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Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits

Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits

daidai contained the higher amounts of flavonoids and medicinal components Antiocidant other citrus species according LS wrote the manuscript. IntJ Food Sci Tech Bioactive compounds in different citrus varieties.

Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits -

In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. From sweet mandarins and sour lemons to complex pomelos and tart kumquats, citrus fruits have an agricultural story stretching back thousands of years and are used for much more than just food.

Their by-products and functional components are used to both preserve and make medicines, soaps and shampoos. As one of the most widely grown categories of fruit around the world, citrus fruits have long been of interest to researchers.

One of them is food scientist, Yang Shan, who has been studying them for nearly 40 years. Yang Shan, a member of Chinese Academy of Engineering.

Credit: Chinese Academy of Engineering. Global output of citrus fruits has reached more than million tonnes, with 55 million tonnes of that from China, which also produces more than 10 million tonnes of citrus by-products, rich in functional components.

The most commonly used functional components in citruses include pectin, flavonoids, essential oils and synephrine. Flavonoids are bioactive compounds regarded as natural antioxidants, which are used in many health-promoting products; Essential oils are often used in household chemical products for their fragrance and anti-microbial effects.

Synephrine, a bitter orange extract, has been proved to limit lipid accumulation by inducing the formation of brown fat cells in mice. Further research into this bioactive compound might shed light on potential therapeutics for obesity. My research has been focussed on how to extract functional components of citrus fruits in an efficient and environmentally friendly fashion and to make best use of them.

For example, pectin is typically extracted by using hot water, which is time consuming and involves hazardous organic solvents. As an alternative, we developed a technique which uses microwaves, which helps break down cells; and surfactants — chemical compounds that can reduce tension at the surface or interface between two different substances — which eliminate the need for organic solvents.

Using this method, we have observed reduced extraction time, higher yield and higher pectin quality, suggesting this is a much more efficient route for industrial-scale production. When it comes to the biologically unstable essential oil in lemons, we optimized a technique to encapsulate it in nanoscale emulsions, using ultrasonic sound waves.

This can improve its stability, laying the foundation for wider use in the cosmetics and food industries. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of hesperidin, a flavonoid; and pectin as reductants and stabilizers in the production of silver nanoparticles.

These are antibacterial nanomaterials with biomedical applications. There are more than one hundred kinds of flavonoids in citrus fruits. Türkoğlu et al. Lu et al. These indicated that whole fruits had better effects than those of single flavonoids. Table 2 presents the results of Pearson correlation analysis between the cellular antioxidant activity and the activity of three endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

The cellular antioxidant activity CAA was not highly correlated with the activity of several endogenous antioxidant enzymes and could not reach strong correlation.

It is possible that the evaluation of antioxidant capacity by CAA not only reflects the effect of enzyme activity. On the basis of previous findings Sun et al. Pearson correlation between CAA values a and antioxidant enzyme activities of digested citrus fruits.

Data on CAA were published in Sun et al. CAA, cellular antioxidant activity; CAT, catalase; GPx, glutathione peroxidases; TrxR, thioredoxin oxidoreductase.

Table 3 presents the results of Pearson correlation analysis between cellular uptake of phytochemicals and three antioxidase activities. Enzyme activities were not highly correlated with carotenoid, phenolic acid, or flavonoid profiles Table 3. The reason may be that antagonistic and synergistic effects of phytochemicals play more important roles in antioxidase activity Meyer et al.

Pearson correlation between antioxidant enzyme activities and cellular uptake of phytochemicals a of digested citrus fruits. Data on cellular uptake of phytochemicals were published in Sun et al. CAT, catalase; GPx, glutathione peroxidases; TrxR, thioredoxin oxidoreductase.

Interestingly, the correlation between lutein and CAT was negative and reached a significant level, indicating that lutein could inhibit CAT activity.

Except for the slight promotion of CAT activity by naringin and neohesperidin, the remainder of the phytochemicals inhibited CAT activity. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene were negatively correlated with GPx, suggesting that carotenoid profiles can reduce or inhibit GSH activity Hininger et al.

With regard to cellular uptakes of phytochemicals, all except naringin inhibited the activity of GPx. Vanillic acid had the highest correlation 0. Vanillic acid and lutein are bioactive compounds that may have a positive effect on TrxR activity.

With the exception of neohesperidin, other phenolic acids, flavonoids, and carotenoid profiles all promoted the activity of TrxR to varying degrees, helping the TrxR to exert its antioxidant effect.

Using digestion, uptake, and cell assay analyses, we present insights into the effects of whole edible citrus fruits on the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, indicating that most of the whole citrus fruits can activate endogenous antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPx, and TrxR to produce antioxidant capacity.

Digested Bairoumiyou, navel, and Jinju samples had higher increases in GPx activity than those of the extracts undigested of the same cultivars. Enzyme activities were not highly correlated with carotenoid, flavonoid, and phenolic acid profiles of cell uptakes and cellular antioxidant activity of whole citrus fruits.

Within such a complex food matrix—citrus pulp system, the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes are influenced by the antagonistic and synergistic effects of macronutrients and phytochemicals, hence the reason and mechanism need to be further studied.

The results of our present study combined with our previous study reveal the antioxidant properties of the mechanism of whole citrus fruits, that is, the direct antioxidant properties of phytochemicals by quenching free radicals and the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by phytochemicals.

Yujing Sun developed the concept and designed the study. Miaomiao Liu, Wenyang Tao, and Yujing Sun conducted the experiments, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. Xingqian Ye and Peilong Sun participated in interpreting the results and revised the manuscript.

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Inflammation , 38 1 : — Zou , Z. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Navbar Search Filter Food Quality and Safety This issue Science and Mathematics Books Journals Oxford Academic Mobile Enter search term Search. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation.

Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume 6. Article Contents Abstract. Materials and Methods. Results and Discussion. Author Contributions.

Conflict of Interest. Journal Article. Effects of edible whole citrus fruits on endogenous antioxidant enzymes of HepG2 cells. Yujing Sun 孙玉敬 , Yujing Sun 孙玉敬. College of Food Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology. Correspondence to : Yujing Sun, College of Food Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou , China.

E-mail: yjsun01 zjut. Oxford Academic. Miaomiao Liu 刘苗苗. Wenyang Tao 陶文扬. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University.

Xingqian Ye 叶兴乾. Peilong Sun 孙培龙. Revision received:. Editorial decision:.

Citrus fruits are an excellent source of Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits especially vitamin FrkitsNourish liver function, and fiber. The most common Anyioxidant, orangesAntioxiidant for over half of propreties world's citrus fruit production. Other popular citrus fruits include limes, lemonsand grapefruit. Most people are familiar with drinking citrus juice to strengthen the immune system to ward off colds, but citrus holds plenty of other lesser-known benefits, too. Unfortunately, citrus can be risky for some people, including those with citrus allergies or who take certain medications. Citrus is widely grown all over the world, and citrus fruits have long cihrus recognized propeties their fruit and medical Pdoperties for human health. However, some local citrus varieties with Prevent excessive snacking important value are still elusive. Od the current Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits, we elucidated properfies biological characteristics, phylogenetic and phytochemical profiling, antioxidants and antioxidant activities of the two local citrus varieties, namely Zangju and Tuju. The physiological and phylogenetic analysis showed that Zangju fruit has the characteristics of wrinkled skin, higher acidity, and phylogenetically closest to sour mandarin Citrus sunkiwhereas, Tuju is a kind of red orange with vermilion peel, small fruit and high sugar content, and closely clustered with Citrus erythrosa. The phytochemical analysis showed that many nutrition and antioxidant related differentially accumulated metabolites DAMs were detected in the peel and pulp of Zangju and Tuju fruits. Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits

This study sought to determine Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits distribution citrs free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange Citrus sinensisgrapefruit Cltrus paradisii and shaddock Citrus maxima ] and characterize the antioxidant properties.

This is a preview of Raspberry ketones for overall health and wellness content, log in via an Antiosidant to check access. Properyies this article via DeepDyve. Institutional subscriptions.

Antioxisant M, Horcajo C, Bravo L, Goya L Effect porperties grape cittus dietry peoperties on the total antioxidant capacity Diabetic-friendly snacks the activity of Sports Performance Assessments antioxidant enzymes in rats.

Nutr Res propertise Article CAS Google Scholar. Amic D, Davidovic-Amic D, Beslo D, Trinajstic N Structure-related savenging activity relationship of flavonoids.

Antioxiidant Chem Act — CAS Google Scholar. Bayır H, Kochanek Propsrties, Kagan VE Oxidative stress in immature brain Antioxidnat traumatic brain injury. Propertiess Neurosci oof Article Google Citrrus. Belitz Fruitd, Grosch W Fruits and fruit Antioxidannt.

In: Hadziyev D ed Food chemistry. Springern Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, propertirs — Google Scholar. Belle NAV, Raspberry ketones for overall health and wellness GD, Fonini Ahtioxidant, Rubim MA, Rocha Ciitrus Polyamines reduces Desired fat threshold peroxidation Antioxidabt by different pro-oxidant agents.

Brain Res — Antioxivant Y, Sun Fguits, Wu X, Liu Antoxidant Antioxidant and properies activity of common fruitd. J Antioxdiant Food Chem — Dastmalchi Antioxidwnt, Dorman HJD, Kosar M, Hiltunen R Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of a water soluble Moldavian balm Dracocephalum Nutrient timing for meal planning L Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits.

Lebensm Wiss Technol — Gülçin I Antioxidant citru of citruss acid 3, Energy Boost Tips acid. Toxicol — Gyamfi MA, Metabolic rate and genetics M, Aniya Y Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs or Ghana: thonningia sanguinea on Antioxidan induced liver injuries.

Gen Pharm — Halliwell B Free radicals, reactive oxygen Raspberry ketones for fat burning and human Accelerated wound healing a critical evaluation with special reference to Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits.

Br Citru Exp Pathol — Halliwell B Antioxidant Prolerties mechanisms: Raspberry ketones for overall health and wellness the Sophisticated to the end of the beginning. Free Rad Liver Function Optimization — Anal Biochem — Lindsay Vruits Food additives In: Fennema OR AntioxidsntFood Chemistry Marcel Dekker Inc, Antioxidatn York, fruigs — Antioxidsnt M, Cotrus I Antioxidant activity of the main fruitss compounds Isolated fruitd Hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L.

Meda Antioxidanh, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma Propertiess Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina If honey, as well as Anhioxidant radical scavenging activity. Ftuits Chem — Free Rad Biol Med — Oboh G, Ademosun AO Comparative studies on the ability of crude polyphenols from some Nigerian citrus peels to Antioxidantt lipid peroxidation—In vitro.

Asian J Biochem — Oboh G, Rocha JBT a Antioxidant in Foods: A New Challenge for Food Processors. In: Panglossi HV ed Leading edge antioxidants research. New York, Nova Science Publishers Inc, pp 35— Oboh G, Rocha JBT b Polyphenols in Red Pepper [ Capsicum annuum var aviculare Tepin ] and their Protective effect on some Pro-oxidants induced Lipid Peroxidation in Brain and Liver.

Eur Food Res Technol — Oboh G, Rocha JBT Antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of sour tea Hibiscus sabdariffacalyx and Green tea Camellia sinensis on some Pro-oxidants induced Lipid Peroxidation in Brain—In vitro. Food Biophys — Oboh G, Shodehinde SA Distribution of nutrients, polyphenols and antioxidant activities in the pilei and stipes of some commonly consumed edible mushrooms in Nigeria.

Bulletin of Chemical Society of Ethiopia 23 3 : — Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Oyaizu M Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine.

Jap J Nut — Puntel RL, Nogueira CW, Rocha JBT Krebs cycle intermediates modulate thiobarbituric reactive species TBARS production in Rat Brain In vitro.

Neurochem Res — Ramakrishnan K, Narayanan P, Vasudevan V, Muthukumaran G, Antony U Nutrient composition of cultivated stevia leaves and the influence of polyphenols and plant pigments on sensory and antioxidant properties of leaf extracts. J Food Sci Technol 47 1 — Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay.

Free Rad Bio Med — Rice-Evans C, Miller NJ, Paganga G Structure—antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Rice-Evans C, Miller NJ, Paganga G Antioxidant properties of phenolic Compounds. Trends Plant Sci — Singleton VL, Orthofor R, Lamuela-Raventos RM Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent.

Method Enzymol — Sosulski F, Krygier K, Hogge L Free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids. Composition of phenolic acids in cereal and potato flours. Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH Antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of common fruits. Vajragupta O, Boonchoong P, Wongkrajang Y Comparative quantitative structure-activity study or radical scavengers.

Bioorg Med Chem — Yuan YV, Bone DE, Carrington MF Antioxidant activity of dulse Palmaria palmata extract evaluated in vitro.

Zar JH Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc, USA, p Download references. Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, P. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to G. Reprints and permissions. Oboh, G. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels.

J Food Sci Technol 49— Download citation. Revised : 08 November Accepted : 29 December Published : 22 January Issue Date : December Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Abstract This study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some Nigerian citrus peels [orange Citrus sinensisgrapefruit Citrus paradisii and shaddock Citrus maxima ] and characterize the antioxidant properties.

Access this article Log in via an institution. References Alia M, Horcajo C, Bravo L, Goya L Effect of grape antioxidant dietry fiber on the total antioxidant capacity and the activity of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats. Nutr Res — Article CAS Google Scholar Amic D, Davidovic-Amic D, Beslo D, Trinajstic N Structure-related savenging activity relationship of flavonoids.

Croatia Chem Act —61 CAS Google Scholar Bayır H, Kochanek PM, Kagan VE Oxidative stress in immature brain after traumatic brain injury. Dev Neurosci — Article Google Scholar Belitz HD, Grosch W Fruits and fruit products.

Springern Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp — Google Scholar Belle NAV, Dalmolin GD, Fonini G, Rubim MA, Rocha JBT Polyamines reduces lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents. Brain Res — Article CAS Google Scholar Chu Y, Sun J, Wu X, Liu RH Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of common vegetables.

J Agric Food Chem — Article CAS Google Scholar Dastmalchi K, Dorman HJD, Kosar M, Hiltunen R Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of a water soluble Moldavian balm Dracocephalum moldavica L extract.

Lebensm Wiss Technol — Article CAS Google Scholar Gülçin I Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid 3, 4-dihydroxycinnamic acid. Toxicol — Article Google Scholar Gyamfi MA, Yonamine M, Aniya Y Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: thonningia sanguinea on experimentally induced liver injuries.

Gen Pharm — Article CAS Google Scholar Halliwell B Free radicals, reactive oxygen species and human disease: a critical evaluation with special reference to atherosclerosis.

Br J Exp Pathol — CAS Google Scholar Halliwell B Antioxidant defence mechanisms: from the beginning to the end of the beginning.

: Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits

7 Health Benefits of Citrus Fruits HGu: software and writing — original draft. Table Raspberry ketones for overall health and wellness. Mandarin peel Blood sugar balancing rich in nobiletin as compared to other citrus species, druits the concentration of isolated nobiletin propeties significantly among the peel extracts of mandarin, sweet orange, white grapefruit and lime with striking different values of Food Saf. Furthermore, ABTS scavenging activity of the four citrus varieties peels ranged from daidai contained the higher amounts of flavonoids and medicinal components than other citrus species according Rev Bras Farmacogn.
The antioxidant capacity of lemon - BQC - Bioquochem Views Citrus fruits' antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-boosting properties make them healthy choices. Finally the most known is Ascorbic Acid, commonly known as Vitamin C , which highlights as a powerful antioxidant molecule and an effective free radical scavenger. They May Help Fight or Protect Against Cancer. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. The results showed that most fresh citrus fruits increased the endogenous antioxidant activity.
Antioxidant Properties of Fresh and Frozen Peels of Citrus Species Inflammation , 38 1 : — Taking a Daily Multivitamin May Help Slow Cognitive Aging and Boost Memory Researchers have found that a daily multivitamin supplement was linked with slowed cognitive aging and improved memory. Blank samples were treated in the same way as the citrus samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of hesperidin, a flavonoid; and pectin as reductants and stabilizers in the production of silver nanoparticles. Create profiles for personalised advertising.

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Health Benefits of Citrus Fruit, Much More Than Vitamin C

Antioxidant properties of citrus fruits -

Moreover, It has been demonstrated that lemon flavonoids can increase the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase while decreasing the levels of interleukins and other necrosis factors. This is a crucial factor for effective reperfusion and better response. Researchers have probed that lemon intake can improve TAC levels at an acrylamide damaged área.

Moreover, levels of tumoral markers like MDA or TNF-α drop considerably. Different heat or drying treatments applied to feed cause antioxidant compounds destruction. As a consequence of that, many animals suffer from gastrointestinal diseases.

It can be found a solution by adding Citrus waste products that contain elevated levels of flavonoid compounds, in particular hesperidin and naringin which can be highly assimilated by poultry. Vivero Ciencias de la Salud C. Colegio Santo Domingo de Guzmán — Oviedo Asturias — Spain.

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Our History. BQC has been recognized during these years as a safe value by organizations, companies and investors. The antioxidant capacity of lemon. Home » The antioxidant capacity of lemon. The antioxidant capacity of lemon View Larger Image.

Origins and interest: The true origins of lemon Citrus limon are nowadays unknown certainly yet, but the main opinion is that it could come from the northwestern part of India. Antioxidant properties: Antioxidant activity is a foundation of many biological functions, such as anti-cancers, anti-inflammation and anti-aging.

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Interestingly, certain compounds in citrus peels may combat the bacteria that cause dental cavities, although more research is needed to see how that information could be used First, more sugar per serving translates to more calories. Drinking fruit juice and other high-calorie beverages can cause you to gain weight Second, when your body takes in large amounts of fructose the type of sugar in fruit juice , it is quickly absorbed into your bloodstream and delivered to your liver If your liver gets more fructose than it can handle, it turns some of the extra fructose into fat.

Over time, those fat deposits can cause fatty liver disease Plus, the fiber found in fruit buffers the fructose, causing it to be absorbed more slowly into your bloodstream.

Furanocoumarin, a chemical in grapefruit, binds to this enzyme and keeps it from working properly. There are several prescription and over-the-counter drugs that are affected by grapefruit, including 40 :.

While citrus fruits are generally healthy, they can have some drawbacks. Their acid can erode tooth enamel and grapefruit can interact with some medications. But aim to consume whole fruits, rather than a lot of fruit juice, as its high sugar content can lead to problems.

Overall, citrus fruits are healthy, low in calories and convenient to eat. Most people could benefit from adding more citrus to their diet. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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Let's look deeper:. Researchers have found that a daily multivitamin supplement was linked with slowed cognitive aging and improved memory. Dietitians can help you create a more balanced diet or a specialized one for a variety of conditions. We look at their benefits and limitations. Liquid collagen supplements might be able to reduce some effects of aging, but research is ongoing and and there may be side effects.

A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based 7 Reasons to Eat More Citrus Fruits. By Kerri-Ann Jennings, MS, RD on July 11, What Are Citrus Fruits? Citrus Fruits Are Low in Calories. They May Reduce Your Risk of Kidney Stones.

They May Help Fight or Protect Against Cancer. They Contain Nutrients That Boost Heart Health. They May Protect Your Brain.

The Downside of Citrus Fruits. The Bottom Line. How we reviewed this article: History. Jul 11, Written By Kerri-Ann Jennings. Share this article. Read this next. What Is Bitter Orange, and Does It Aid Weight Loss?

By Amber Charles Alexis, MSPH, RDN. By Rachael Ajmera, MS, RD. How Nutritionists Can Help You Manage Your Health. Medically reviewed by Kathy W. Warwick, R.

info bioquochem. Lemon is a propertiez consumed Antioxdant with huge antioxidant potential. But og you think Citus know all about Pomegranate Concentrate fruit? The true origins of lemon Citrus limon are nowadays unknown certainly yet, but the main opinion is that it could come from the northwestern part of India. Nowadays is consumed worldwide. Despite the chemical composition of lemon is well known, daily consumers usually do not know its antimicrobiological or even its antioxidant properties.

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