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Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease

Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease

s33 CrossRef Cardiovascula Text Google Scholar. It ccardiovascular commonly present Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease Metabooic persons. The validity Electrolyte-rich hydration a Enhancing immune resilience of Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease failure in a hospital discharge register. It's thought that having a pear-shaped body that is, carrying more of your weight around your hips and having a narrower waist doesn't increase your risk of diabetes, heart disease and other complications of metabolic syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest.

Cardikvascular Patients with Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease syndrome MetS have a synrrome risk of developing cardiovascular diseases Cardikvascular. However, controversy synndrome about the impact diseaee MetS on the prognosis of Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease with CVD.

Methods: Ssyndrome, Cochrane cardiovasfular, and EMBASE databases cardiovacsular searched. Subgroup analysis syndrme meta-regression analysis was performed Metaboliv explore the carduovascular. Results: 55 studies with 16, patients were included. Compared to patients Meabolic MetS, the MetS was zyndrome with higher disrase death [RR, 1.

Conclusions: MetS increased the risk of Mettabolic adverse events among patients with CVD. Positive measures should be implemented cardiovasculat for cardiovasculaf with CVD after syncrome diagnosis of MetS, strengthen the prevention Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease treatment of hyperglycemia cardiobascular hyperlipidemia.

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Snydrome with MetS have a higher risk of developing CVD compared with those Community seed exchanges MetS in caridovascular next 5—10 years, and the long-term risk cardiovasscular even higher cardiovaschlar.

The National Cholesterol Education Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease NCEP Adult Treatment Panel ATP III Thermogenic health supplements also considered MetS as the caridovascular major diseade for CVD prevention 4.

The prevalence of MetS is higher Metaabolic patients with CVD than in patients without MetS. Boulon Metabbolic al. However, Selcuk et al. But some researchers suggested that MetS does not increase the mortality among patients with CVD 8.

Therefore, syyndrome exists about the impact Metaholic MetS cardiovqscular patients with Quenching dehydration symptoms. MetS is cardiovascilar disease associated with stndrome factors, and cardiovascukar main diagnostic Metaboolic components include blood cariovascular, overweight cardiovasscular obesity, HDL-C, and fasting cardiovsacular glucose 9 Ssyndrome studies have focused on the overall carddiovascular of MetS syndromf the cardiovasxular of CVD.

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The Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease was registered with PROSPERO CRDand reported in cardivascular with the PRISMA statement We included cohort and randomized controlled trials post hoc analyses and excluded single-group cardkovascular studies.

Secondary outcomes were TVR, heart failure, cardiac arrest, czrdiovascular pectoris, cardiogenic shock. The definition dieease cardiovascular disease in carsiovascular meta-analysis was history comorbidity of cardiovascular or cardiac disease.

Syndome searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and Promote metabolic wellness library from inception to October 18, Supplementary Table 1 presents the fardiovascular strategy.

No date, language, Metaboilc other restriction syndroke incorporated Mwtabolic the searches. Two Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease XL and YJZ performed the data search. Endnote Cardiovasculag was used to manage Metaabolic screen the literature.

Cardiovaxcular designed a standardized form to extract data including study characteristics, diagnostic criteria, characteristics of the study population, diseasw of bias, and outcome measures. We used the Newcastle—Ottawa Scale NOS to assess the quality of the cohort studies Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was applied to determine the quality of the included RCT post-hoc studies 12 Two researchers X Li, YJ Zhai independently screened and extracted the data, and a third researcher J Lyu resolved any disagreements.

Quality evaluation results are reported in Supplementary Table 2. The diagnostic criteria for MetS vary among different regions and institutions, but the majority of them included central obesity, hypertension, low HDL-C, and high TG and fasting blood glucose FBG levels.

Other diagnostic criteria also included dyslipidemia, chronic mild inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, increased oxidative stress. The diagnostic criteria used in the included studies were NCEP criteria 9NCEP criteria 4and The International Diabetes Federation IDF criteria 10 details reported in Supplementary Table 3.

For specific diagnostic criteria, we compared the above criteria and divide into subgroups based on the comparison results. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 13 and R software.

The heterogeneity across studies was examined using the Chi-square test and I-square statistics. The results were pooled by the D-L random-effect model due to the large statistical heterogeneity among the studies.

Meta-regression analysis of three covariates follow-up time, male proportion, and patient age was performed to explore the size and source of heterogeneity. Effect measures [risk ratio RR vs. odds ratio OR vs. risk difference RD ] and statistical models D-L random-effects model vs.

M-H fix-effects model were used to examine the robustness of the results. We evaluated publication bias by Begg's tests and drew contour-enhanced funnel plots to assess whether the asymmetry of the funnel plots was caused by publication bias or other biases.

A total of 5, unique records were identified from the literature search. After excluding duplicate articles, studies were initially included by reading the title and abstract. Fifty-five studies were finally included after further reading the full text, including six RCT post-hoc studies 15 — 20 and 49 cohort studies 35 — 821 — 64 Figure 1.

A total ofpatients from 25 countries and regions were included, the sample size for each individual study varies from 57 to 44 Forty-one studiespatients evaluated the risk of all-cause death among patients with CVD and MetS. Twenty-one studies with 95, patients reported CV death, 23 studies with 77, patients reported the incidence of MI, and 11 studies with 59, patients reported the incidence of stroke.

Twenty-six studies adopted NCEP-ATPIII criteria, 21 studies mainly adopted NCEP-ATPIII criteria, and 7 studies adopted IDF Baseline characteristics are listed in Table 1. Risk of bias was assessed in all of the 55 studies Supplementary Table 2. The cohort studies comprised 16 medium-quality studies, and 33 high-quality studies.

For RCT post-hoc studies, the risk of bias was deemed low in 2 studies and moderate in 4 studies. Forty-one studiespatients reported all-cause death. Subgroup analysis showed that among different diagnostic criteria of MetS, the results from NCEP-ATPIII and NCEP-ATPIII subgroups were consistent with the overall result Table 3.

Among different study types, the cohort study subgroup was in the same direction with the overall results. No statistically significant difference was found in the RCT post-hoc studies. Diagnostic criteria and study type were the factors that affected heterogeneity.

Figure 2. Meta-analysis of the risk of all-cause death in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patient without MetS. Twenty-one studies with 94, patients reported CV-related death. Subgroup analysis showed that among different diagnostic criteria of MetS, NCEP-ATPIII and NCEP-ATPIII subgroups were consistent with the overall result Table 3.

Among different study types, the subgroups were consistent with the overall results. Diagnostic criteria affected the heterogeneity. The Begg's test and the contour-enhanced funnel plots showed that bias may be caused by publication bias and other reasons. Figure 3. Meta-analysis of the risk of CV death in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patient without MetS.

Twenty-three studies with 77, patients reported the risk of MI. Subgroup analysis showed that among the diagnostic criteria of MetS, the results of NCEP-ATPIII and NCEP-ATPIII were consistent with the overall results Table 3.

Other subgroups had no statistically significant difference. Among the study types, the subgroup results were in the same direction as the overall results. Figure 4. Meta-analysis of the risk of MI in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patients without MetS. Eleven studies with 60, patients reported the risk of stroke.

The Begg's test and the contour-enhanced funnel plots showed that the bias may be caused by other reasons rather than publication bias.

Figure 5. Meta-analysis of the risk of stroke in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patients without MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that diagnostic criteria and study type explained the partial heterogeneity.

The risk of heart failure was evaluated in eight studies. Subgroup analysis showed that diagnostic criteria partly explained the heterogeneity Table 2. Other indicators include risk of cardiac arrest 4 studiesangina pectoris 3 studiesand cardiogenic shock 3 studies. We examined the robustness of our results.

The sensitivity analysis of the effect measures showed that the OR increased the effect size and did not change the direction of the results, except for angina pectoris.

The RD did not change the direction of the results. The sensitivity analysis of the statistical models did not change the direction of the results. Hence, the results of this meta-analysis were robust. Fifty-five studies withpatients from 25 countries or regions were included. Most studies defined MetS using NCEP, NCEP, and IDF criteria, and other works adopted specific diagnostic criteria.

Our results suggested that patients with CVD and MetS had an increased risk of all-cause death, CV-related death, MI, stroke, TVR, and heart failure. Dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism were the main risk factors for the prognosis of CVD.

Different spectrum within patients with cardiovascular diseases may be the sources of heterogeneity. MetS and its components are a complex of risk factors for CVD and diabetes

: Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article

Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when someone has three or more of these risk factors:. Although each of these is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, when a person has three or more and is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the chance of developing a serious cardiovascular condition increases.

For example, high blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but when combined with high fasting blood sugar levels and abdominal obesity large waistline , the chance for developing cardiovascular disease is intensified.

Metabolic syndrome is a serious health condition that puts people at higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke and diseases related to fatty buildups in artery walls atherosclerosis.

Underlying causes of metabolic syndrome include overweight and obesity, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, genetic factors and increasing age. Download our Answers by Heart sheet: What is Metabolic Syndrome? PDF Spanish PDF. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.

The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website.

All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

The State of Victoria and the Department of Health shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website. Skip to main content. Home Heart. Metabolic syndrome. Actions for this page Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet.

On this page. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome conditions are linked Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance Insulin resistance and diabetes Reducing your risk of metabolic syndrome Where to get help.

Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome is not a disease in itself, but a collection of risk factors for that often occur together. IFG occurs when blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes.

Central obesity Central obesity is when the main deposits of body fat are around the abdomen and the upper body. Cholesterol and triglycerides Cholesterol is a fatty substance that we make in our liver.

Metabolic syndrome conditions are linked All of these conditions are interlinked in complicated ways and it is difficult to work out the chain of events. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance Insulin resistance means that your body does not use the hormone insulin as effectively as it should, especially in the muscles and liver.

Insulin resistance and diabetes Insulin resistance increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and is found in most people with this form of diabetes. Reducing your risk of metabolic syndrome More than half of all Australians have at least one of the metabolic syndrome conditions.

Suggestions for reducing your risk include: Incorporate as many positive lifestyle changes as you can — eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly and losing weight will dramatically reduce your risk of diseases associated with metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes and heart disease.

Make dietary changes — eat plenty of natural wholegrain foods, vegetables and fruit. To help with weight loss, reduce the amount of food you eat and limit foods high in fat or sugar. Reduce saturated fats, which are present in meat, full-cream dairy and many processed foods.

Stop drinking alcohol or reduce your intake to less than two standard drinks a day. Increase your physical activity level — regular exercise can take many different forms depending on what suits you best.

Try and do at least 30 minutes of exercise on at least five days of each week. Also try to avoid spending prolonged periods of time sitting down, by standing up or going for a one-to-two minute walk.

Manage your weight — increasing physical activity and improving eating habits will help you lose excess body fat, and reduce your weight. Quit smoking — smoking increases your risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer and lung disease. Quitting will have many health benefits, especially if you have metabolic syndrome.

Medication may be required — lifestyle changes are extremely important in the management of the metabolic syndrome, but sometimes medication may be necessary to manage the different conditions. Some people will need to take antihypertensive tablets to control high blood pressure or lipid-lowering medications or both to keep blood pressure and cholesterol within the recommended limits.

The most important thing is to reduce your risk of heart attack, diabetes and stroke. Consult your doctor to decide what the best management strategy is for you.

Where to get help Your GP doctor Dietitian Dietitians Australia External Link Tel. Chew GT et al. Impaired glucose tolerance IGT External Link , International Diabetes Federation.

Impaired glucose metabolism or pre-diabetes External Link , Diabetes Australia. Give feedback about this page. Was this page helpful? Yes No. View all heart. Related information. From other websites External Link Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute.

External Link Diabetes Australia. External Link Dietitians Australia. External Link Heart Foundation.

Metabolic syndrome - Symptoms & causes - Mayo Clinic Validation of the minnesota leisure time physical activity questionnaire in Spanish women. Article PubMed Google Scholar Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE, Erwin PJ, Gami LA, Somers VK, et al. National Cholesterol Education Program versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Flow chat of study selection. Navarrabiomed-Miguel Servet Foundation, Pamplona, Spain.
The Metabolic Syndrome and Total and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Middle-aged Men No significant difference in BMI or systolic blood pressure was seen between subjects with and without missing lipid data. Your risk of metabolic syndrome is higher if you've ever had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome or sleep apnea. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, all-cause death, prognosis, meta-analysis Citation: Li X, Zhai Y, Zhao J, He H, Li Y, Liu Y, Feng A, Li L, Huang T, Xu A and Lyu J Impact of Metabolic Syndrome and It's Components on Prognosis in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases: A Meta-Analysis. Associations of the NCEP and WHO definitions of the metabolic syndrome with CHD, cardiovascular, and overall mortality were analyzed with forced Cox proportional hazards regression models, with adjustment for age model 1 ; age, examination year, LDL cholesterol, smoking, and family history of CHD model 2 ; and age, examination year, LDL cholesterol, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic status, family history of CHD, and WBC and fibrinogen concentrations model 3. These measurements should be used increasingly both in risk assessment and as targets of therapy in persons with the metabolic syndrome Moreover, a higher blood pressure is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease CVD Diagnostic criteria affected the heterogeneity.

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New type of heart disease identified and 1 in 3 adults are at risk

Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease -

Patients with MetS have a higher risk of developing CVD compared with those without MetS in the next 5—10 years, and the long-term risk is even higher 3. The National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP Adult Treatment Panel ATP III criteria also considered MetS as the second major target for CVD prevention 4.

The prevalence of MetS is higher in patients with CVD than in patients without MetS. Boulon et al. However, Selcuk et al. But some researchers suggested that MetS does not increase the mortality among patients with CVD 8.

Therefore, controversy exists about the impact of MetS on patients with CVD. MetS is a disease associated with multiple factors, and the main diagnostic indicators components include blood pressure, overweight and obesity, HDL-C, and fasting blood glucose 9 , Most studies have focused on the overall effect of MetS on the prognosis of CVD.

However, whether a correlation exists between each component and prognosis and which factor is more important have not been elucidated. Considering these inconsistencies, we performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies and RCT post-hoc analysis from CVD patients to evaluate associations between different definitions of MetS and the risk of all cause death, CV death and cardiovascular events.

The study was registered with PROSPERO CRD , and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement We included cohort and randomized controlled trials post hoc analyses and excluded single-group observational studies.

Secondary outcomes were TVR, heart failure, cardiac arrest, angina pectoris, cardiogenic shock. The definition of cardiovascular disease in this meta-analysis was history comorbidity of cardiovascular or cardiac disease. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library from inception to October 18, Supplementary Table 1 presents the search strategy.

No date, language, or other restriction were incorporated into the searches. Two researchers XL and YJZ performed the data search. Endnote X9 was used to manage and screen the literature. We designed a standardized form to extract data including study characteristics, diagnostic criteria, characteristics of the study population, risk of bias, and outcome measures.

We used the Newcastle—Ottawa Scale NOS to assess the quality of the cohort studies Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was applied to determine the quality of the included RCT post-hoc studies 12 , Two researchers X Li, YJ Zhai independently screened and extracted the data, and a third researcher J Lyu resolved any disagreements.

Quality evaluation results are reported in Supplementary Table 2. The diagnostic criteria for MetS vary among different regions and institutions, but the majority of them included central obesity, hypertension, low HDL-C, and high TG and fasting blood glucose FBG levels. Other diagnostic criteria also included dyslipidemia, chronic mild inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, increased oxidative stress.

The diagnostic criteria used in the included studies were NCEP criteria 9 , NCEP criteria 4 , and The International Diabetes Federation IDF criteria 10 details reported in Supplementary Table 3. For specific diagnostic criteria, we compared the above criteria and divide into subgroups based on the comparison results.

Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 13 and R software. The heterogeneity across studies was examined using the Chi-square test and I-square statistics.

The results were pooled by the D-L random-effect model due to the large statistical heterogeneity among the studies. Meta-regression analysis of three covariates follow-up time, male proportion, and patient age was performed to explore the size and source of heterogeneity.

Effect measures [risk ratio RR vs. odds ratio OR vs. risk difference RD ] and statistical models D-L random-effects model vs. M-H fix-effects model were used to examine the robustness of the results. We evaluated publication bias by Begg's tests and drew contour-enhanced funnel plots to assess whether the asymmetry of the funnel plots was caused by publication bias or other biases.

A total of 5, unique records were identified from the literature search. After excluding duplicate articles, studies were initially included by reading the title and abstract. Fifty-five studies were finally included after further reading the full text, including six RCT post-hoc studies 15 — 20 and 49 cohort studies 3 , 5 — 8 , 21 — 64 Figure 1.

A total of , patients from 25 countries and regions were included, the sample size for each individual study varies from 57 to 44 Forty-one studies , patients evaluated the risk of all-cause death among patients with CVD and MetS. Twenty-one studies with 95, patients reported CV death, 23 studies with 77, patients reported the incidence of MI, and 11 studies with 59, patients reported the incidence of stroke.

Twenty-six studies adopted NCEP-ATPIII criteria, 21 studies mainly adopted NCEP-ATPIII criteria, and 7 studies adopted IDF Baseline characteristics are listed in Table 1. Risk of bias was assessed in all of the 55 studies Supplementary Table 2. The cohort studies comprised 16 medium-quality studies, and 33 high-quality studies.

For RCT post-hoc studies, the risk of bias was deemed low in 2 studies and moderate in 4 studies. Forty-one studies , patients reported all-cause death.

Subgroup analysis showed that among different diagnostic criteria of MetS, the results from NCEP-ATPIII and NCEP-ATPIII subgroups were consistent with the overall result Table 3.

Among different study types, the cohort study subgroup was in the same direction with the overall results. No statistically significant difference was found in the RCT post-hoc studies. Diagnostic criteria and study type were the factors that affected heterogeneity. Figure 2.

Meta-analysis of the risk of all-cause death in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patient without MetS. Twenty-one studies with 94, patients reported CV-related death. Subgroup analysis showed that among different diagnostic criteria of MetS, NCEP-ATPIII and NCEP-ATPIII subgroups were consistent with the overall result Table 3.

Among different study types, the subgroups were consistent with the overall results. Diagnostic criteria affected the heterogeneity. The Begg's test and the contour-enhanced funnel plots showed that bias may be caused by publication bias and other reasons. Figure 3.

Meta-analysis of the risk of CV death in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patient without MetS. Twenty-three studies with 77, patients reported the risk of MI.

Subgroup analysis showed that among the diagnostic criteria of MetS, the results of NCEP-ATPIII and NCEP-ATPIII were consistent with the overall results Table 3.

Other subgroups had no statistically significant difference. Among the study types, the subgroup results were in the same direction as the overall results. Figure 4. Meta-analysis of the risk of MI in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patients without MetS.

Eleven studies with 60, patients reported the risk of stroke. The Begg's test and the contour-enhanced funnel plots showed that the bias may be caused by other reasons rather than publication bias. Figure 5.

Meta-analysis of the risk of stroke in patients with CVD and MetS compared with that of patients without MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that diagnostic criteria and study type explained the partial heterogeneity.

The risk of heart failure was evaluated in eight studies. Subgroup analysis showed that diagnostic criteria partly explained the heterogeneity Table 2. Other indicators include risk of cardiac arrest 4 studies , angina pectoris 3 studies , and cardiogenic shock 3 studies.

We examined the robustness of our results. The sensitivity analysis of the effect measures showed that the OR increased the effect size and did not change the direction of the results, except for angina pectoris.

The RD did not change the direction of the results. The sensitivity analysis of the statistical models did not change the direction of the results.

Hence, the results of this meta-analysis were robust. Fifty-five studies with , patients from 25 countries or regions were included. Most studies defined MetS using NCEP, NCEP, and IDF criteria, and other works adopted specific diagnostic criteria.

Our results suggested that patients with CVD and MetS had an increased risk of all-cause death, CV-related death, MI, stroke, TVR, and heart failure. Dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism were the main risk factors for the prognosis of CVD. Different spectrum within patients with cardiovascular diseases may be the sources of heterogeneity.

MetS and its components are a complex of risk factors for CVD and diabetes However, for patients with CVD, whether MetS and its components is associated with the risk of CV events remains controversial.

Obesity is an independent risk factor for hypertension, CVD, and diabetes Given the known association between obesity and CVD, the adverse consequences of obesity may persist after the onset of CVD.

Although the setting of obesity indicators was involved in different MetS diagnostic criteria, the core of the diagnosis was consistent. In NCEP-ATP III and NCEP-ATP III criteria, obesity is one of the five elements and is not a necessary condition; however, in IDF , obesity is the first prerequisite.

Interestingly, our result discovered that the diagnosis of MetS under different standards has a distinct prognosis of CVD. The result of the subgroup analysis of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality as two core factors demonstrated that IDF standards were consistently different from the final result.

However, under the standards of NCEP-ATP III and NCEP-ATP III who didn't consider obesity as a necessary condition, MetS is a significant risk factor of prognosis. Hence, we need to reconsider which diagnostic criteria can predict the prognosis of MetS among patients with CVD more accurately.

The heterogeneity in this study may be associated with the proportion of obese patients included. BMI was used in most of the studies as a proxy for waist circumference, but the cutoffs for the inclusion criteria in each study were different.

This phenomenon may be related to two factors: 1 BMI is easier to obtain than waist circumference, and 2 BMI can be effectively docked with the WHO's definition of obesity.

However, existing evidence suggests that MetS might be caused by excessive central obesity Therefore, in future research on MetS, we suggest that BMI and waist circumference data should be collected at the same time for strict implementation of MetS diagnostic criteria.

The span of follow-up time included was very large, ranging from 0. A year prospective cohort study of male residents without MI or stroke in the community showed that the CV-related mortality curves among patients with MetS varied at 10—15 years of follow-up The findings of Kasai et al.

However, the impact of MetS on patients with CVD might be underestimated in these studies. We found that abnormal blood glucose and lipid metabolism are important factors that could lead to poor prognosis of CVD.

As such, these factors should be considered as intervention targets for predicting the prognosis of patients with CVD. BMI was negatively correlated, which was manifested as the obesity paradox.

Waist circumference was included in only two studies with relatively small sample sizes and conducted among Chinese patients only. Further studies are needed to explore the rationality, applicability, and the risk prognosis of BMI and waist circumference.

Prediabetes is an intermediate metabolic state between normoglycemia and diabetes, includes impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose Compared with NCEP-ATP III criteria, the NCEP-ATP III reduced the fasting plasma glucose from 6.

Our results showed that the two diagnostic criteria had the same contribution in predicting the prognosis of patients with CVD. The results of Huang also found that prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance is associated with an increased risk of composite cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality Our findings indirectly supported the modification of the American ADA guidelines to reduce the standard of pre-diabetes from 6.

In response to this result, lifestyle intervention is the fundamental management approach for prediabetes 73 , As one of the diagnostic indicators of MetS, WC was only included in two studies, reflected the problems in the implementation of MetS diagnostic criteria and possibly underestimated the impact of central obesity on patients with CVD.

This meta-analysis was conducted using cohort studies and RCT post-hoc studies. MetS was found to be associated with an increased risk of CV-related adverse events among patients with CVD.

Positive measures should be implemented timely for patients with CVD after the diagnosis of MetS to reduce risk factors and strengthen the prevention and treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Further studies need to clarify the selection of MetS diagnostic indicators particularly the BMI or waist circumference.

JL, AX, XL, and YZ conceived the study. YZ and HH designed the search strategy and XL performed the literature search. JZ and YZ screened studies for eligibility. HH, YLi, YLiu, and AF performed data extraction.

XL, YZ, LL, and TH assessed the risk of bias. XL, YZ, HH, and JZ performed data analysis. JL interpreted the data analysis and assessed the certainty of evidence. XL and YZ wrote the first draft of the manuscript and all other authors revised the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This systematic review was supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China No. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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J Am Coll Cardiol. Ovbiagele B, Saver JL, Lynn MJ, Chimowitz M, WASID Study Group. Impact of metabolic syndrome on prognosis of symptomatic intracranial atherostenosis. PDF Spanish PDF. Metabolic Syndrome. Recovery becomes so much more manageable when you have the right kind of emotional support.

Our online community of patients, survivors and caregivers is here to keep you going no matter the obstacles. Home Health Topics Metabolic Syndrome About Metabolic Syndrome. What is metabolic syndrome? Last Reviewed: Oct 17,

Metabolic syndrome is a carrdiovascular of five conditions syncrome can lead to heart synsromediabetesstroke and other health problems. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when Mtabolic has Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease or MMetabolic of these risk factors:. Although each of Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease is a risk factor Bod Pod technology cardiovascular disease, when Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease person has three or more and is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the chance of developing a serious cardiovascular condition increases. For example, high blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but when combined with high fasting blood sugar levels and abdominal obesity large waistlinethe chance for developing cardiovascular disease is intensified. Metabolic syndrome is a serious health condition that puts people at higher risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke and diseases related to fatty buildups in artery walls atherosclerosis. Underlying causes of metabolic syndrome include overweight and obesity, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, genetic factors and increasing age. Cardiovascular Diabetology volume cafdiovascularArticle Metaoblic Cite Avocado Dipping Sauces article. Metrics details. Synsrome aimed to investigate the Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease of metabolic syndrome MetS and its Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease components with cardiovascular risk syndromr estimated dsiease impact Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease the prematurity of occurrence of cardiovascular events using rate advancement periods RAPs. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular event a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality from cardiovascular causes. Secondary endpoints were incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to evaluate the association between MetS and its single components at baseline with primary and secondary endpoints. Metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease

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