fields generated by electrical appliances, power lines, and cell phones emit times higher electromagnetic fields than the maximum permissible limits.

Studies have revealed that prolonged exposure to electromagnetic fields causes mutations in the genes [ 15 ]. Many lines of evidence demonstrate that a diet based on abundant and various foods of plant origin protects against epithelial cancers, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract [ 2 ].

The incidence of cancer is three times higher in women as compared to men during 30 to 50 years of age, whereas men have a greater risk of cancer as compared to women during 60 to 80 years of age.

Cancer is generally considered as the disease of middle-aged and elderly people, but some cancers are known to affect the children [ 15 ]. It is believed that members of those families, who are predisposed to a particular cancer, have one or more activated oncogenes in their genome; therefore, fewer additional mutations are required in such persons to develop the cancer.

Genetic mutations are commonly seen in the breast and the ovarian cancers, especially in cancers occurring below 30 years [ 15 ]. The plants act on several fronts in the fight against cancer, such as nourishing the body with minerals, vitamins, enzymes, and micronutrients; increasing the immune system of the body; inducing antioxidant action and protecting the body from oxidative stress; enhancing detoxification functions of the body; alkalizing the body fluids; inhibiting cancer-activating enzymes; promoting production of protective enzymes; stimulating DNA repair mechanism; and modulating the activity of specific hormones and enzymes to inhibit growth of cancer.

The immune system is a complex defense network that protects the host from disease and has a large impact on antitumor resistance. A major research interest has focused on the immunomodulatory properties of plant-derived medicines.

Several studies have reported that many flavonoids, such as quercetin, catechins, resveratrol, green tea polyphenols, grape seed proanthocyanidins, silymarin, and curcumin, have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties [ 2 ]. Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenic progression to invasive cancer.

Many chemopreventive agents are phytochemicals secondary metabolites and nonnutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease-preventive properties [ 2 , 21 ].

Several commonly used herbs such as coriander, cumin, garlic, ginger, mint, oregano, and turmeric have been identified by the National Cancer Institute as possessing cancer-preventive properties.

During the initiation phase, natural chemopreventive agents can inhibit the absorption of a carcinogen into the organism through the antioxidant activity, prevent inflammatory-induced damage or enhance neutralization, and remove carcinogens through metabolic enzymes [ 3 ].

Long-term inflammation leads to the development of dysplasia [ 22 ]. Many phenolic substances, including phenolic acids e. Flavonoid aglycones have been shown to exert higher activity than adequate glycosides [ 2 ].

Oxidative stress has been proven to be one of the main factors that lead to the formation of cancer. Oxidative stress is defined as a discrepancy between production of free radicals and reactive metabolites, so-called reactive oxygen species [ROS, e.

Excessive oxidative stress in the body for extended periods of time activates inflammatory pathways, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells, support the survival of cancer cells, and finally lead to cancer cell proliferation [ 23 ].

Many herbs are known to contain large amounts of phenolic antioxidants having the capacities to quench lipid peroxidation, prevent DNA oxidative damage, and scavenge reactive oxygen species ROS [ 24 ].

The pro-oxidant behavior of phenolics is observed in the presence of transition metal ions such as copper or iron. Many studies suggest that the antitumor activity of some polyphenols e.

It seems that while the antioxidant activity lowers the risk of cancer induction by protecting normal cells from oxidative injury, pro-oxidative properties of polyphenolics are more relevant for apoptosis induction and destruction of existing tumor cells [ 2 ].

A carcinogen is a xenobiotic, and generally, biotransformation involves modification, conjugation, and excretion and is strictly involved in the detoxification of carcinogens.

Many plant-derived phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, including kaempferol, daidzenin, genistein, diosmetin, and theaflavin, have been reported to affect the activity of metabolizing enzymes leading to faster carcinogen detoxification [ 2 ].

Multidrug resistance is a significant challenge in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. The antitumor treatments currently in use often fail at some stage of the sickness because many types of cancers develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

Some plants can change the resistance of tumor cells to antitumor drugs [ 25 ]. Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new vessels vascularization from the preexisting microvascular network.

This is as an essential step in tumor dissemination and formation of metastases. Many plant-derived phenolics have been reported to restrain angiogenesis and, consequently, cancer invasion and metastasis [ 2 ]. The activation of apoptosis in preneoplastic cells is one of the crucial mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention.

Polyphenolic compounds have been shown to induce selective promotion of apoptosis in cancerous or precancerous cells, by affecting different cellular mechanisms [ 2 ].

Plant secondary metabolites and their semisynthetic derivatives are playing today an important role in anticancer drug therapy. In this chapter, the main classes of natural compounds are presented, which have been identified to contain substances with antitumor activity.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, often strong-smelling, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers. Many terpenes are aromatic hydrocarbons and thus may have had a protective function.

The difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons, whereas terpenoids contain additional functional groups. Terpenes are derived biosynthetically from units of isoprene, which has the molecular formula C 5 H 8. The basic molecular formulae of terpenes are multiples of C 5 H 8 n , where n is the number of linked isoprene units.

Diterpenes are composed of four isoprene units and have the molecular formula C 20 H Taxanes are diterpenes produced by the plants of the genus Taxus and are widely used as chemotherapy agents although present difficulties in formulation as medicines because they are poorly soluble in water.

The principal mechanism of action of the taxane class of drugs is inhibition of the process of mitosis [ 26 ]. Taxane agents include taxol or paclitaxel and docetaxel Figure 1. Taxol or paclitaxel, left and docetaxel right.

Taxol, originally isolated in from the bark of Pacific Yew, Taxus brevifolia , is a strong anticancer drug approved by the U. Among the conifers apart from the genus Taxus , only two other species have been reportedly claimed to produce taxanes: T.

brevifolia and Taxus baccata or the European yew. Triterpenes and triterpenoids. Triterpenes consist of six isoprene units and have the molecular formula C 30 H Triterpenes are widespread in nature and are highly abundant in medicinal plants, especially in the leaves, bark, fruits, and seeds of the herbs.

The pentacyclic triterpenes can be classified into lupane, oleanane, or ursane groups. Triterpenoids are structurally diverse organic compounds, more than 20, known members, widespread in nature.

Several triterpenoids, such as ursolic and oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and lupeol, possess antioxidative and anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic properties, and have been suggested to be potentially promising anticancer agents. Triterpenoids exist in free form or combined with sugar into glycosides—the triterpenoid saponins.

In anticancer mechanisms, triterpenoids are multitargeted agents that induce apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, suppress angiogenesis, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulate genes and proteins [ 27 ].

Boswellic acid Figure 2 , a triterpene isolated from Boswellia serrata native in India and Pakistan , has been found to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Boswellic acid have been used to treat Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, bronchial asthma, endotoxin-induced hepatitis, and arthritis.

Boswellic acid is a mixture of four major pentacyclic triterpene acids. Beta-boswellic acid Figure 2 , keto-beta-boswellic acid, and acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid have been indicated in apoptosis of cancer cells, in particular, brain tumors and cells affected by leukemia or colon cancer, melanoma, hepatoma, and prostate cancer [ 28 ].

β-Boswellic acid. Oleanolic acid Figure 3 is a triterpenoid widely found in several dietary and medicinal plants.

Oleanolic acid is abundant in ginseng root and in olive plant Olea europaea , which is the primary commercial source for the compound. Oleanolic acid can be easily obtained in high yield from olive pulp remaining after crushing of the olive fruit and also from olive leaves.

Structure of oleanolic, ursolic acid and betulinic acid. Oleanolic acid exists in nature as free acid but also serves as an aglycone of triterpenoid saponins, linked with one or more sugar moieties to form glycosides.

Effects of oleanolic acid on cancer cells have been demonstrated in chemoprevention and therapy of breast, colorectal, non-small cell lung, epithelial ovarian, pancreatic, prostate cancer, and melanoma.

Oleanolic acid inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells and induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial mechanism [ 29 ]. Ursolic acid Figure 3 , an isomer of oleanolic acid, is found in combination with oleanolic acid and has similar pharmacological properties.

Ursolic acid is easily obtained in very high purity by methanol extraction of rosemary leaf [ 29 ]. Betulinic acid Figure 3 is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid found in the bark of several species of plants, principally the white birch Betula pubescens , Betulaceae , but also the ber tree Ziziphus mauritiana , self-heal Prunella vulgaris , rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis , and Pulsatilla chinensis.

Betulinic acid exhibits various biological activities such as anti-HIV, antimalarial, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as a more recently discovered potential as an anticancer agent by inhibition of topoisomerase and apoptosis in the tumors [ 3 ].

A major inconvenience for the future clinical development of betulinic acid and analogues resides in their poor solubility in aqueous media such as blood serum and polar solvents used for bioassays. In order to solve the solubility and to enhance pharmacological properties, many derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity [ 30 - 33 ].

Triterpenic saponins. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution.

Originally named for soapwort plants Saponaria spp. The presence of saponins has been reported in more than families of plants, out of which at least kinds of natural saponins have been found to possess significant anticancer properties.

Saponins are common in a variety of higher plants and usually found in roots, tubers, leaves, blooms, or seeds. The amphipathic nature of the class gives them activity as surfactants that can be used to enhance penetration of macromolecules such as proteins through cell membranes.

Saponins have also been used as adjuvant in vaccines [ 34 ]. Based on the carbon skeletons, saponins were classified into triterpenes and steroids. Their glycone parts were mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage.

The considerable variety of aglycones, carbohydrates, and their different attachments results in many different saponins. Modern research found that saponins have antitumor effect on many cancer cells at least by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Meanwhile, saponins in combination with conventional tumor treatment strategies result in improved therapeutic success [ 35 ].

Oleananes are the most common saponins in nature. Their antitumor effect worked through various pathways, such as anticancer, antimetastasis, immunostimulation, chemoprevention, etc.

Some of the most studied triterpene saponins are soybean saponin, saikosaponins, avicins, and tubeimoside [ 35 ]. Cycloartane saponins could be used as chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of tumors. For example, total Astragalus saponins possess antitumor properties in human colon cancer cells.

In addition, Astragalus saponins could be used as an adjuvant in combination with other orthodox chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the side effects of the latter compounds [ 35 ]. Phenolic phytochemicals represent the largest category of phytochemicals widespread in different fruits and vegetables and one of the major groups of secondary metabolites in plants.

Numerous phenolic compounds have been reported to demonstrate selective activity, destroying cancer cells without damaging normal cells.

Many clinical trials have been made on cancer prevention of breast, colon, gastric, reproductive, head and neck, and prostate cancers by using plant polyphenols such as epigallocatechingallate, curcumin, resveratrol, genistein, and quercetin [ 2 , 36 ].

Most of the studies with plant polyphenols showed that cancer-preventing mechanisms include antioxidant activity the strength of this property is influenced by the number and location of hydroxyl groups, the size and shape of molecules, and steric properties , radical scavenging activity, inactivation of carcinogenic substances, antiproliferation, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, inhibition of angiogenesis, modulation of tumor suppression genes, and others [ 36 ].

Plant polyphenols are divided into two major groups Table 1 —flavonoids chalcones, flavanols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, and anthocyanins and nonflavonoids phenolic acids, e.

The average daily intake of flavonoids alone is g [ 2 ]. Flavonoids commonly share the same generic structure, the flavan nucleus consisting of two aromatic rings linked by a pyran ring.

Differences in the location of the right phenolic ring to pyran ring make it possible to distinguish between flavonoids 2-phenylbenzopyrans and isoflavonoids 3-phenylbenzopyrans. Flavones differ from flavanones by a C2-C3 double bond [ 19 ].

Chalcones as anticancer agents. Chalcone Table 2 is an aromatic ketone that forms the central core for a variety of important biological compounds, which are known collectively as chalcones or chalconoid. They are a group of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds belonging to the flavonoids family even if the chroman ring is not yet formed they are precursors of flavonoid structure.

These chalcones have been linked with immunomodulation, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities [ 36 ].

Anthocyanins as anticancer agents. Anthocyanins also named anthocyans; Table 2 are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the pH. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits.

More than different anthocyanins are discovered until now. Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding pendant sugars and are mostly 3-glucosides of the anthocyanidins. From various studies, it is found that some plants or their parts containing anthocyanins have anticancer property, and their analogues may be helpful in synthesizing newer effective anticancer agents in future.

The number of hydroxyl groups and presence of sugar moiety is crucial for the specific modulatory actions of anthocyanins. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies showed that anthocyanins can affect basic cell functions related to cancer development. They may inhibit the formation and growth of tumors by induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, thus eliminating damaged cells or tumor cells [ 36 ].

Flavanones as anticancer agents. The consumption of citrus fruits and juices has been widely investigated for its possible role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

These beneficial effects are mainly attributed to flavanones, the typical polyphenols of citrus species. Major flavanones in plant species include hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, isosakuranetin, and their respective glycosides.

Hesperetin and its derivatives are characteristic flavanones of sweet orange, tangelo, lemon, and lime, while naringenin and its derivatives are those of grapefruit and sour orange. The major citrus flavanones can be effective in fighting carcinogenesis by minimizing DNA damage protecting effect of naringenin against UV-induced damage of DNA , tumor development, and proliferation [ 19 ].

Naringenin Table 2 is found in high concentrations in citrus fruit while low concentrations are also found in tomatoes and their products.

Naringenin was successfully investigated for its cell antiproliferation effect on colon cancer cell line. In a comparative study, flavanones showed a significant antiproliferative activity against lung, colon, breast, prostate, and melanoma cancerous cell lines [ 19 ].

Hesperetin Table 2 and its glycosides are also mainly present in citrus fruit. The aglycone is less dominant in nature than the glycosides. The most widely distributed glycosides of hesperetin are hesperidin hesperetinrutinoside and neohesperidin hesperetinneohesperidoside , which are conjugates with rutinose and neohesperidose, respectively [ 19 ].

Recent study shows that hesperetin exhibits a potential anticancer activity against human cervical cancer cell lines in vitro through the reduction in cell viability and the induction of apoptosis.

Altogether, these data sustain our contention that hesperetin has anticancer properties and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent [ 37 ].

Flavanols as anticancer agents. Flavanols flavanols possess two benzene rings called the A- and B-rings and a dihydropyran heterocycle the C-ring with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3 and have been shown to have the ability to scavenge free radicals, reduce the rate of LDL oxidation, inhibit lipid peroxidation, modify enzymes that activate or detoxify, and participate in the modulation of the immune response in several biological systems.

The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring appears to have a critical influence on their activities, particularly in the inhibition of protein kinase, which can induce antiproliferate activities [ 38 ].

Catechins belong to flavanols and there are two chiral centers on the molecule on carbons 2 and 3 they are four diastereoisomers. Two of the isomers are in trans configuration and are called catechin, and the other two are in cis configuration and are called epicatechin.

The most common epicatechin isomer is - -epicatechin Table 2. The results of a recent study show that catechin present in the extract of Ligaria cuneifolia, a hemiparasite species that belongs to Argentine flora, can reduce proliferation and induces apoptosis of lymphoma cell line [ 38 ].

The recent data show that catechins also affect the molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis, regulation of cell death and multidrug resistance in cancer. Catechins present antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals, chelating redox active transition-metal ions, inhibiting redox active transcription factors, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes, and inducing antioxidant enzymes [ 43 ].

The chemopreventive properties of this beverage are mostly connected with EGCG that EGCG and includes induction of apoptosis, promotion of cell growth arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, inhibition of angiogenesis, and metastasis [ 2 ].

Tea polyphenols inhibited in experimental studies the growth of lung, mammary, and stomach human cancer cell lines [ 45 ]. Also, red wine containing higher levels of catechin showed significant reducing powers, thereby confirming the antioxidant potential of red wine due to catechin content.

It is obvious that drinking green tea or red wine helps in improving the general well-being in humans. Epigallocatechin gallate EGCG, Table 2 , also known as epigallocatechin 3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid.

Various clinical studies have revealed that treatment by EGCG inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as liver, stomach, skin, lung, mammary gland, and colon. Preclinical research data in recent studies show promising results, and EGCG has great potential in cancer prevention because of its safety, low cost, and bioavailability [ 36 ].

Theaflavins are antioxidant polyphenols that are formed from the condensation of flavanols in tea leaves during the enzymatic oxidation fermentation of black tea [ 46 ].

Previous research studies led in mice showed beneficial inhibitory effects of topically applied black tea theaflavins e. Flavones as anticancer agents. Apigenin Table 2 is a flavonoid present in various fruits, vegetables, and spices like onions, parsley, oranges, thyme, celery, and sweet red pepper.

It possesses several chemopreventive properties, including induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cells proliferation, and involvement in angiogenesis [ 2 ]. Luteolin Table 2 is most often found in leaves, but it is also seen in celery, parsley, broccoli, onion, carrots, peppers, cabbages, apples, thyme, dandelion, chamomile tea, carrots, green pepper, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary, oranges, and oregano.

The chemopreventive mechanism of action of luteolin includes induction of apoptosis, inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells, and suppression of angiogenesis and metastasis. Luteolin has been reported to inhibit growth of tumors in human skin, hepatoma, and ovarian cancer cells; in lung and breast cancer, luteolin has been shown to inhibit the invasion of cancer cells [ 2 ].

Among 68 plant polyphenols examined for their inhibitory ability against hepatocellular carcinoma cells, luteolin was one of the most potent [ 21 ]. Wogonin, baicalein Table 2 , and baicalin baicalein 7- O -glucuronide , all naturally occurring flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Lamiaceae , were reported to have potential antitumor effects in several studies.

These phytochemicals are not only cytostatic but also cytotoxic to various human tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Numerous studies demonstrated that wogonin had a cytostatic effect due to the apoptotic cell death on various tumor cell lines such as sarcoma, hepatoma cells, breast cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and antimetastatic ability as well [ 48 , 49 ].

Quercetin Table 2 is the most abundant flavonoid in foods. It is present in different fruits apples, berries, and grapes , vegetables onions, broccoli , as well as in tea and red wine, mostly in glycosylated forms.

The daily intake of quercetin has been estimated at 30 mg. Quercetin is probably the most studied flavonoids, and antioxidant properties are known as outstanding. This flavonol was found to have antiproliferative activity in many situations, such as adenomatous polyposis [ 36 ] and breast cancer [ 2 ].

Myricetin Table 2 is the next flavonol occurring in fruits, vegetables, or red wine exerting anticancer activity. In lung cancer, this compound has been observed to block invasion and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

According to the study with human leukemia cell line, myricetin induced apoptosis in these cells [ 2 ]. Kaempferol Table 2 is another flavonol present in tea, broccoli, grapefruit, brussels sprouts, apples, and other plants.

This compound exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects on several types of cancer. Kaempferol has been reported to inhibit the invasion of the human invasive breast carcinoma cell line, angiogenesis, and human ovarian cancer cells.

The available data indicate that kaempferol could be a potential chemopreventive agent against various cancers such as lung, colon, prostate, liver, pancreas, and skin [ 2 ]. Isoflavones as anticancer agents.

Isoflavone 3-phenyl-4 H benzopyrone differs from flavone in location of the phenyl group. Most members of the Fabaceae family contain significant quantities of isoflavones. Genistein and daidzein Table 2 , the most prevalent compounds of isoflavonoid class, were found in various legumes including soybean, green bean, alfalfa sprout, mung bean sprout, cowpea, kudzu root, and red clover sprout.

Due to the estrogen-like structure of isoflavones found in soybeans and the known role of estrogens in breast carcinogenesis, most soy research has focused on the hormonal activity of these compounds [ 50 ].

Some studies showed that daidzein can inhibit hepatoma cell growth and induce apoptosis [ 21 ]. Regarding genistein, the major isoflavone in soy, laboratory studies have demonstrated different mechanisms of action, including antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in both animal and human cell lines.

In addition, genistein possesses antioxidant activity and the ability to scavenge free radicals, protecting the body against oxidative DNA damage. The chemopreventive activity of genistein has been investigated mainly against breast and prostate cancer.

Influence of glycosilation in flavonoid family. The most abundant flavonoid glycosides in plants are flavone and flavonol O-glycosides. Regarding the antioxidant and antitumoral properties, it was illustrated that the flavonoid aglycones showed higher anticancer potential than their glycosides in cell level; e.

It was demonstrated that cellulase can remarkably transform baicalin and wogonoside to their aglycones baicalein and wogonin with enhance of antiproliferative effects [ 51 ]. Generally, glycosylation reduced the antiproliferative activity in flavonoid classes, and a C2-C3 double bond seems important for the antiproliferative activity of flavonoids, and indeed flavones are typically more potent that flavanones [ 19 ].

Stilbenoids are hydroxylated derivatives of stilbene with a C6-C2-C6 structure. They are secondary metabolites occurring naturally in various families of plants; grapes and related products are considered the most important dietary sources of these substances.

High amounts of trans-resveratrol can be found in grapes and grape skins used for wine production, raspberries, mulberries, blueberries cranberries, peanuts, and certain types of pine [ 21 ].

All anticancer data obtained on preclinical animal studies showed that resveratrol affects all three discrete stages of carcinogenesis initiation, promotion, and progression by modulating signal transduction pathways that control cell division and growth, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis [ 36 ].

A synthetic stilbene derivative, tamoxifen, is currently used for the treatment of several types of breast cancer in women, and as a hormone treatment for male breast cancer [ 52 ]. Caffeic acid. Caffeic acid Table 2 is a hydroxycinnamic acid found in most plants, including coffee beans, nuts, berries, and grains.

Several studies have investigated the antitumor potential and hepatoprotective activity of the caffeic acid derivative, which have been identified in particular in honey and propolis [ 21 ].

Data showed that caffeic acid phenethyl ester CAPE , a component of propolis, induces cell cycle arrest and has antiproliferation effect on glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CAPE inhibited the metastasis of glioma cells [ 53 ].

Caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester CADPE , a natural polyphenol from Sarcandra glabra , has potent in vitro anticancer activity through multiple targets. This compound significantly decreased tumor growth in hepatoma and sarcoma tumor-bearing mice, and also significantly inhibited ascites development.

CADPE did not show any toxicity in vivo and anticancer efficacies were equivalent to those of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide drugs in cancer treatment.

The tested 59 human cancer cell lines from leukemia and nine different solid tumors, including colon cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, CNS cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, renal cancer, and prostate cancer, are sensitive to CADPE that suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis [ 54 ].

Protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid Table 2 , a dihydroxybenzoic acid widely distributed in the plant kingdom, is the major metabolite of antioxidant polyphenols found in green tea. Protocatechuic acid has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to inhibit HepG2 human liver carcinoma cell line cell growth and induce apoptosis [ 21 ].

A curcuminoid is a linear diarylheptanoid, with molecules such as curcumin Table 2 or derivatives of curcumin with different chemical groups that confers increase solubility and make them suitable for drug formulation. Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family.

It has been traditionally used for centuries for treating numerous diseases. Over the past few years, a number of studies uncovered several pharmacological properties of curcumin.

It has been shown that curcumin inhibited HepG2 cell growth by inducing apoptosis [ 21 ]. Recent studies showed substantial evidence that curcumin inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis, and induced apoptosis via modulating multiple signaling pathways in head and neck cancer [ 36 ].

Gallic acid. Gallic acid Table 2 is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, onions, and also fresh tea leaves containing up to 4. Gallic acid has been shown to exhibit biological activity, including anticancer and chemopreventive potential, capacity to induce apoptosis in human leukemia.

Because gallic acid exhibits anti-invasive and antimetastatic activities in various cancer cells, it might be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent against gastric cancer metastasis [ 2 ]. Ellagic acid.

Ellagic acid Table 2 is a dimeric derivative of gallic acid occurring mostly in fruits and berries such as raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, and pomegranates and a primary constituent of ellagitannins. The data demonstrate that ellagic acid inhibits carcinogenesis, induces apoptosis in pancreatic and leukemia cancer cells, and also can delay the tumor latency and significantly reduce the estrogen-induced mammary tumors in rats.

As a consequence, ellagic acid as well as gallic acid may be considered in a promising new class of cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents [ 2 , 55 ]. Tannin also known as tannoid is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenolic compound that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds, including amino acids and alkaloids.

The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants, where they play a role in protection from predation, and perhaps also as pesticides, and in plant growth regulation. They showed antimutagenic activity without any obvious toxicity.

Pentagalloylglucose and geraniin were among the most active tannins. Geraniin was isolated from the dry leaf of Geranium thunbergii. The plant is an official medicine in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia and is used for the treatment of diarrhea and for controlling intestinal function [ 45 ]. The grape Vitis vinifera skin mostly contains the highest amount of condensed tannins, alongside monomeric flavanols and flavonols, phenolic acids, and resveratrol.

The grape skin extract induced prostate tumor cell line apoptosis, and the extract from pomace has a significant antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells [ 56 ].

Polysaccharides are biopolymers with linear or branched side chains, composed of monosaccharides linked together through glycosidic bonds. Natural polysaccharides can be obtained from various organisms, such as plants, algae, microorganisms, and animals, and exist in a variety of chemical compositions, molecular weights, and structures [ 1 ].

Most polysaccharides derived from higher plants are relatively nontoxic and do not cause significant side effects; thus, plant polysaccharides are ideal candidates for therapeutics with immunomodulatory and antitumor effects and low toxicity [ 20 ].

Natural polysaccharides isolated from herbal plants have been shown to possess bioactivities. For example, the immune-stimulatory properties of Aloe vera glucomannan have been confirmed and used for treatment of immune-related diseases [ 23 ]. The type of linkage between saccharide units—the glycosidic linkage—seems to be important in immunomodulatory and anticancer activities.

The literature also demonstrates that most of antitumor polysaccharides contain B-1,3-glucans, β-1,6-glucans, and α-1,3-glucans [ 23 ]. Although today is investigating especially polysaccharides of bacterial, algae, and fungi origins, plants have an important as sources of bioactive polymers especially because they are nontoxic.

Here are some examples in the following lines:. The genus Actinidia Actinidiaceae consists of over 58 species widely distributed in the Asian continent China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, southeast Siberia, and south of Indochina.

Some Actinidia species, such as A. macrosperma , are the important in traditional medicine being used as health foods and medical products. In temperate climate zones, roots of Actinidia eriantha Benth a commonly liana plant have been used for gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and hepatitis in traditional Chinese medicine.

The water extracts of this drug possess antitumor and immunopotentiating activities. Four polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the roots of A. eriantha , and the chemical composition of these polysaccharides could affect their antitumor and immunomodulatory activity [ 20 ].

Rhizoma arisaematis comes from the rhizome of Pinellia pedatisecta Schott , which has bitter, warm, pungent, and toxic properties. It has be recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as a traditional Chinese medicine, displaying sedative, stomachic, analgesic, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and antitumor activities.

The pharmacognostical study identifies the active components of R. arisaematis to be beta-sitosterol, total alkaloids, guanosine, gama-aminobutyric acid, dipeptides, and recently a water soluble polysaccharide composed of rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose, with molar ratios of 0.

This polysaccharide significantly inhibits the growth of tumor in animal experiments; immunomodulation might be the mechanism of the antitumor activity [ 57 ]. Rhodiola rosea L. belongs to the family Crassullaceae that grows in the Arctic and in the mountainous regions of Europe, Asia, and North America.

The rhizome and roots has been widely used for a long time in Russian and Chinese folk medicine to increase human physical and mental performance, longevity, and resistance to high-altitude sickness and to treat fatigue, anemia, cancer, bacterial infection, impotence, nervous system disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Phytochemical studies of R. rosea have revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, essential oils, fats, waxes, sterols, organic acids, tannins, proteins, and polysaccharides. A homogeneous polysaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, manose, and rhamnose with a relative molar ratio of 4.

rosea was tested for its immunomodulation and anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo experiments on sarcoma cells.

The results showed that this polysaccharide could be used as a novel promising immunotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment [ 58 ]. Astragalus membranaceus is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs.

The plant, used especially for treatment of the kidneys and also to avoid senility, has been shown to be effective in immune enhancement and in the treatment of diabetes, viral infections, and cancers as well.

The polysaccharides isolated from the radix of A. membranaceus are an active anticancer component. Polysaccharides from ginseng Panax genus possess preventive and inhibitory effects against tumors by enhancing immunological functions and induction of apoptosis.

A ginseng polysaccharide injection has been developed in China as a useful adjuvant for irradiation therapy and chemotherapy for cancer patients [ 1 ]. Solanum nigrum is a species in the Solanum genus, native to Euroasia and introduced in North and South America, South Africa, and Australia.

Parts of this plant can be toxic to livestock humans, and it is considered a weed. nigrum is a widely used plant in oriental medicine where it is considered to be antitumorigenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, and antipyretic [ 59 ].

Chinese experiments confirm that the plant inhibits growth of cervical carcinoma in mice [ 60 ]. Polysaccharides isolated from S. nigrum L. Artemisia argyi Asteraceae , the Chinese mugwort, is a herbaceous perennial plant native to China, Japan, and far-eastern Siberia. It is used in herbal medicine for conditions of the liver, spleen, and kidney.

In Chinese traditional herbal medicine, it is used for the treatment of cancer, microbial infections, inflammatory diseases, diarrhea, hepatitis, malaria, and circulatory disorders.

In a recent study, a water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from A. argyi , and its antitumor activity was evaluated in vivo. This new hetero-polysaccharide had clear antitumor and immunomodulatory activities [ 61 ]. The root of the plant, a well-known Chinese medicine, has been used as a tonic, hematopoietic, and anti-inflammatory agent for thousands of years.

Pharmacological experiments have proved that polysaccharide is one of the major active ingredients in A. sinensis possessing antitumor effects on experimental tumor models in vivo and inhibitory effects on invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in vitro [ 62 ].

Tea plant Camellia sinensis is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, in areas with enough rainfall.

The flowers of Camellia sinensis have been used for deodorization, skin care, cough suppressant, and expectorant in China. Recent studies have demonstrated that the extract of tea flower had various bioactivities, including antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against human breast cancer.

A regular use of green tea protects the body against many cancers including those of the liver, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and lungs. Tea polysaccharides, one of the main components of tea extracts, have been demonstrated to have immunological, antiradiation, antioxidant, anticancer, and hypoglycemic effects [ 63 ].

Although they are not derived from plants, we must remember some polysaccharides that have been demonstrated to have powerful antitumor activity: chitin, the most abundant renewable natural resource after cellulose, a homopolymer of N -acetyl-d-glucosamine, is active on bladder human cancer cells and colon carcinoma [ 64 ]; a water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus has immunomodulatory and antitumor activity [ 65 ]; the polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus eryngii have been demonstrated to have multiple functions, such as antitumor, antioxidant, hepatoprotective activity, and enhance immunity [ 66 ]; gama-carrageenan sulfated polysaccharides extracted from marine red alga, with different molecular weight, has antitumor and immunostimulating activities [ 67 ].

Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. Camptothecin Figure 4 is a naturally occurring pyridoindole quinoline alkaloid isolated from the seeds of Chinese plant Camptotheca acuminata and Mappia foetida.

Camptothecin and some of its analogs have shown a broad spectrum of antitumor activity against many solid tumors including colorectal, breast, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Derivatives of camptothecin such as OH-camptothecin, OH-camptothecin, and OH-camptothecin have been found to possess a strong antileukemic activity [ 3 , 68 ].

The primary limitations of camptothecin are its extremely low water solubility, and the hydrolysis of the active lactone ring to the inactive carboxylate, which reduces the drug efficacy and can lead to side effects. To overcome these stability and solubility problems of camptothecin, several new approaches have been investigated such as using drug delivery technologies, e.

Specifically, camptothecin nanocrystals were prepared with a sonication-precipitation method with promising results [ 68 ]. Camptothecin left and harmine right. Harmine Figure 4 , the most representative naturally occurring beta-carboline alkaloid, was originally isolated from Peganum harmala , which is being widely used as a traditional herbal drug in the Middle East and North Africa.

In Northwest China, the extracts of the seeds of P. harmala have been used for hundreds of years to treat the gastrointestinal cancers and malaria.

Harmine was reported to exhibit a diverse range of pharmacological properties such as hallucinogenic, antitumor, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities. In order to search for novel leading compounds with better antitumor activities and less neurotoxicities, a series of harmine derivatives were designed and synthesized by modification of β-carboline nucleus [ 70 ].

Peptides are short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They are naturally, abundantly occurring biological molecules. Many plants are an enormously rich source of peptides with potential antitumor effect, e. The mechanism of anticancer peptides action consists of inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, induction of tumor apoptosis, induction of tumor necrosis, immunomodulation.

Studies have shown that peptides from plants exhibit marked inhibitory effects on the proliferation of various tumor cell lines, such as murine leukemia, rat osteoblastlike sarcoma, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lung, liver, and mammary gland cancer and ovarian neoplasm [ 71 ].

Studies have shown that most peptides isolated from plants are cyclic peptides, so-called cyclopeptides which usually consist of less than 14 amino acid residues with no disulfide bond.

More than cyclopeptides have been discovered in higher plants. They exhibit more potent biological activities, possibly due to the stable configuration provided by their cyclic structure. Some cyclopetides have been reported to have powerful antitumor activities, for example, cherimolacyclopeptide, a cycloheptapeptide from Annona cherimola seeds [ 72 ].

Cyclotides are small disulfide rich peptides isolated from plants, consisting of amino acid residues. They have been found in the plants of Rubiaceae , Violaceae , and Cucurbitaceae.

Cyclotides are exceptionally stable and are resistant to denaturation by thermal, chemical, or enzymatic treatments and have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-HIV, antitumor, antimicrobial, hemolytic, neurotensin antagonism, trypsin inhibitor, uterotonic, and insecticidal activity [ 72 ].

Lectins are members of a super family of proteins that express the capacity to bind reversibly to a specific carbohydrate. Foods with high concentrations of lectins, such as beans, cereal grains, seeds, nuts, and potatoes, may be harmful if consumed in excess in uncooked or improperly cooked form.

Adverse effects may include allergies, autoimmune diseases, or even interfere with the absorption of nutrients, thereby acting as antinutrition molecules.

However, plant lectins attracted increasing attention from cancer biologists due to their possible antitumor properties. A large-scale study in colorectal cancer patients and a control group showed some beneficial effects of consuming plant lectins, but the pathways remain unclear [ 73 ].

Astragalus membranaceus lectin displays antiproliferative properties toward human leukemia cells in vitro. Mistletoe lectin, which is used as an adjuvant in cancer therapy, is known to activate caspases, enzymes involved in the self destruction of cells [ 74 ].

Recently, some antitumoral lectins have been discovered and researched, such as mistletoe V. album lectins, rice Oryza sativa bran agglutinin with remarkable antitumour activities, wheat Triticum spp.

germ agglutinin, a typical chitin-binding lectin with strong inhibitory effects on the growth of the pancreatic tumour cells, and garlic Allium sativum L lectin, isolated from garlic which induced apoptosis at a low concentration [ 76 ].

Phaseolus vulgaris lectin can also induce apoptotic cell death toward various types of cancers; more interestingly, induces autophagic cell death in hepatocarcinoma [ 77 ]. Quinones are secondary metabolites generally having a hexacyclic di-ketone system derived from the oxidation of hydroquinones, and isolated principally from plants.

Naturally occurring quinones are widely distributed and include benzoquinones, naphthoquinones, anthraquinones, and polyquinones. Quinones exhibit numerous biological activities, such as neurological, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-HIV activities that have been proven to be related to the redox properties of their carbonyl functions.

Quinones, in general, and naphthoquinones, in particular, are well known for antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumoral activities.

Lapachol possesses strong biological activity against liver, kidney, breast, prostate, cervix cancer, and leukemia. Unfortunately the toxic effect limits the use of lapachol [ 78 ]. Plumbagin Figure 5 is a naphthoquinone compound that displayed antiproliferative activity on a panel of 60 cancer cell lines.

However, plumbagin, identified in the Cameroonian plants Diospyros crassiflora and Diospyros canaliculata, was suggested as a promising anticancer lead drug [ 79 ]. Chemical structures of quinones with antitumoral activity. Plumbagin has been shown to have activity against breast, prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, lung, liver, renal, cervical, and skin cancer, in addition to having activity against myeloma and leukemia.

It has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and cell invasion and effectively induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest [ 80 ]. Emodin Figure 5 , isolated from Rheum emodi , a Himalayan rhubarb, is also produced by many species of fungi, including Aspergillus fungi.

The pharmacological studies have demonstrated that emodin when isolated from rhubarb exhibits anticancer effects on several human cancers, including human pancreatic cancer [ 81 ]. Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates natural chemicals most likely contribute to plant defense against pests and diseases , which are converted to isothiocyanates.

Evidence supports that consumption of cruciferous vegetables has substantial chemopreventive activity against various human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. Benzyl isothiocyanate Figure 6 , an agent that is present in cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, and horseradish, is widely consumed as part of a routine diet.

Benzyl isothiocyanate is quite effective in suppressing pancreatic tumor growth by inhibiting various key signaling pathways [ 82 ]. Scientific research shows strong immunomodulatory and antitumor properties for aloe vera polysaccharides. Acemannan Figure 7 is the name given to the major carbohydrate fraction obtained from the gel of the aloe vera leaf.

This compound has several important therapeutic properties including acceleration of wound healing, immune stimulation, and antiviral and anticancer effects. The research results suggest that acemannan accelerates the destruction of cancer tumors, improves survival time and results in far better recovery from toxic cancer treatments [ 83 , 84 ].

Acemannan is currently being used for treatment and clinical management of fibrosarcoma in dogs and cats. Administration of acemannan has been shown to increase tumor necrosis and prolonged host survival [ 85 ]. Acemannan structure. This contains vinca alkaloids, which were the first phytoconstituents ever used to treat cancer.

Intense work on C. roseus , a folklore hypoglycemic drug, led to isolation of more than 70 dimeric indole alkaloids, which include vinblastine, vincristine, alstonine, ajmalicine, and reserpine.

Vinca alkaloids execute anticancer effect by arresting division of the cancerous cells. Garlic has been used for thousands of years to treat various diseases. Garlic contains approximately 33 sulfur compounds aliin, allicin, ajoene, allylpropyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, sallylcysteine, vinyldithiines, S-allylmercaptocystein, and others , several enzymes allinase, peroxidases, myrosinase, and others , 17 amino acids arginine and others , and minerals selenium, germanium, tellurium, and other trace minerals.

Garlic has shown significant therapeutic effect in stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer in humans. Biological effects of garlic are attributed to its characteristic organ sulfur compounds [ 86 ]. The constitutive compounds of garlic can selectively inhibit tumor proliferation by a number of factors, e.

Garlic constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, carcinogen bioactivation, and tumor proliferation [ 87 , 88 ]. Parsley has a variety of nutrients that protect against developing cancer.

It is an excellent source of vitamin C and a good source of beta-carotene, folic acid, vitamin K, flavonoids, and volatile oil components—including myristicin, limonene, eugenol, and alpha-thujene. The flavonoids include apiin, apigenin, crisoeriol, and luteolin [ 89 ].

Luteolin have been shown to function as antioxidants that combine with ROS and help prevent oxygen-based damage to cells. Apigenin research studies have associated it with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer, leukemia, cervical, and ovarian cancer.

Apigenin has also been shown to interfere with cancer cell proliferation, exhibiting strong antitumor properties [ 90 ]. During the consultation, patients will have the opportunity to discuss their unique health history, current condition, and treatment goals with the medical team.

Whether you are seeking additional support for conventional cancer treatments or exploring alternative options, the Cancer Center for Healing offers a holistic and personalized approach to cancer care that emphasizes the power of nature and the importance of an integrated treatment plan.

The potential for using herbs in cancer treatment is a promising field of study that continues to garner attention in the medical community. Research on natural remedies like herbs has advanced significantly over the years, providing insight into their mechanisms of action and potential benefits.

As the body of knowledge on herbal treatments expands, there is a growing recognition of their value in cancer care. Continued research and clinical trials are needed to fully understand the potential of herbs in cancer treatment and to determine the appropriate dosages and combinations of herbs for optimal results.

One area of focus is the use of herbal remedies in combination with conventional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Studies have shown that some herbs can increase the effectiveness of these treatments while reducing side effects.

Another promising area of study is the role that herbs can play in cancer prevention. Research suggests that incorporating certain herbs into a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing cancer.

Several herbs have shown promise in cancer treatment and are currently being studied for their potential benefits:. While much progress has been made in researching the potential benefits of herbal cancer treatments, there is still much to learn.

Continued research and collaboration between conventional and alternative medical practitioners will help to further explore the potential of these natural remedies and lead to better cancer care for patients.

Adopting a holistic approach to cancer care can offer numerous benefits for individuals seeking comprehensive treatment options. Integrating herbal remedies and complementary therapies with conventional medical treatments can address the body, mind, and spirit of the patient as a whole and support overall well-being during a challenging time.

Herbal therapies can provide valuable support for cancer patients, both as complementary treatments and in helping to manage side effects from conventional therapies.

Incorporating natural herbs into a healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the risk of developing cancer. The Cancer Center for Healing, under the guidance of Dr. By promoting a holistic approach to cancer care, individuals can empower themselves in their cancer treatment journey and potentially achieve positive outcomes.

Seeking professional guidance and incorporating herbal remedies and complementary therapies into cancer care can help bring balance and promote healing for the body, mind, and spirit.

Herbs have been used for centuries to support health and manage various ailments, including cancer. As scientific research continues to explore the benefits of plant-based medicine, many herbs have been found to possess anticancer properties, making them a promising complementary approach to conventional cancer treatments.

The Cancer Center for Healing, located in Irvine, CA, offers personalized herbal treatment plans and a comprehensive approach to cancer care that integrates conventional medical approaches with complementary therapies, including herbal medicine.

Through the use of herbal therapies, individuals can potentially alleviate side effects of conventional treatments, boost their immune system, and improve their overall quality of life during cancer therapy. Real-life success stories from individuals who have incorporated herbal treatments into their cancer care journey highlight the potential benefits of these natural remedies.

Ongoing research and emerging trends in herbal cancer treatment offer promising prospects for the future. Adopting a holistic approach to cancer care that includes herbal remedies and complementary therapies can potentially enhance the effectiveness of conventional treatments and support overall well-being.

A: Some herbs that have been scientifically proven to possess anticancer properties include turmeric, green tea, garlic, ginger, and astragalus. A: Yes, incorporating certain herbs into a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing cancer. Examples of herbs with potential cancer preventive properties include broccoli sprouts, berries, and cruciferous vegetables.

A: Herbal therapies can potentially enhance the effectiveness of conventional treatments and support the overall well-being of cancer patients. They can help alleviate side effects, boost the immune system, and improve quality of life during cancer therapy.

A: Yes, certain herbs can help alleviate side effects of conventional treatments, boost the immune system, and improve overall quality of life during cancer therapy. A: To schedule a consultation with the Cancer Center for Healing and explore herbal cancer treatment options, please contact [insert contact information].

A: The future of herbal cancer treatment looks promising, with ongoing studies and emerging trends indicating the potential for further advancements in incorporating herbs in cancer care. A: Adopting a holistic approach to cancer care, which integrates herbal remedies and complementary therapies with conventional treatments, can provide a comprehensive and well-rounded approach to cancer management.

In addition, Dr. Connealy imparts her wisdom in educating medical practitioners from all over the world; as well as, public speaking engagements, webinars, and podcasts that include: The Truth About Cancer, a variety of series with Jonathan Otto, Sarah Otto, Nathan Crane, and Dr.

She offers the most scientifically and technologically advanced equipment and protocols at her clinic located in Southern California Irvine.

Key Takeaways: Herbs have been found to contain bioactive compounds that can help inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Scientific studies have confirmed the efficacy of many herbs in fighting cancer.

Understanding Cancer and the Need for Alternative Treatments Cancer is a complex disease that affects millions of people around the world. Why Alternative Treatments are Needed Conventional cancer treatments are often associated with harsh side effects like nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and fatigue.

The Potential of Herbal Remedies in Cancer Management Many herbs and botanicals have been studied for their anti-cancer properties. The Power of Nature: Exploring Anti-Cancer Herbs Nature has endowed us with a multitude of powerful herbs that possess anti-cancer properties.

Herbal Remedies for Cancer Prevention Herbal remedies have been used for centuries to prevent illness and maintain overall health. An Integrative Approach to Cancer Care at the Cancer Center for Healing The Cancer Center for Healing in Irvine, CA, offers a comprehensive and integrative approach to cancer care that combines conventional medical approaches with complementary therapies.

Acupuncture A traditional Chinese medicine practice that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

Mind-Body Medicine A holistic approach to health that integrates psychological and emotional well-being with physical health and wellness. Herbal Therapies as Complementary Cancer Treatments Herbal therapies are often used as complementary treatments for cancer, working alongside conventional treatments to enhance their effectiveness and promote overall well-being.

Some of the herbs used in cancer treatment may include: Curcumin: A compound found in turmeric that has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Maitake mushroom: A mushroom that has been found to have immune-boosting and tumor-fighting properties.

Milk thistle: A plant that has been used for centuries to support liver health and detoxification, and has been found to have potential anticancer properties. Personalized Herbal Treatment Plans at the Cancer Center for Healing At the Cancer Center for Healing, herbal treatment plans are personalized to meet the unique needs of each individual patient.

Success Stories: Real-Life Experiences with Herbal Cancer Treatment Many individuals have experienced positive outcomes from incorporating herbal treatments into their cancer care journey. Promoting a Holistic Approach to Cancer Care The Cancer Center for Healing promotes a holistic approach to cancer care that prioritizes the whole person, not just the disease.

Holistic Treatment Modalities Offered at the Cancer Center for Healing The Cancer Center for Healing takes a comprehensive approach to cancer care by incorporating both conventional and complementary therapies. Herbs commonly used in cancer treatment: How they can help: Milk thistle Supports liver function and detoxification Curcumin from turmeric Has potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells Reishi mushroom Boosts the immune system and has been shown to have anti-cancer effects Nutritional Counseling: Proper nutrition is crucial for maintaining overall health and optimizing cancer treatment outcomes.

Herbal Therapies as Complementary Cancer Treatments Herbal therapies have long been used in traditional medicine, and their use in cancer treatment is increasingly being explored.

Supporting Cancer Treatment with Natural Herbs Alongside conventional cancer treatments, natural herbs and remedies can provide additional support in managing symptoms and promoting overall well-being. Herbs as Complementary Treatments Aside from managing symptoms, certain herbs can potentially enhance the effectiveness of conventional cancer treatments.

The Cancer Center for Healing Offers Personalized Herbal Treatment Plans The Cancer Center for Healing, led by Dr. Success Stories: Real-Life Experiences with Herbal Cancer Treatment Herbal cancer treatment has shown promise as a complementary approach to conventional treatments.

Consultation and Treatment: Taking the First Step Towards Healing For those interested in exploring herbal cancer treatment options, scheduling a consultation with the Cancer Center for Healing is the first step towards a comprehensive and effective approach to cancer care.

The Future of Herbal Cancer Treatment The potential for using herbs in cancer treatment is a promising field of study that continues to garner attention in the medical community. Promoting a Holistic Approach to Cancer Care Adopting a holistic approach to cancer care can offer numerous benefits for individuals seeking comprehensive treatment options.

The Power of Nature: Harnessing Herbs in the Fight Against Cancer Herbs have been used for centuries to support health and manage various ailments, including cancer. FAQ Q: What are some herbs that have been found to have cancer-fighting properties? Q: Can herbal remedies be used for cancer prevention?

Q: How can herbal therapies complement conventional cancer treatments? Q: Are personalized herbal treatment plans available at the Cancer Center for Healing? Q: Can herbal treatments be used to support conventional cancer treatment? Q: How can I schedule a consultation at the Cancer Center for Healing?

Q: What is the future outlook for herbal cancer treatment? Q: Why is it important to adopt a holistic approach to cancer care?

Leigh Erin Connealy MD. Oophorectomy: A Comprehensive Guide to Surgery and Recovery. Understanding Bone Marrow Cancers: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. Signs of Throat Cancer: Detecting Early Symptoms for Treatment. Cervical Cancer Symptoms: Key Signs to Detect Early.

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Cancer remains a formidable health challenge worldwide, Quick natural weight loss millions of oof cases diagnosed each year. Conventional Blood sugar regulation catechins, such as chemotherapy and radiation, can be harsh and Blood sugar regulation catechins proeprties associated with debilitating side effects. One option that has gained significant attention is the use of herbs that kill cancer. Herbs have been used for centuries for their medicinal properties, and recent scientific studies have confirmed their efficacy in fighting cancer. Examples of anti-cancer herbs include turmeric, ginger, garlic, green tea, and many more.

Anti-tumor properties of herbs and spices can do so much more than enhance the flavor of food. They can help propefties the immune system og Anti-angiogenesis in bone diseases prevent cancer. Here are six ways to propertes up your food and porperties you in good health. It is also an anti-inflammatory.

Tip: Mix with black pepper piperine and pproperties oil to activate and ov with absorption. It can be Anti-tumor properties of herbs as a dry Anti-rumor or added to soups, sauces and stews.

It Assessing water composition also used hetbs a propertoes remedy for upset Blood sugar regulation catechins and nausea, and can Anti-angiogenesis in bone diseases as an appetite Blood sugar regulation catechins. Tip: Steep a few Training with allergies and intolerances slices in hot water for 10 minutes to create a soothing tea.

Cayenne also contains beta-carotene. It is known to be toxic to cancer cells and helps prevent growth of cancer cells. It contains crocins water-soluble carotenoids that may inhibit tumor growth and progression of cancer.

It carries antibacterial properties and is a natural disinfectant. Tip: Marinating with oregano can help reduce the formation of heterocyclic amines HCAs created when meat is cooked at high temperatures. Garlic helps boost the immune system to help fight diseases, as well as colds and flu.

It also decreases the growth of cancer cells. Cynthia Wigutow is a registered and licensed dietitian with about two decades of experience in acute and long-term care settings.

She earned her Bachelor of Science in dietetics and nutrition from the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston, Texas, and her Master of Science in dietetics and nutrition from Florida International University in Miami. Cynthia currently serves as president of the Florida Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Home News and Media Six cancer-fighting herbs and spices. Cancer Fighting Herbs and Spices. September 22, Cancer protection starts with your spice rack. Herbs and spices. Six herbs and spices to help fight cancer.

: Anti-tumor properties of herbs

Top bar navigation Cancer Drug Discov. Acupuncture can be effective in managing pain, reducing stress and anxiety, and improving overall well-being during cancer treatment. Using Lewis lung carcinoma model, P. Google Scholar Cao ZY, Lan L. Curcumin-targeting pericellular serine protease matriptase role in suppression of prostate cancer cell invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis. Anti-tumor bioactivity of Prunella vulgaris and research progress on its clinical use.
My ultimate top 10 cancer-fighting herbs | Anthrobotanica Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao Acta Acad Med Sin. somnifera were shown to inhibit lung adenoma Senthilnathan et al. Certain herbs can boost the immune system, reduce inflammation, and improve mental and emotional health. Influence of the extract of Prunella vulgaris L. against acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Zhang JWT, Zhao HD. Tanshinone IIA can be an effective adjunctive agent in cancer, and it enhances the chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil therapy in human colorectal cancer HCT and COLO cells through NF-κB inhibition [ ].
Herbs That Kill Cancer: Exploring Nature's Powerful Healers Muchimangins G—J, fully substituted xanthones with a diphenylmethyl substituent, from Securidaca longepedunculata. It also exerts anti-tumor activity through ROS production and JNK activation in human choroidal melanoma MEL cells and xenograft mice [ ]. Butein, cardamonin, phloretin. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. In contrast, berberine induces protective autophagy in human malignant pleural mesothelioma NCI-H cells, and inhibition of autophagy promotes berberine-induced apoptosis [ ]. This random clinical trial of 52 bronchopulmonary carcinoma patients suggested that Prunella vulgaris is a potentially non-toxic therapeutic agent for the treatment of hydrothorax caused bronchopulmonary carcinoma. Certain herbs enhance the effect of chemotherapy in a toxic way that leads to unwanted side effects.
Anti-tumor Properties of Prunella vulgaris | Current Pharmacology Reports Influence of Traditional medicine rituals traditional Chinese medicine Properites vulgaris Anti-inflammatory Fas propertiws gene expression and invasive Anti-tumor properties of herbs of human colon cancer Blood sugar regulation catechins. vulgaris as a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. Researchers have found meditation can reduce stress and anxiety and improve quality of life. Google Scholar Wu YQ, Dai XC, Chen W, Hu P. Annona muricata is a tropical fruit tree that belongs to the family Annonaceae.
Herbs for Cancer biophysical Res. All anticancer data obtained on preclinical animal studies showed that resveratrol affects all three discrete stages of carcinogenesis initiation, promotion, and progression by modulating signal transduction pathways that control cell division and growth, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis [ 36 ]. Increased cytotoxicity, morphological changes, increased intracellular ROS generation and anti-migratory activity were also observed. It is a source of polysaccharides, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, enzymes, proteins, and vitamins Musthafa et al. For more information, visit our sponsors page. Moreover, mitochondria and ER stress also play an important role in cucurbitacin-induced anti-cancer effects. UA also inhibits cell and tumor growth through suppressing NF-κB and STAT3 pathways in human prostate cancer DU and LNCaP cells, and DU xenograft mice [ ], and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells [ ].


Mushrooms helping to cure cancer? Hsrbs is the third leading Anti-tumor properties of herbs of Energizing herb formula death Immune-boosting wellness practices sub-Saharan Blood sugar regulation catechins. Plants continue to Anti-rumor unlimited pharmacological bioactive compounds that are used to Anti-tumor properties of herbs various prooperties, including cancer. By Anti-tumor properties of herbs the Anti-tumof, we provide an inventory Anti-angiogenesis in bone diseases African plants with reported Blood sugar regulation catechins activity and evidence supporting their use in cancer management. In this review, we report 23 plants that have been used for cancer management in Africa, where the anticancer extracts are usually prepared from barks, fruits, leaves, roots, and stems of these plants. Extensive information is reported about the bioactive compounds present in these plants as well as their potential activities against various forms of cancer. However, information on the anticancer properties of other African medicinal plants is insufficient. Therefore, there is a need to isolate and evaluate the anticancer potential of bioactive compounds from other African medicinal plants.

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