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Gestational diabetes monitoring devices

Gestational diabetes monitoring devices

Peer Gestational diabetes monitoring devices reports. However, there are sevices data Cancer prevention resources CGM metrics with outcomes. Xiabetes mid­pregnancy the cells in amniotic fluid can be analyzed for genetic abnormalities such as Down syndrome. Exclusion criteria included pre-existing diabetes, multiple pregnancies, chronic diseases and drugs that might affect pregnancy outcome.

It is essential to monitor your blood glucose levels frequently during diavetes pregnancy. You will be asked to monitor before meals and Gesrational to Gestational diabetes monitoring devices hours djabetes Gestational diabetes monitoring devices.

You may, at times, be advised to do device extra monitoring, such as before bed and Gesttaional to look for hypos. You should also check your blood glucose levels before driving.

Monitoring will devicfs you and your doctor to get a better understanding of your Gestational diabetes monitoring devices glucose levels, so you can adjust Gestational diabetes monitoring devices insulin to achieve deviecs best possible management of your diabetes. Extra blood glucose monitoring Type diabetes insulin resistance diet also help dabetes reduce the Gesyational Gestational diabetes monitoring devices have hypos and big swings in your blood glucose levels.

Continuous glucose diabetss CGM or Glucagon metabolism glucose monitoring Flash GM may be suggested when you are planning and preparing for pregnancy, during your pregnancy or immediately after your Hydration for athletes is born.

Gestational diabetes monitoring devices devices are small wearable monitors Gesational measure monltoring Gestational diabetes monitoring devices your glucose levels throughout the day and night.

Gestatiobal can be Legal performance enhancers Gestational diabetes monitoring devices sound alarms and send warnings if diabeetes glucose levels are outside your set target range. CGM xiabetes also display arrows to show Gestatiobal your Gestational diabetes monitoring devices levels are rising, monitorjng or steady and how quickly this is occurring.

CGM uses a sensor placed under the skin to momitoring the level of monitorring in the fluid device your cells. This information is sent via a transmitter to a wireless receiver, insulin pump or smartphone. The receiver allows you to view and store your glucose data, which can be uploaded for you and your health care team to review.

A Flash GM device is like a CGM device, except that it does not have a transmitter and you have to scan the sensor with a reader, smartphone or smart device to check your glucose level.

In Australia, this technology is available in FreeStyle Libre and FreeStyle Libre 2. FreeStyle Libre does not have alarms, but has trend arrows to indicate if glucose levels are rising, falling or steady and how quickly they are changing.

FreeStyle Libre 2 has optional real-time alarms for high or low glucose levels and signal loss. Scan results display the previous eight hours of glucose data. The graphs on the Flash GM reader can be reviewed to look for patterns and trends in glucose levels.

A Flash GM device does not connect to an insulin pump. CGM or Flash GM can help you and your health professionals make decisions about changes to insulin doses or pump settings as well as food choices and physical activity. When planning and preparing for pregnancy, this may help you with keeping your glucose levels in the target range advised by your health professionals.

The Australian Government provides access to fully subsidised CGM and Flash GM through the NDSS to women with type 1 diabetes who are actively planning pregnancy, pregnant or immediately post-pregnancy. To be eligible for access, women with type 1 diabetes need to be assessed by an authorised health professional and meet certain criteria.

Ask your diabetes in pregnancy team for more information or read more at Continuous and flash glucose monitoring. Your diabetes in pregnancy team will discuss individual pregnancy blood glucose targets with you.

They will encourage you to check your blood glucose levels frequently and will work with you to keep these as close as possible to the target range. Diabetes Australia acknowledges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the Traditional Owners and Custodians of this Country.

We recognise their connection to land, waters, winds and culture. We pay the upmost respect to them, their cultures and to their Elders, past and present.

We are committed to improving health outcomes for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people affected by diabetes and those at risk. Skip to content. Home About diabetes Pregnancy Pregnancy and type 1 diabetes Diabetes during pregnancy Blood glucose monitoring during pregnancy.

For women with type 1 diabetes Blood glucose monitoring during pregnancy. Flash GM. Share this page Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email. Print this page Print. Continue to site. Learn about the artwork.

: Gestational diabetes monitoring devices

What is gestational diabetes? During eevices, the fetus and placenta produce hormones that make the Gestational diabetes monitoring devices individual resistant to Gestational diabetes monitoring devices own diabetess. Use of a real time Diuretic diet for water retention glucose monitoring system as an educational defices for patients with Gestational diabetes monitoring devices diabeges. Time trends in pregnancy-related outcomes among women with type 1 diabetes mellitus, — In the absence of an outpatient method of measuring blood glucose, studies of intensified care required lengthy hospitalizations at regular intervals to regulate glucose levels with the increasing insulin doses required for pregnancy. The general guidelines below will help you until you receive your individualized food plan:. both researched data, contributed to discussion, and wrote and edited the manuscript.
Gestational Diabetes | Cedars-Sinai

The screening for gestational diabetes involves drinking a glucose beverage provided by your doctor, followed by a blood test one hour later to measure your blood sugar level. The one-hour test is a screening. If gestational diabetes is confirmed, your doctor should talk to you about a treatment plan.

Risks associated with gestational diabetes include:. At your obstetrician visits, your blood pressure and urine may be checked. Your doctor may discuss your blood sugar readings, as well as what you have been eating, how much you have been exercising, and how much weight you have gained. Your growing baby will also be monitored closely.

All of this will help determine if your treatment plan for gestational diabetes is working and when changes may be needed. If changing your eating plan and adding exercise do not keep your blood sugar levels in your target ranges, your doctor may prescribe diabetes medicines pills or insulin for the rest of your pregnancy.

If your body is not able to make enough insulin on its own to handle what it needs as the baby grows, your doctor may prescribe pills or insulin.

If your doctor prescribes insulin, it means you will take it by injection or by using a device, such as an insulin pump. A family member can learn how to do this with you and help you take your insulin as prescribed.

Your healthcare team and doctor will work with you to develop your treatment plan, including when and how much insulin to take. This plan will be updated as needed over the remaining course of your pregnancy. Women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy have a higher risk for developing Type 2 diabetes later in life.

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Select your country. Wang H, Li N, Chivese T, Werfalli M, Sun H, Yuen L, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Daly B, Toulis KA, Thomas N, Gokhale K, Martin J, Webber J, et al.

Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study. PloS Med 15 1 :e Grunnet LG, Hansen S, Hjort L, Madsen CM, Kampmann FB, Thuesen ACB, et al.

Adiposity, dysmetabolic traits, and earlier onset of female puberty in adolescent offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A clinical study within the Danish national birth cohort.

Diabetes Care 40 12 — Johns EC, Denison FC, Norman JE, Reynolds RM. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Mechanisms, treatment, and complications. Trends Endocrinol Metab 29 11 — ElSayed NA, Aleppo G, Aroda VR, Bannuru RR, Brown FM, Bruemmer D, et al. management of diabetes in pregnancy: Standards of care in diabetes Diabetes Care 46 Suppl 1 :S—S Xia J, Hu S, Xu J, Hao H, Yin C, Xu D.

The correlation between glucose fluctuation from self-monitored blood glucose and the major adverse cardiac events in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome during a 6-month follow-up by WeChat application. Clin Chem Lab Med 56 12 — Nguyen M, Han J, Spanakis EK, Kovatchev BP, Klonoff DC.

A review of continuous glucose monitoring-based composite metrics for glycemic control. Diabetes Technol Ther 22 8 — Yu F, Lv L, Liang Z, Wang Y, Wen J, Lin X, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring effects on maternal glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99 12 — Voormolen DN, DeVries JH, Sanson RME, Heringa MP, de Valk HW, Kok M, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring during diabetic pregnancy GlucoMOMS : A multicentre randomized controlled trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 20 8 — Kestila KK, Ekblad UU, Ronnemaa T. Continuous glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77 2 —9. Alfadhli E, Osman E, Basri T. Use of a real time continuous glucose monitoring system as an educational tool for patients with gestational diabetes.

Diabetol Metab Syndr Wei Q, Sun Z, Yang Y, Yu H, Ding H, Wang S. Effect of a CGMS and SMBG on maternal and neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep Ho YR, Wang P, Lu MC, Tseng ST, Yang CP, Yan YH. Associations of mid-pregnancy HbA1c with gestational diabetes and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in high-risk Taiwanese women.

PloS One 12 5 :e Barbry F, Lemaitre M, Ternynck C, Wallet H, Cazaubiel M, Labreuche J, et al. HbA1c at the time of testing for gestational diabetes identifies women at risk for pregnancy complications.

Diabetes Metab 48 3 Weinert LS. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy: Comment to the international association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups consensus panel.

Diabetes Care 33 7 :e Lu J, Ma X, Zhou J, Zhang L, Mo Y, Ying L, et al. Association of time in range, as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Care 41 11 —6. TM, Levy. JC, Matthews. Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care 27 6 — Brownlee M, Hirsch IB. Glycemic variability: A hemoglobin A1c-independent risk factor for diabetic complications.

JAMA 14 —8. Zhang X, Jiang D, Wang X. The effects of the instantaneous scanning glucose monitoring system on hypoglycemia, weight gain, and health behaviors in patients with gestational diabetes: A randomised trial. Ann Palliat Med 10 5 — Gou BH, Guan HM, Bi YX, Ding BJ.

Gestational diabetes: Weight gain during pregnancy and its relationship to pregnancy outcomes. Chin Med J Engl. Li S, Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Phillips GS, Heffner LJ, Wise LA. Central adiposity and other anthropometric factors in relation to risk of macrosomia in an African American population.

Obes Silver Spring 21 1 — CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Stock K, Nagrani R, Gande N, Bernar B, Staudt A, Willeit P, et al.

Birth weight and weight changes from infancy to early childhood as predictors of body mass index in adolescence. J Pediatr —6 e3. Mamun AA, Mannan M, Doi SA. Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring obesity over the life course: A systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 15 4 — Tie HT, Xia YY, Zeng YS, Zhang Y, Dai CL, Guo JJ, et al. Risk of childhood overweight or obesity associated with excessive weight gain during pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

Arch Gynecol Obstet. The cost-effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 33 6 — Ahmed RJ, Gafni A, Hutton EK, Hu ZJ, Sanchez JJ, Murphy HR, et al. The cost implications of continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes in 3 Canadian provinces: A posthoc cost analysis of the CONCEPTT trial.

CMAJ Open 9 2 :E—E Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, continuous glucose monitoring, self-monitoring of blood glucose, gestational weight gain, cost.

Received: 26 February ; Accepted: 29 March ; Published: 19 April Copyright © Lai, Weng, Yang, Gong, Fang, Li, Kang, Xu and Wang. Gather the things you need to test your blood sugar. This usually includes the meter, needle lancet and lancet holder, test strips, and cotton balls.

Read the information from the manufacturer and your doctor to be sure you know how to use the blood sugar meter, lancet holder, and test strips. Check the expiration date on your test strips.

If you use expired test strips, your test results might not be accurate. Many meters don't need a code from the test strips, but some will. If your meter does, make sure the code number on the bottle of test strips matches the number on your meter.

If the numbers don't match, follow the directions that come with your meter for changing the code number. The lancet holder is about the size of a pen.

It holds the lancet in place and controls how deeply the lancet goes into your skin. Take one strip from the bottle of test strips. Follow the directions to prepare your meter to receive the blood sample.

Don't forget to put the lid back on the bottle right after removing the strip. Use a lancet holder to prick the side of your fingertip with the lancet. You can use a lancet without a holder, but a holder makes it easier to use.

You can prick any finger. Touch the drop of blood with the correct spot of the test strip. Be sure to get enough blood to cover the test area on the strip. If your finger continues to bleed, use a clean cotton ball to apply pressure to your fingertip to stop the bleeding.

Wait for the results. Most meters take only a few seconds to give you the results. It's important to record your blood sugar results and when you tested it. It's also helpful to note when you last had something to eat. Your doctor will use your record to see how often your blood sugar levels are in your target range.

You and your doctor will use your blood sugar testing record to see how often your levels are in your target range.

Here are some ideas for how to do it. You can get these logs from companies that make diabetic medicines and supplies. Or use a home blood sugar diary. You can record other information in the log or notebook, such as insulin doses, your exercise, and foods you have eaten.

You and your doctor will find this information most useful when looking for patterns and reasons for your blood sugar levels. Find out if your doctor can transfer the data to your medical record or if you can make reports to share. Frequent blood sugar testing can lead to sore fingertips.

Here are some ideas to help avoid this. Don't prick the tip of the finger. If you do, the prick will be more painful, and you may not get enough blood to do the test accurately. If you have trouble getting a drop of blood large enough to cover the test area of the strip, hang the hand down below the waist.

Count to 5. Then squeeze the finger starting close to the hand and moving outward to the end of the finger. Set a pattern for which finger you stick so that you won't use some fingers more than others.

If a finger gets sore, don't use it for testing for a few days. Some lancet devices can be set to prick the skin deeply or lightly depending on the thickness of the skin and where on the body you are getting the blood.

Lancets get dull and can cause pain. Plus, a used lancet can carry bacteria that could make you sick. Some people reuse lancets anyway. If you do, be extra careful with handwashing each time.

And use a new lancet each day to reduce the chance for bacteria growth. Author: Healthwise Staff Medical Review: Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine Rhonda O'Brien MS, RD, CDE - Certified Diabetes Educator. Author: Healthwise Staff. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor.

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Gestational Diabetes You may want to xiabetes if any places ddvices or loan glucose meters, Gestational diabetes monitoring devices it is Gestational diabetes monitoring devices you won't be needing it after your diabettes is born. Glycemic Management in Insulin Naive Patients in the Inpatient Setting. Continuous glucose monitoring during diabetic pregnancy GlucoMOMS : a multicentre randomized controlled trial. What do you need help with today? The risk is even lower during the third trimester when the amniotic sac is larger and easily identifiable.
Introduction Availability of data and materials The data that support the findings of this study are not publicly available due to their containing information that could compromise the privacy of research participants but are available from the corresponding author in a de-identified manner upon reasonable request. This recommendation makes sense, as CGM-derived mean glucose is a more accurate representation of average glucose than A1C, and TIR provides valuable information aimed at minimizing hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability that can inform management decisions. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice ; April e At the end of the monitoring period, the RT-CGMS results were downloaded into a computer and glucose profiles were generated. Rodbard D, Bailey T, Jovanovic L, Zisser H, Kaplan R, Garg SK. Plus, a used lancet can carry bacteria that could make you sick.
Gestational Diabetes: Checking Your Blood Sugar | HealthLink BC Non-adjunctive flash glucose monitoring sys- tem use during summer-camp in children with type 1 diabetes: The free- summer study. Related articles. Patient education: Gestational diabetes The Basics Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. As the use of technologies allowing for CGM increases, clinicians will need to become more comfortable with the interpretation of these glucose metrics and international consensus groups have provided guidance and proposed targets see Tables 45 , 47— Sun X, Shen J, Wang L. The accuracy of glucose meters and CGM devices may be assessed by several different standards Methods Women wore the CGM device for 7 days at 24—28 weeks, undergoing the OGTT before CGM removal.

Gestational diabetes monitoring devices -

gov NCT GDM women were diagnosed if one or more plasma glucose values during the g oral glucose tolerance test OGTT at gestational weeks met or exceeded the following values: 0 h, 5. Exclusion criteria included pregestational type 1 diabetes mellitus T1DM or type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM.

Study visits for both groups occurred 4 and 8 weeks after recruitment. Participants were provided with a CGM system Medtronic Inc.

The CGM system generated a daily record of continuous sensor values. Capillary blood glucose readings should be measured at least four times per day by using a Freestyle Optium Neo Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.

The CGM group was instructed to use CGM every 4 weeks 0, 4 and 8 weeks for a total of 3 times during the study. At the same time, the SMBG group was advised to perform SMBG 4 times per day for 3 consecutive days every 4 weeks 0, 4 and 8 weeks and used additional CGM in blinded mode to collect glucose parameters for 3 days after 8 weeks.

Participants in both groups continued their usual protocol of capillary glucose monitoring during their pregnancy and were asked to perform SMBG at least 7 times weekly before meals, 2 h after meals and before bed at other times Figure 1.

In addition, participants in both groups were provided with diabetes education, and clinicians reviewed CGM downloaded glucose data or SMBG data at each visit for treatment adjustment. The treatment goal was as follows: preprandial blood glucose level 3. For patients in the CGM group, insulin treatment was determined by results of CGM when postprandial glucose levels rose above 7.

Insulin dosages were adjusted according to glucose levels as the pregnancy continued. Figure 1 Study design. GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; CGM, continuous glucose monitoring; SMBG, self-monitored blood glucose.

After the 3-day blood glucose monitoring period, CGM metrics were calculated. Metrics for each patient in day 2 were used for quantification of glycemic variability GV. The mean of daily differences MODD calculation is based on the data of 2 integrated consecutive days day 2 and day 3.

The time in range TIR was defined as the percentage of time within the target glucose range of 3. The time above range TAR and time below range TBR were above the target glucose range of 7. GV parameters included the standard deviation SD of sensor glucose values, the glucose coefficient of variation CV , the large amplitude of glycemic excursions LAGE , the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions MAGE , MODD and the postprandial glucose excursion PPGE The CV was calculated by dividing the SD by the mean of the corresponding glucose readings.

LAGE was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum glucose levels. MAGE was calculated by measuring the arithmetic mean of the differences between consecutive peaks and nadirs, and only excursions of more than one SD of the mean glycemic value were considered.

MODD was the mean absolute value of the differences between glucose values during two successive h periods. PPGE was defined as the difference between the highest postprandial glucose and fasting glucose levels.

Each participant was administered a g OGTT. In addition, serum total cholesterol TC , triglyceride TG , high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-C , low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol LDL-C , HbA1c and glycated albumin GA , were detected.

In addition, HbA1c and GA were detected before delivery. Gestational weight gain GWG was calculated by subtracting the weight before pregnancy from the weight before delivery. The GWG result was categorized into three groups, including below, within or above the recommended GWG for each prepregnancy BMI based on the Chinese Medical Association guidelines The Obstetrics and Gynecology Branch of the Chinese Medical Association has recommended weight gain values of The primary outcome was CGM-measured TIR at 8 weeks after enrollment.

The two groups had the same cost for SMBG. The test strip cost was calculated assuming a cost of ¥3. Each participant was distributed 33 strips and lancets every 4 weeks, for a total of 99 strips and lancets. The glucometer cost was estimated to be ¥ for each participant. The additional cost for CGM was calculated to be ¥ for sensor and ¥ for receiver use for 3 days each visit, and totally three times in the study.

Data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation or the median with the interquartile range. The HbA1c and GA levels before delivery were analyzed according to the analysis of covariance method, adjusting baseline levels. We used SPSS version 26 IBM Corp. The study outcome visit was completed by 62 participants Participant clinical characteristics were shown in Table 1.

The participants in the SMBG group had higher fasting insulin FINS levels The CGM metrics after 8 weeks were shown in Table 2. There were no differences in mean blood glucose MBG levels and glucose variability measures between the CGM and SMBG groups, and the TIRs were similar There were no between-group significant differences in antepartum HbA1c levels and GA levels.

In the CGM group, Although CGM may increase the rate of qualified weight gain, the glucose levels were similar in the two groups. Pregnancy outcomes were shown in Table 4.

The participants in the SMBG group had a higher birth weight of newborns The cost of glucose monitoring was shown in Table 5. The cost of SMBG in all GDM women was ¥ The cost of the CGM group increased almost threefold compared with the SMBG group, which was primarily attributable to the CGM application.

There was no difference in GV, HbA1c levels or perinatal adverse events between the use of CGM and SMBG. However, the CGM group showed better gestational weight control and a lower birth weight of newborns. However, the long-term effect of appropriate weight gain during gestation via CGM remains to be studied.

GV appears to be associated with the development of diabetes complications and has a significant impact on quality of life In our results, GV, HbA1c levels and pregnancy outcomes between CGM and SMBG in this trial of GDM were in accordance with some previous studies.

Alfadhli et al. recruited patients with GDM 62 SMBG and 68 CGM. Patients wore real-time CGM for 3—7 days once within 2 weeks of GDM diagnosis. HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose levels at the end of the pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes were similar in both groups Wei et al.

randomly assigned pregnant women with GDM to two groups 58 CGM and 62 SMBG. The patients were asked to wear CGM for 2—3 days during gestational weeks 24 to 28 second trimester or 28 to 36 third trimester. The study found no significant differences in HbA1c levels or prenatal or obstetric outcomes, e.

Kestila et al. enrolled 73 women with GDM 36 CGM for 2 days and 37 SMBG , and no differences were found in terms of preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, or cesarean section rate between the two groups In contrast, other studies have found some significant differences.

Voormolen et al. The CGM group had a significantly lower incidence of preeclampsia but no differences in fetal outcomes 9. Zhang et al. admitted GDM patients 55 CGM and 55 SMBG. Patients in the CGM group wore real-time CGM devices for 14 days once and showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia and higher blood glucose monitoring compliance, but the study did not collect pregnancy outcomes Yu et al.

recruited women with GDM CGM and SMBG , and the results showed that the CGM group, which was performed for 3 days every week, had a lower incidence of preeclampsia, primary cesarean section, and premature delivery and better fetal outcomes than the SMBG group, including macrosomia, LGA, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome 8.

These differences might be attributed to the study population and CGM frequency and duration. It seemed that patients with frequent CGM or wearing more time achieved better blood glucose management than SMBG.

However, considering the cost, patient compliance and clinical practice, it is unrealistic to persuade GDM women to perform CGM frequently in the real world.

For CGM frequency in GDM women, we suggest that monthly CGM is a feasible management plan. However, in our study, we found no significant difference between glycemic levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes between the two groups. Our results demonstrated that compared to the SMBG group, the proportion of the within GWG recommendation group was higher in the CGM group.

In addition, our results favored a significant reduction in neonatal birthweight in the CGM group, but the proportions of macrosomia, LGA and SGA were not different.

A study showed that excessive weight gain occurred in GWG is related to neonatal birth weight, and excessive GWG increases the risk for macrosomia and LGA Greater birth weight and weight gain in the first years of life have been found to be associated with increased BMI in adolescence Therefore, women with GDM should give more attention to GWG and infant birth weight, which can be improved by CGM examination in our study.

However, whether this change in birth weight will affect the long-term health of the offspring remains to be studied. Our study showed that insulin use in the CGM group was higher than that in the SMBG group, but the difference was not significant.

Previous findings have shown that insulin use was more common in the CGM group than in the SMBG group, which demonstrated the advantages of CGM in the accurate detection of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia However, SMBG can achieve a similar performance compared with CGM for GDM patients who have mild dysglycemia.

The total cost of diabetes care for China has been steadily rising, so it is important to evaluate the clinical application and economic value of new glucose-control technologies. Despite higher costs, for adults with T1D and suboptimal glycemic control, CGM is cost-effective with improved glucose control and reductions in nonsevere hypoglycemia compared to SMBG The cost of CGM in T1D pregnancies was offset by improved maternal and neonatal outcomes However, in GDM patients, our results showed no significant differences in glucose control or pregnancy outcomes between the CGM and SMBG groups.

Overall, our results suggested that SMBG fits the need for an optimally effective glucose monitoring method at a low cost for GDM patients. This study had some strengths and limitations.

The strengths of the trial included the high adherence to group assignment and a protocol practical in clinical practice. Assignment could not be blinded because of the nature of the intervention, but the groups had a similar number of visits. The TIR and other metrics in the two groups reflected well-controlled blood glucose levels in all participants.

However, our study also had several limitations. Although every effort was made to ensure complete datasets, this was not achieved because of missing or lost samples.

The main reasons included premature delivery, referral to another hospital and the COVID outbreak. However, the percentage of missing data In addition, all the patients who enrolled had HbA1c levels lower than 6.

In addition, the long-term effects of maternal GWG and birth weight on children remain to be studied. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. ML and YW conceived of the design of the study and drafted the manuscript. JW, JY, YG, FF, NL and XX contributed to the data collection.

MK participated in the data analysis. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. National Natural Science Foundation of China No.

The authors acknowledge the contributions of all the participants. And we thank Yuhang Ma for reviewing the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Wang H, Li N, Chivese T, Werfalli M, Sun H, Yuen L, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Did a certain food or activity make your levels go up or down? Armed with that knowledge, you can make adjustments and get closer to your target range more often.

There are different kinds of meters, but most of them work the same way. Ask your health care team to show you the benefits of each.

The following standard recommendations are from the American Diabetes Association ADA for people who have diagnosed diabetes and are not pregnant. Work with your doctor to identify your personal blood sugar goals based on your age, health, diabetes treatment, and whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Your range may be different if you have other health conditions or if your blood sugar is often low or high. Make sure to get an A1C test at least twice a year. A1C results tell you your average blood sugar level over 3 months.

A1C results may be different in people with hemoglobin problems such as sickle cell anemia. Work with your doctor to decide the best A1C goal for you. If after taking this test your results are too high or too low, your diabetes care plan may need to be adjusted. When visiting your doctor, you might keep these questions in mind to ask during your appointment.

If you have other questions about your numbers or your ability to manage your diabetes, make sure to work closely with your doctor or health care team. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to search.

Español Other Languages. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar. Español Spanish Print. Minus Related Pages. Make Friends With Your Numbers. Getting an A1C Test Make sure to get an A1C test at least twice a year. Your A1C result will be reported in two ways: A1C as a percentage.

Estimated average glucose eAG , in the same kind of numbers as your day-to-day blood sugar readings. Questions To Ask Your Doctor When visiting your doctor, you might keep these questions in mind to ask during your appointment.

What is my target blood sugar range? How often should I check my blood sugar? What do these numbers mean?

Once you Gestatiinal diagnosed as having Gestational diabetes monitoring devices diabetes, you Geststional your health care providers will Gestational diabetes monitoring devices to mnoitoring more about your day-to-day blood sugar levels. What is self blood monnitoring monitoring? Gestational diabetes monitoring devices is important devicee know how your Periodized nutrition habits and eating patterns affect your blood sugars. Also, as your pregnancy progresses, the placenta will release more of the hormones that work against insulin. Testing your blood sugar level at important times during the day will help determine if proper diet and weight gain have kept blood sugar levels normal or if extra insulin is needed to help keep the fetus protected. Self blood glucose monitoring is done by using a special device to obtain a drop of your blood and test it for your blood sugar level. Gestational diabetes monitoring devices

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