Category: Family

Guarana Extract for Physical Performance

Guarana Extract for Physical Performance

Carrillo Diabetic coma education, Benitez J. Involvement of serotonergic, noradrenergic Guarana Extract for Physical Performance dopaminergic Physial in the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Extractt, a Phydical active ingredient of Phjsical ginseng CA Meyer. Meta-analyses of the substantial body of intervention trial data reveal a consistent beneficial effect of high-flavanol chocolate and cocoa-flavanol extracts on cardiovascular parameters, including inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress, gluco-regulation, lipid profiles, blood-pressure and peripheral blood-flow [ 91,].

Guarana Extract for Physical Performance -

Other uses include treatment of ongoing diarrhea, fever, heart problems, headache, joint pain, backache, and heat stress. Guarana contains caffeine. Caffeine works by stimulating the central nervous system CNS , heart, and muscles. Guarana also contains theophylline and theobromine, which are chemicals similar to caffeine.

In a 6-day trial on 26 people, guarana improved secondary memory performance and increased alertness and mood. These changes could not be attributed to caffeine alone. In another trial on 28 healthy volunteers, guarana improved performance in attention although it reduced accuracy , sentence verification, and serial subtraction tasks.

Its combination with ginseng also increased the speed of attention and memory tasks. In 3 trials of people, those who consumed multivitamins with guarana had an increased benefit of mood and cognitive performance and reduced mental fatigue compared to those who consumed the vitamins alone.

Another multivitamin supplement with guarana improved decision making in a trial on 56 people. Consuming a similar multivitamin and multimineral complex with guarana before physical exercise reduced fatigue perception and improved memory after the exercise in a clinical trial on 40 active men.

Similarly, a mouth rinsing with guarana, caffeine, and carbohydrates reduced fatigue perception and improved cognitive control and physical exercise performance in a clinical trial on 24 people. All in all, several studies suggest that guarana may improve cognitive performance.

Larger, more robust trials testing guarana alone are needed to confirm its effects on cognitive function. Guarana, along with taurine and sugar, is often included in high-energy drinks for its potential energy-boosting effects and high levels of caffeine, which may result in improved physical performance.

Guarana has been used as a stimulant for centuries by indigenous people of the Amazon. Consuming a multivitamin and multimineral complex with guarana before physical exercise reduced fatigue perception in a clinical trial on 40 active men. Similarly, a mouth rinsing with guarana, caffeine, and carbohydrates reduced fatigue perception and improved physical performance in a clinical trial on 24 people.

Mice that ingested low 0. Caffeine alone 0. In 2 clinical trials on 83 people with different cancer types receiving chemotherapy, guarana extract improved fatigue while maintaining the quality of sleep and mood.

However, the extract was ineffective in another trial of over people on chemotherapy. The authors of the study proposed that the lack of effects observed was due to the unexpectedly high anti-fatigue activity of the placebo used. Guarana may be ineffective for the fatigue and depression caused by radiotherapy, as seen in a clinical trial on 36 women treated for breast cancer.

Again, the evidence is insufficient to back the traditional use of guarana to boost energy. The trials evaluating physical performance were small and tested guarana in combination with other extracts, vitamins, and minerals.

Those on fatigue caused by anticancer therapy were also small and had mixed results. More clinical trials are needed to shed some light on the anti-fatigue and energy-boosting effects of guarana.

Guarana is classified as a metabolic stimulant, which means it may help burn more calories throughout the day because of its high caffeine content.

Overall, it may increase fat metabolism, enhance weight loss, and increase the amount of energy used for basic metabolic functions, such as breathing and digestion.

In an 8-week clinical trial on 67 people, an herbal supplement containing Ma Huang and guarana resulted in significantly reduced weight and hip circumference. In another clinical trial on over people, supplement 1 with guarana, asparagus, green and black tea, mate, and kidney beans combined with supplement 2 with kidney bean pods, Garcinia cambogia , and chromium yeast and taken for 12 weeks reduced body fat.

In 2 clinical trials on over normal to slightly overweight people, a commercial herbal extract with guarana, yerba mate, and damiana delayed stomach emptying, which reduced hunger and calorie intake. A multi-ingredient fat-loss product with guarana, green tea, yerba mate, caffeine, saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, eleuthero root, cayenne pepper, and yohimbine improved fat burning from exercise, reduced the perception of fatigue, and increased satiety in a small trial on 12 people.

However, a commercial formula with guarana, green tea, and bitter orange had no effect on the metabolic rate in a small trial on 20 people. In addition to burning fat, guarana may prevent the generation of fat altogether by decreasing the production of proteins that contribute to the fat generation and increasing the production of those that prevent it, as seen in a cell-based study.

Guarana, also known as Paullinia Cupana, is a seed that has more caffeine than coffee beans themselves. It is used a supplement due to its stimulating and invigorating properties.

This plant, or more specifically, its active principles, are regarded as herbs with beneficial properties for our health. The seeds come from a bush native to the Amazon. They have been traditionally used for their effects to increase the physical performance. Guarana has xanthines, like caffeine, catechins, tanins, procyanidins, saponins and other phytochemicals.

Xanthines are alkaloids that have stimulating effects , which means that they affect the central nervous system, producing a series of alterations. Combining a healthy diet with physical exercise enhances the effects of guarana to lose weight. Guarana can perform plenty of functions and it can be useful for certain remedies.

It can also provide support for:. Guarana has been used to relieve the pain and treat the fatigue syndrome. In this sense, it has great analgesic properties, to calm and reduce the pain that is caused by a nerve alteration neurasthenic. It also has anti-inflammatory properties.

It is also useful for stomach swelling gases , dyspepsia bad digestion and even to control obesity. It is also used to support cardiovascular health, particularly to strengthen the heart while reducing the formation of clots. It has a higher percentage of caffeine than coffee, which is why it tends to be included in energy drinks.

The active ingredient from guarana is called guaranine. Its seeds can be toasted like coffee beans in order to make guarana infusions. Its stimulating effect also enhances the focus concentration and mental acuity. This results in an improved control of the mental faculties due to the stimulation of the central nervous system.

This effect is especially beneficial to enhance the ability to study or to solve problems. It is usually advertised as a herbal extract that supports weight loss. This is due to its ability to increase the thermogenesis apart from helping to control the appetite anorectic effect.

Its ability to increase the body temperature uses more calories since there is a higher percentage of fatty acids that can be oxidized. This will help us obtain an important energy supply to enhance our metabolism , even when we are resting.

Caffeine also has a diuretic effect , which will be beneficial for those who tend to retain liquids. Another interesting property of guarana is the fact that it contributes to improving our sexual relationships.

This is due to the fact that it increases the libido since it is an aphrodisiac and invigorating element. Consequently, this means that it can increase the energy and stamina, improving the sexual activity overall, even though it will not improve the erection.

Caffeine is an allowed ergogenic support. This means that we can consume it without any issue regarding an anti-doping test. Moreover, it has been observed that it can increase both the strength and the resistance of the muscles.

This will reduce the onset of physical and mental fatigue , which is related to more intense and longer workouts or events. The main difference between a Guarana and Caffeine supplement anhydrous is that lies on the fact that the latter acts faster, apart from having a shorter effect.

On the other hand, the caffeine from Guarana will produce a progressive effect that will last a lot longer. It is important to take this into account depending on the activity that we are going to practice.

They can also be combined. These seeds are an effective way of increasing the energy progressively. This is the reason why it is perfect for those who want to improve their performance without the effects of caffeine nor energy drinks.

In general, Guarana can be purchased as a single product or as a formula that includes other compounds that is designed for weight loss.

The dose can change from one person to another, since each one has a different sensitivity to caffeine. In this way, the dose may move between mg of guarana.

Moreover, it is always advisable to start with the lowest dose and observe its effects. You should consult your doctor before starting to use guarana supplementation if you are using any medication.

Pregnant women should not take supplements with high doses of stimulants. Some of the risks and side effects of guarana are the same ones that we can find in caffeine and, depending on the dose, the sensitivity, and tolerance of the person.

We may experience: sleep problems, anxiety, restlessness, stomach pain, accelerated heartbeat, high blood pressure…. You can take it either regularly or temporarily. However, it is important to make sure that we do not take more than five grams daily.

Guarana Extract for Physical Performance Guarana Extreme Voltage Guaarana a sugar-free supplement, the latest addition Physlcal the Performane. Its ultra-concentrated dose of guarana in its ampoule format is ideal for active Guarana Extract for Physical Performance. It comes BMR and weight management strategies a 25 ml ampoule, Garana of which contains mg of pure guarana. This formula has also been enriched with magnesium and vitamins for even greater effectiveness. Guarana Extreme Voltage is recommended for people who want to obtain more energy during their workouts to improve their performance. Practical and easy to take with you, this ampoule will be the perfect ally to face your daily challenges. A plant native to the Amazon, guarana has been used for many years for its beneficial properties both for the body and the mind. Athletic Benefits Culinary expertise Guarana:. Non — Athletic Benefits Pyhsical Guarana:. Guarana has also non — athletic benefits, such as:. Dosage and Side Effects:. Guarana is generally added to many energy drinks.

Guarana Extract for Physical Performance -

With respect to disease, slowed metabolism of caffeine is seen in those with liver disease, attributed to reduced N3- and N7-demethylations affecting transformation through the paraxanthine pathway [ 28 ], and obesity reportedly increases the volume and distribution of caffeine and prolongs its half-life [ 29 ].

The latter review, however, notes the small amount of research here, which was performed over three decades ago in some cases, and the nuance associated with degree of obesity and concomitant pharmacological drug use.

With regard to the potential role of other bioactive ingredients, caffeine is metabolised to paraxanthine and to a lesser extent theophylline and theobromine by the action of members of the CYP family of enzymes that manage the metabolism and clearance of endogenous and exogenous bioactive compounds [ 29 ].

This results in decreased fatigue, increased alertness and an increase in the neural activity associated with a variety of neurotransmitters, including dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA [ 31 ].

Adenosine A 1 and A 2A receptors within the vasculature have contradictory effects on vasodilation. However, in the periphery, the net effect of caffeine is less clear, with contradictory effects on blood pressure and vasodilation, mediated by a complex array of adenosine receptor interactions and other mechanisms see below [ 33 ].

Subsequent sections below detail how commonly co-consumed compounds, like polyphenols, are also able to influence vascular tone, specifically vasodilation, and these already complex effects from caffeine alone are therefore likely to be even more difficult to interpret in response to co-consumption with other compounds.

Beyond adenosine receptor interactions, caffeine or its metabolites also inhibit the activity of several key enzymes.

These include nervous system-specific enzymes that catalyse neurotransmitters, including acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase leading to increased acetylcholine, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin and amino acid decarboxylase enzymes [ 34 ].

Throughout the body, caffeine also inhibits phosphodiesterase, which regulates the cellular secondary messengers cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP , and therefore governs cellular responses to other bioactive molecules.

It also inhibits several of the poly ADP-ribose polymerase PARP enzymes that modulate the response to cellular damage, including the modification of inflammatory responses [ 35 , 36 , 37 ]. The downstream effects of this modulated neurotransmission includes increased motor unit firing, suppression of exercise-related pain, reduced sensation of force, and decreased ratings of perceived physical effort alongside related psychological benefits in terms of reduced fatigue and increased motivation [ 38 , 39 ].

However, caffeine can also modulate metabolism by interacting with the sympathetic nervous system [ 40 ], increasing energy expenditure, thermogenesis and fat oxidation, at least in part via phosphodiesterase inhibition [ 41 ].

Caffeine can also modulate the activity of the enzymes responsible for glycogen formation and degradation i. One important point to note here is that, while some of the above research included human samples and doses equivalent to those elsewhere in this review i.

Given its potential to modulate neurotransmission, enzyme activity and the function of cellular signal pathways, caffeine has potentially wide-ranging modulatory properties with regard to the effects of other bioactive molecules.

Caffeine also enjoys multifarious pharmacokinetic interactions that affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many other bioactive molecules. Mechanisms here include the formation of complexes with other acidic compounds; direct gastrointestinal effects including increased diuresis, increased gastrointestinal acid secretion, and accelerated gastric emptying; and modulation of the distribution of molecules, including by increasing the tightness of the blood brain barrier [ 34 ].

Caffeine and its metabolite products also compete for access to several ubiquitous CYPs. These enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of a wide range of exogenous nutrients and drugs and many endogenous compounds, including several hormones and neurochemicals that are substrates, inducers or inhibitors of these CYPs.

These same CYP enzymes have also recently been discovered to be active across cognition-relevant brain regions and structures, including neurons [ 49 ]. It is therefore likely that caffeine and its metabolites may enjoy a number of un-delineated interactions with a range of neurochemicals [ 48 , 50 ].

Given its multifarious interactive properties, it is unsurprising that caffeine has significant interactive relationships with a wide range of medicinal drugs, including antiarrhythmics e.

The latter include antidepressants e. Clinical trials have also confirmed that caffeine consumption significantly enhances the effectiveness of antidepressant medications [ 53 ], increases circulating concentrations of the endogenous neurochemical melatonin [ 54 ], increases the bioavailability [ 34 ] and effectiveness of aspirin [ 55 ], accelerates the absorption of paracetamol [ 34 ] and synergistically potentiates the pain-relieving properties of ibuprofen [ 55 , 56 ].

In combination with ibuprofen, it can also improve the alertness and anxiety of cold sufferers above that seen following either caffeine or ibuprofen alone [ 57 ]. Examples include some of those examples listed above, such as pseudoephedrine in 6. This demonstrates that, whilst the potential for caffeine to incite direct effects on the psychophysiology of athletes alone may arguably have been reduced by this generally low caffeine consumption, the potential for unanticipated interactions with co-consumed pharmacological compounds should not be underestimated.

Caffeine, when taken by itself, has well-established ergogenic properties. These physical benefits translate into improvements in multifarious sport-specific aspects of physical performance, including those intrinsic to combat, racquet and team sports [ 39 , 59 ].

However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the ergogenic effects of caffeine at lower doses. In general, the caffeine literature here is complicated by unresolved issues such as the role that genetic polymorphisms e. There is also a pronounced bias against using female participants in ergogenic research [ 65 ], although meta-analytic evidence does suggest equivalence between the effects seen in males and females [ 66 ], especially in relation to aerobic performance and fatigue [ 67 ].

Nevertheless, the latter review did present evidence that aspects of power e. The current lack of representation of women in this research area may be due to perceived noise introduced by the hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle.

However, recent small-scale trials suggest that this does not have a significant impact. Lara et al. In terms of purely psychological effects i. Here, evidence shows benefits following doses as low as 32 mg i. Caffeine in isolation has not been shown to have any demonstrable effect on long-term memory tasks, and has inconsistent effects on working memory and executive function tasks, with evidence suggesting that it can impair the performance of more complex tasks [ 77 , 78 , 79 ].

It is important to note here that, whilst not consistent, a small amount of literature supports anxiety-inducing effects of caffeine at doses consistent with many of the trials described within this narrative review; Loke et al.

A review and meta-analysis addressing this question [ 84 ] only identified 13 studies that fitted the stipulated methodological criteria. However, several of these studies, including one of the five studies subsequently entered into their meta-analysis, involved the administration of multi-component products.

Nevertheless, the findings from this meta-analysis were similar to those from the general literature, in that the cognitive benefits of caffeine were restricted to improved speed and accuracy of attention task performance. Overall, there is a general lack of research assessing the effects of caffeine on cognitive function during active sport or exercise.

In part, this is likely due to the complexity of conducting a dual-focus trial where the disruption of the physical activity would be required for the assessment of cognitive function and vice versa , thus negating their accurate measurement.

Additionally, researchers proficient in either physical performance or cognitive assessment are unlikely to be equally proficient in the other domain.

This certainly speaks to the need for more interdisciplinary collaboration wherein both areas receive equal focus. All of these more ecologically valid sources of caffeine involve the co-consumption of other bioactive compounds, with plant sources of caffeine always containing significant levels of polyphenols.

As noted above, at a mechanistic level, caffeine is liable to engender synergistic, additive or modulatory effects when co-consumed with other bioactive compounds. This raises the possibility that the presence of other bioactive compounds may lead to a stronger or broader palette of benefits to mental performance than those that would be expected following caffeine alone.

Unfortunately, there is a limited number of studies with the requisite comparator arms to unambiguously disentangle the effects of caffeine from the effects of co-consumed bioactive compounds.

However, there is evidence, summarised below, suggesting both that some of the compounds co-consumed with caffeine have independent effects on physiological and brain function, and that they enjoy an additive or interactive relationship with caffeine. Further, this typically results in benefits that are stronger or broader than those following caffeine alone.

The evidence summarised below concentrates on energy drinks and the sources of naturally occurring caffeine that represent the most frequently consumed caffeinated products or foods. Caffeine is most often taken in the form of plant-derived caffeinated products, including the most popular sources of caffeine globally: coffee and tea.

These plant-based sources of caffeine always naturally contain significant levels of polyphenols. These ubiquitous phytochemicals incorporate within their structure multiple phenyl aromatic hydrocarbon rings with one or more hydroxyl groups attached. The largest group, flavonoids, can be subdivided into chalcones, flavanones and their derivatives the flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, flavanols and anthocyanins [ 88 ].

In contrast to the predominant neurotransmission effects of caffeine, polyphenols owe their multifarious health benefits to their global effects on physiological functioning. These are predicated on interactions with, and modulation of, diverse components of a wide range of mammalian cellular signal transduction pathways throughout the body.

These pathways, in turn, control gene transcription and a plethora of cellular responses, including cellular metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, and the synthesis of growth factors, and vasodilatory and inflammatory molecules, which have a direct effect on the metabolic, cardiovascular and inflammatory status of the body [ 89 , 90 , 91 ].

With regard to ergogenic effects, recent meta-analyses suggest that diverse polyphenol rich foods and extracts might accelerate the recovery of muscle function and strength [ 97 , 98 ], improve post-exercise oxidative and inflammatory status [ 99 ], and improve aspects of sporting performance [ 99 , ].

However, it is important to note here that effects appear much more nuanced when considering groups of polyphenols separately. While grape, nitrate-depleted beetroot, French maritime pine, Montmorency cherry and pomegranate exhibited ergogenic effects following both acute and multiple-day supplementation , no significant effects were seen for New Zealand blackcurrant, cocoa, green tea or raisins, and it is likely the relative ineffectiveness of these latter polyphenol groups, on these specific outcomes, that has diluted the overall message of this recent meta-analysis.

Of particular note here, caffeine and polyphenols enjoy a number of potentially additive or interactive relationship effects. In line with this, research has demonstrated increased functionality or bioavailability when polyphenols [ , , ], or other phenolic compounds [ 34 ], are consumed alongside caffeine.

The interactive effects of caffeine can also be seen across the wider literature here. These interactive effects may underpin the results from a meta-analysis of controlled trials [ ] that found that flavanol-rich compound interventions with caffeine e.

The rich polyphenol content of cocoa products primarily comprises high levels of the flavanols catechin and epicatechin, and procyanidins, which are oligomers formed from these flavanols. The ultimate level of these phytochemicals is dictated by the fermenting and roasting process [ ].

Cocoa also contains low levels of caffeine but higher levels of theobromine. Research generally employs high-flavanol extracts or dark chocolate products with less than 40 mg caffeine. It is unlikely that this amount of caffeine would be exceeded via the consumption of chocolate [ ].

Meta-analyses of the substantial body of intervention trial data reveal a consistent beneficial effect of high-flavanol chocolate and cocoa-flavanol extracts on cardiovascular parameters, including inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress, gluco-regulation, lipid profiles, blood-pressure and peripheral blood-flow [ 91 , , , , , ].

The evidence of ergogenic benefits is less consistent, with some evidence of reduced oxidative stress and modulation of metabolism in a physical performance context, but no consistent evidence of improved exercise performance [ , , ].

In terms of psychological function in an exercise context, two small studies have assessed the brain function effects of cocoa-flavanols at rest and after exercise.

In the first, cerebral blood flow was assessed in the prefrontal cortex via near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS. Here, cocoa-flavanols increased cerebral blood-flow specifically, oxygenated haemoglobin during the single cognitive task only prior to exercise, with exercise itself also increasing cerebral blood-flow oxygenated, deoxygenated and total haemoglobin , improving reaction times and engendering an increase in neurotrophic factors post-exercise [ ].

It is important to note, however, that whilst NIRS provides a measure of blood flow in the top layers of cortical tissue, it is unable to measure more deeply than this. Additionally, NIRS is not considered a traditional tool in the assessment of brain perfusion i.

Finally, a subsequent study reported improved executive function task performance before and after exercise as a consequence of consuming a high versus low cocoa-flavanol drink, with no interaction with exercise [ ].

Single-dose, crossover trials comparing high versus low cocoa-flavanol extracts have demonstrated reduced mental fatigue and improved cognitive function during cognitively demanding tasks [ ], and tasks that assess attention [ , ] and spatial memory [ ].

Longer-term supplementation with cocoa-flavanol extracts for 4 weeks also increased attention and executive function task performance, alongside beneficial effects on multiple biomarkers of health, in 90 heathy elderly [ ] and 90 sufferers from age-related cognitive impairment [ ].

The benefits of chocolate are less clear and suffer from a smaller literature. A recent study demonstrated long-term memory benefits 2 h after high-flavanol dark chocolate when compared to white chocolate, although comparative caffeine levels in the interventions were not reported [ ].

However, it should be noted that the low flavanol control intervention still contained a reasonably high level of the putative active ingredient 86 vs. Taken as a whole, a recent systematic review of this literature concluded that acute or chronic administration of cocoa-flavanols most reliably enhanced executive function and memory and decreased task-related mental fatigue [ ].

This was supported by a meta-analysis of only chronic supplementation studies 2—3 months , which also reported improvements in executive function task performance [ ]. A complementary meta-analysis of the mood effects of acute and short-term high flavanol cocoa studies reported improved depression, anxiety and positive affect following high cocoa-flavanol interventions [ ].

This summary comes with a caveat, however. Much of the cardiovascular and psychological research here has used high cocoa-flavanol extracts with low levels of caffeine and compared them to caffeine-matched low-flavanol controls.

This research therefore delineates the effects of the higher doses of flavanols over and above any effects of their caffeine content and, therefore, runs the risk of underestimating the effects of the cocoa-flavanol caffeine combinations.

In conclusion, and bearing the last point in mind, the evidence to date does suggest that cocoa-flavanols exert beneficial effects on mental performance that are much broader than those expected from their caffeine content alone.

The extent to which this represents an interactive effect between caffeine and the polyphenol content, rather than being solely predicated on the latter, remains to be explored.

The phytochemistry of guaraná seed extracts has some similarities to cocoa, with significant levels of the flavanols epicatechin and catechin, and procyanidin and proanthocyanidin flavanol oligomers [ ].

Extracts also contain several triterpene compounds. The guaraná intervention also decreased ratings of perceived effort during the exercise [ ]. The guaraná condition also exceeded the effects of the much higher dose of caffeine in terms of improved cognitive task accuracy.

The product improved both the speed and accuracy of a demanding focussed attention task and reduced mental fatigue during extended performance of cognitively demanding tasks [ ].

Subsequently, a brain-imaging study [ ] confirmed the mental performance-enhancing properties of the same product and demonstrated physiological modulation of brain function using fMRI. Several, acute, placebo-controlled, crossover studies have also confirmed that caffeine is not the principal psychoactive component of guaraná extracts.

A subsequent dose-ranging study found that doses of the same extract containing negligible caffeine 4. In this study only, the highest dose of guaraná extract, containing 35 mg caffeine, increased ratings of alertness [ ]. Finally, in perhaps the clearest study, a study compared a product combining guaraná extract and multivitamins directly to its caffeine content mg.

In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that guaraná extracts are associated with broader and stronger improvements in mental functioning than their caffeine content alone would warrant. Further, these psychological benefits are seen at doses of guaraná that include quantities of caffeine well below psychoactive levels.

Roasted coffee The process of roasting coffee leads both to the creation of novel compounds and the conversion of existing compounds. This gives roasted coffee a particularly complex phytochemistry. Despite the deleterious effects of roasting, the predominant non-methylxanthine phytochemicals in coffee are polyphenolic chlorogenic acids CGA , alongside several simple phenolic acids and their derivatives [ ].

The process of decaffeinating coffee also affects these polyphenol levels; however. Olechno et al. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting the effects of decaffeinated coffee discussed below. A recent umbrella review of caffeine meta-analyses [ ] noted that, whilst roast coffee is often used as a source of caffeine by athletes and non-athletes, it is rarely used in research assessing the ergogenic effects of caffeine.

As such, the results of the small body of research that has directly compared coffee and caffeine are somewhat equivocal [ ]. More generally, whilst coffee has often been compared to a decaffeinated coffee control, purportedly to assess the effects of caffeine, there is a lack of research employing the requisite comparator arms to disentangle the effects of caffeine from those of the other bioactive components; an important consideration bearing in mind the potential reduction in polyphenol levels noted above.

One recent study though did compare the cognitive and mood effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee to an inert coffee-flavoured placebo [ ].

The results showed that both the caffeinated and the decaffeinated coffee drinks led to increased alertness, but that the caffeine-containing drink alone evinced significant cognitive effects. However, the overall pattern of results showed that the decaffeinated drink fell between the placebo and caffeinated drink on most measures, leading the authors to surmise a modulatory effect of the non-caffeine components of coffee.

However, one must also consider the anticipatory effects of consuming a coffee drink, with most people aware of the psychophysiological effects of the caffeine component and perhaps even subjectively detecting or, alternatively, expecting its presence or absence in the investigational drink.

The consumption of high CGA coffee, made by combining roasted and green beans, for 8 weeks has previously been shown to have beneficial effects on multifarious cardiovascular parameters [ , ]. For example, two acute dosing studies have demonstrated improved postprandial hyperglycaemia and vascular endothelial function following high CGA coffee in comparison to a caffeine-matched placebo [ , ].

As such, cycling may not be benefited here but, again, with just one trial, this conclusion is probably premature. With regard to brain function, one crossover study [ ] showed that a decaffeinated high-CGA green coffee mg CGA, 11 mg caffeine improved the performance of attention tasks, subjective alertness and other aspects of psychological state in 39 healthy older adults, whereas a standard decaffeinated instant coffee mg CGA had no effect.

A subsequent study [ ] replicated the beneficial psychological effects of the decaffeinated high-CGA coffee, but found that neither a placebo drink nor a control drink, containing the chlorogenic acid and caffeine components, had any effects.

Taken together, these studies show that a low caffeine, high CGA green coffee has beneficial psychoactive effects, but that these effects may depend in part on interactions with components other than just caffeine and CGA. Two studies have also assessed the effects of caffeine-free green coffee extracts.

Effects were not seen earlier than this i. Together, these findings might suggest that a minimum of 12 weeks is required to exert effects on these cognitive performance outcomes.

Coffee berry A small but recently growing body of research has also investigated the behavioural effects of coffee berry extracts made from the fruit pulp surrounding the coffee bean.

To date, there has been little research investigating the ergogenic effects of coffee berry, although one small study found that this intervention caused an improvement in antioxidant status but had no effect on exercise parameters [ ].

In a non-exercise context, single doses of coffee berry extracts have been shown to increase the synthesis of neurotrophic factors such as BDNF [ , , ], and a range of coffee berry extract doses , , mg reduced the mental fatigue, and attenuated the decreased alertness, associated with extended performance of demanding cognitive tasks [ , ].

A follow-up study contrasting the cognitive and psychological state effects of mg coffee berry extract alone, and combined with apple polyphenol extract, found that coffee berry alone increased alertness and vigour and decreased fatigue across the 6 h of post-dose assessments.

However, this effect was blunted by the addition of apple polyphenols, although this extract did improve the performance of an executive function task [ ], demonstrating the importance of, where possible, considering the effects of treatment arms in isolation.

Brain imaging studies have also demonstrated that drinks containing coffee berry extract mg can increase cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex during cognitive tasks [ ] and increase functional connectivity between brain regions implicated in task performance [ ].

One study has also investigated chronic effects. This effect was not seen when the extract was only taken in the evening and may speak to the benefits of the alerting effects of coffee berry in the morning when the psychophysiological effects of this are more impactful i.

This also fits with the peak plasma levels of caffeine, which would be anticipated between 15 and 30 min in most consumers and may adversely incite wakefulness when coffee berry is consumed in the evening.

Although neither green coffee nor coffee berry products have benefitted from substantial research efforts as yet, both contain higher levels of potentially bioactive CGAs, and might be expected to exert greater independent effects on function.

It is also possible that the functionality of these low caffeine extracts might be increased by higher levels of caffeine. Green tea contains significant levels of flavanols, including catechin, epicatechin and the tea-specific polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate EGCG. It also contains the tea-specific amino-acid ʟ-theanine and caffeine.

Meta-analyses of controlled trial data show that the consumption of green tea extracts is associated with a number of cardiovascular and anthropomorphic benefits, including enhanced total antioxidant status [ ], improved glucoregulation [ ] and significant benefits to weight, BMI and waist circumference, irrespective of caffeine content [ ].

Whilst the exercise performance effects of green tea extracts remain unclear, consumption of caffeinated green tea extracts for more than 1 week has been shown to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress [ ].

Two fMRI studies demonstrated modulation of brain function following single doses of a whey milk drink supplemented with green tea extract [ , ], but failed to match their whey control drink for caffeine.

Two studies also demonstrated cerebral blood flow and electroencephalogram EEG effects of single doses of the tea polyphenol EGCG [ , ], but in the absence of any cognitive performance effects.

There are rather more data with regard to the green tea components caffeine and ʟ-theanine and their potential interactions. Whilst ʟ-theanine by itself is not associated with any significant benefits to mood or cognitive function, a meta-analysis of the data from seven acute dose studies found that caffeine and ʟ-theanine combinations increased alertness and attention task performance for the first 2 h after consumption.

The disparate doses employed in these studies ranged from 30 to mg caffeine and from 12 to mg theanine, with a stronger relationship between caffeine dose and performance of the two [ ]. Several studies have also directly investigated the potential interactive effects of caffeine and l -theanine.

One study [ ] found that a single dose of 50 mg caffeine had its expected effects in terms of improved alertness and increased accuracy on an attention task, but that the combination of caffeine with mg ʟ-theanine resulted in additional benefits in terms of improved attention task performance and improved long-term memory, an outcome not typically associated with caffeine alone.

Similarly, whilst single doses of mg of ʟ-theanine and mg of caffeine improved the performance of one of two attention tasks, their combination resulted in a numerically more significant effect than either treatment alone [ ].

In contrast to these previous studies, a further study [ ] found that whereas both mg caffeine and mg ʟ-theanine had significant but markedly different effects on attention task performance, their combination had no cognitive effects.

In this instance, caffeine both alone and in combination with theanine modulated mood, but theanine alone had no effect. This study also found that the reduction in cerebral blood-flow in the frontal cortex during task performance caused by caffeine was abolished by the addition of ʟ-theanine.

Finally, a recent brain imaging fMRI study showed that whilst both ʟ-theanine mg and caffeine mg exerted different, independent effects on brain activation, the two compounds taken together elicited a synergistic, interactive effect on activation in brain regions associated with task performance [ ].

There is evidence that caffeine increases the bioavailability of tea flavanols [ , ] and evidence of synergistic relationships between caffeine and the tea amino-acid ʟ-theanine with respect to brain function. The mental performance effects of tea extracts or infusions and the interactive contributions of their caffeine, ʟ-theanine and flavanol components deserve greater attention.

Additionally, the delivery of caffeine in its naturally consumed state within tea and coffee drinks arguably offers a much more realistic insight into its effects than an isolated, encapsulated dose of caffeine. However, this raises the question of whether additions of milk and sugar, in particular, are permitted.

These may make the drink more palatable for many consumers, but may also alter the plasma kinetic profile of phenolics. Zhang et al. Further, a small amount of research suggests that this can negatively impact some of the mechanisms relevant to this review; Lorenz et al.

As a result, the findings of studies that permitted the use of milk and sugar should likely be considered differently to those trials that administered black coffee alone. Moving forwards, it is important for future trials to decide whether the trade-off between having a more palatable investigational product, especially with older participants, outweighs the benefits of having a macronutrient-free caffeine drink.

Caffeinated energy products include a wide range of gels, bars and drink powders. However, ready-made energy drinks and shots have lately attracted the majority of relevant, product-specific research and it could be argued that this is due to the fact that these products still dominate the market.

However, to the best of our knowledge, no functional caffeinated gums containing additional compounds even glucose have yet been investigated with randomised controlled trials, and so the effects here are exclusively attributed to caffeine. As such, caffeine-only gums do not fall within the purview of this review.

Energy drinks and shots typically contain caffeine and taurine, often in combination with glucose, amino acids, vitamins or herbal extracts. Conversely, meta-analyses purportedly investigating the ergogenic effects of caffeine have often conflated pure caffeine and energy drink studies e.

In reality, there is increasing evidence of interactive effects between caffeine and the other bioactive components of these products. In terms of ergogenic effects, a recent meta-analysis of the data from 34 studies [ ] found that energy drinks containing caffeine and taurine resulted in significantly improved endurance exercise test performance, jumping, muscle strength and endurance, and cycling and running performance.

The benefits following the energy drinks were also significantly related to the amount of taurine in the drinks rather than caffeine. These findings suggest that taurine plays a pivotal role in the effects of products combining caffeine and taurine, and finds support in a subsequent meta-analysis confirming the ergogenic effects of taurine mono-treatments [ ].

However, a more recent review suggests that the effects of taurine alone, in the absence of caffeine, are equivocal [ ]. Whilst this review of 19 trials did observe positive effects of taurine supplementation across a range of activities V O 2max , time to exhaustion, 3- and 4-km time-trial, anaerobic performance, muscle damage, peak power and recovery , this appeared hugely buoyed by timing of ingestion and the type of exercise protocol.

Given that plasma taurine concentrations peak at approximately 1-h post oral consumption, it is likely that the above acute ergogenic effects are due to mechanisms unrelated to muscular changes but rather directly related to effects within the central nervous system.

It is also likely that glucose plays a pivotal role in caffeinated energy drinks above and beyond the effects of caffeine, or indeed glucose, in isolation.

Carbohydrate ingestion has a well-established ergogenic effect on endurance exercise [ ] and, more recently, resistance exercise performance [ ], and so it is unsurprising that a recent meta-analysis of energy drinks, containing both caffeine and glucose, observed similar ergogenic benefits across a range of exercise types [ ].

These included cycling, power-based activities including within team sports and more fine-motor abilities like serving and strokes in racket sports and performance in golf and fencing. The authors raise the interesting point here that consumption under these conditions serves to both supplement ergogenic compounds like caffeine and glucose, as well as to rehydrate.

As such, any psychophysiological effects of these compounds could not be disentangled from the effects of hydration alone, a function which, in itself, has a huge impact on endurance exercise in particular [ ].

A recent study comparing an energy drink to an isocaloric control drink also demonstrated ergogenic benefits plus improved performance on a simple reaction task that was interposed between warm-up and a bout of maximal exertion. These effects were seen alongside improved mood, vigour and ratings of perceived effort measured post-exercise [ ].

In contrast, two studies failed to establish any energy drink-related benefits to cognitive task performance following physical exercise [ ] or a session of eSports [ ], although this is most likely to be due to the very small samples employed. This therefore leaves open the question of whether the combination with other bioactive ingredients resulted in broader effects than those expected following caffeine alone.

Taken as a whole, caffeine-containing energy drinks have consistent beneficial effects on attention task performance [ ]. Studies comparing energy drinks to an isocaloric glucose containing placebo have also demonstrated improved simulated driving performance [ ] and benefits that would not be expected from caffeine alone, including improved memory performance [ ] and enhanced working memory in the absence of improved attention [ ].

The results demonstrated broad cognitive benefits that included improved accuracy and speed of attention task performance and improved alertness. More importantly, improvements were also seen on measures that would not be sensitive to caffeine, including across working memory and episodic memory tasks and in ratings of depression and anxiety.

All of these improvements were also seen during the later assessments, when the effects of caffeine might be expected to be waning. A subsequent, smaller and less methodologically stringent study broadly confirmed the findings of this trial and demonstrated that the effects of the same energy shot were broader and more pronounced than either caffeine alone or coffee with a similar level of caffeine [ ].

With regard to specific ingredients, two studies have compared caffeine, taurine and their combination. In one of these studies taurine attenuated the increased alertness associated with caffeine alone [ ], and in the other taurine blunted the increased speed of attention task performance associated with caffeine [ ].

Irrespective of the direction of the functional relationship seen here, these results also confirm that both taurine and caffeine contribute to the effects of products that combine them.

Overall, there is no evidence to support the contention that the psychological effects of energy drinks are solely attributable to their caffeine content.

In contrast, the small amount of available evidence suggests that multi-component energy drinks and shots will have beneficial physical and psychological effects that are either stronger, or in the case of cognition, broader, than would be expected from their caffeine content alone.

In terms of potential benefits to mental performance, a number of phytochemicals and herbal extracts derived from non-caffeinated plants engender mental performance benefits that are broader than those seen following caffeine.

Whilst these extracts are most often consumed by themselves, several are commonly found in functional drink products. However, the levels of bioactive components in the extracts used in energy drink products are unclear, and no research has attempted to disentangle any interactions with caffeine.

The following is a brief summary of evidence regarding some potential candidates for enhancing mental performance. Meta-analyses of early data suggested that curcumin, the principal polyphenol in turmeric, may be effective in treating mood disorders [ ].

Another potential candidate is mangiferin, the principal polyphenol in mango leaf extracts. A recent single-dose study extended these findings to brain function [ ] and demonstrated wide-ranging improvements to overall accuracy of cognitive task performance, including specific benefits to attention, memory and executive function tasks, across 6 h post-dose, following the consumption of mg of the same mango leaf extract.

The performance of cognitively demanding tasks was also improved. Volatile terpenes, which comprise the principal component of essential oils, have a number of significant direct e. Volatile terpenes are readily absorbed by mucosal membranes, and in a later study, the wearing of a peppermint infused non-transdermal skin patch for 6 h resulted in improvements in memory, attention and alertness in comparison to a non-aroma skin-patch in young adults [ ].

Research demonstrates cognitive enhancement, including in terms of memory and attention task performance, following single doses of ginkgo extract [ , , , , , ] in young adults, and following supplementation for 7 days or longer in both younger [ ] and older [ , , ] participants.

These latter trials were performed by the same research team as were [ , ] and [ , ] , and this may contribute to the relatively clear pattern of effects attributed to Ginkgo biloba , relative to many of the other compounds covered within this review.

In all three cases, key methodological principles, such as dose and the source of the investigational product, were maintained between trials and this allows for a more robust comparison across the field.

It is rarely possible for one research team to develop a consistent research profile with just one compound like this, but it would be prudent for disparate teams to try, where possible, to align methodological practices and make it easier to compare effects across the literature.

The primary bioactive component of Asian Panax ginseng and American ginseng Panax quinquefolius extracts are triterpene ginsenosides. Compounds from this class owe their bioactivity to a structural similarity to many animal hormones. Single doses of a standardized American ginseng extract also resulted in improved working memory and dose-dependent increases in speed of task performance [ ] and improved working memory performance [ ].

Again, the consistency of these effects can partly be attributed to methodological consistency across many of these individual trials, with the majority of studies conducted within two labs, utilizing standardised extracts at the same or similar doses.

It is quite possible that co-administration of caffeine alongside other psychoactive phytochemicals, including those noted above, will result in additive or interactive effects with regard to the nervous system. In this regard it is notable that, for instance, monoterpenes [ , ] and triterpenes, including ginsenosides [ , ], alongside many other phytochemicals, are substrates for the same CYP enzymes as caffeine e.

As an example of this, a study in rats found that ginsenosides and caffeine had a synergistic effect with regard to antidepressant effects [ ].

Globally, caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive compound and ergogenic aid. When taken in a purified form in a research context caffeine has reasonably well delineated ergogenic and psychological effects.

However, in mental performance terms, these effects do not consistently extend beyond improving attention, including psychomotor function and vigilance. Caffeine alone has little impact on the other cognitive domains intrinsic to aspects of sporting performance. Additionally, research almost exclusively investigates the effects of single, acute doses of caffeine, and so the extent to which these findings can be applied to real-world scenarios of repeated daily consumption is arguably limited.

In the real world, athletes and participants in sport typically consume caffeine alongside a complex mixture of other potentially bioactive compounds, either in the form of products derived from caffeine-synthesising plants or as an additive to multi-ingredient products. As an aside, this does raise important questions of safety and, whilst the trials included within this narrative review report no serious adverse events, it would be remiss of this review not to highlight the continued need to question the potential unanticipated effects of combining different compounds within one product and the effects of cumulative doses of the ingredients.

The individual doses of each compound alone may not result in an adverse event, but there is scope for unforeseen negative effects following their combination. This is especially concerning when one considers that caffeine may enhance the absorption and distribution of other co-consumed ingredients and vice versa , and so, whilst doses might seem safe in isolation, their enhanced pharmacokinetics may evince unsafe psychophysiological effects.

As an example, this has been reported to a small extent with over-consumption of energy drinks in adolescent groups [ ]. Controlled trial evidence in humans has directly confirmed functional interactions between caffeine and polyphenols, l -theanine and taurine. Additionally, high polyphenol extracts from several caffeine-synthesising plants with low levels of caffeine engender broader benefits to mental performance than expected from caffeine, even at much higher doses.

This is certainly the case for high-flavanol cocoa and guaraná extracts, and high-CGA coffee berry. In the case of high-flavanol cocoa extracts the benefits to psychological functioning are evident when directly compared to caffeine-matched control treatments.

This gives a clear indication of the added value of cocoa-flavanols, but does not disentangle any interactions in the combination. Herein lies the problem for this research area. Very few of the many controlled trials assessing the psychological or ergogenic effects of caffeinated products have been designed with the requisite comparator arms to disentangle the interactive effects of caffeine.

Ideally, studies could also instigate a full fractionation of all possible permutations of combination products. Further, trials rarely investigate both the acute and chronic effects of consuming caffeine alongside these additional ingredients.

It may therefore be the case that where unconvincing acute effects of these combinations do exist, that longer term administration may result in more pronounced, or at least different, effects.

As such, where these unconvincing effects exist, it is probably too premature to discount them entirely. As an additional caveat, future research should undoubtedly be more representative of non-male participants.

It seems likely that consuming pure anhydrous caffeine is the most impoverished method of delivering caffeine for the enhancement of either physical or psychological functioning. However, more research is needed on a number of fronts.

First, to disentangle the contributions of caffeine and the non-caffeine bioactive compounds in caffeinated products. Second, to establish the optimal level of caffeine in caffeinated products, including the potential for additional caffeine to further enhance the functional benefits of low caffeine extracts.

Finally, to explore the potential for caffeine to potentiate the benefits seen following multifarious other psychoactive phytochemicals that have not been meaningfully combined with caffeine to date.

Del Coso J, Muñoz G, Muñoz-Guerra J. Prevalence of caffeine use in elite athletes following its removal from the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned substances.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Article Google Scholar. Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, Larson-Meyer DE, Peeling P, Phillips SM, et al. IOC Consensus Statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Valenzuela PL, Morales JS, Emanuele E, Pareja-Galeano H, Lucia A. Supplements with purported effects on muscle mass and strength. Eur J Nutr. Lorist MM, Tops M. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition. Brain Cogn. Voss MW, Kramer AF, Basak C, Prakash RS, Roberts B. A meta-analytic review of cognition and sport expertise.

Appl Cogn Psychol. Jacobson J, Matthaeus L. Athletics and executive functioning: how athletic participation and sport type correlate with cognitive performance. Psychol Sport Exerc. Mayers LB, Redick TS, Chiffriller SH, Simone AN, Terraforte KR.

Working memory capacity among collegiate student athletes: effects of sport-related head contacts, concussions, and working memory demands. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. Furley P, Wood G. Working memory, attentional control, and expertise in sports: a review of current literature and directions for future research.

J Appl Res Mem Cogn. Sanchis C, Blasco E, Luna FG, Lupiáñez J. Effects of caffeine intake and exercise intensity on executive and arousal vigilance. Sci Rep. Calvo JL, Fei X, Domínguez R, Pareja-Galeano H.

Caffeine and cognitive functions in sports: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Harborne JR. Introduction to ecological biochemistry. London: Elsevier; Google Scholar. Kennedy DO. Plants and the human brain. New York: Oxford University Press; Ashihara H, Sano H, Crozier A.

Caffeine and related purine alkaloids: biosynthesis, catabolism, function and genetic engineering. Ashihara H. Metabolism of alkaloids in coffee plants. Braz J Plant Physiol. Sellier MJ, Reeb P, Marion-Poll F. Consumption of bitter alkaloids in Drosophila melanogaster in multiple-choice test conditions.

Chem Senses. Nathanson JA. Caffeine and related methylxanthines—possible naturally-occurring pesticides. Janzen DH, Juster HB, Bell EA. Toxicity of secondary compounds to seed-eating larvae of bruchid beetle Callosobruchus-maculatus.

Fernandes FL, Picanco MC, Gontijo PC, Fernandes MED, Pereira EJG, Semeao AA. Induced responses of Coffea arabica to attack of Coccus viridis stimulate locomotion of the herbivore. Entomol Exp Appl. Convergent evolution of caffeine in plants by co-option of exapted ancestral enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci.

Pichersky E, Lewinsohn E. Convergent evolution in plant specialized metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Biol. Dewick PM. Medicinal natural products: a biosynthetic approach.

Chichester: Wiley; Book Google Scholar. Latini S, Pedata F. Adenosine in the central nervous system: release mechanisms and extracellular concentrations.

J Neurochem. Huang ZL, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep. Curr Top Med Chem. Magkos F, Kavouras SA. Caffeine use in sports, pharmacokinetics in man, and cellular mechanisms of action.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick K, Badenhorst C, Ali A. The role of genetics in moderating the inter-individual differences in the ergogenicity of caffeine.

Graham TE, McLean C. Gender differences in the metabolic responses to caffeine. In: Gender differences in metabolism. Boca Raton: CRC Press; Rodopoulos N, Wisen O, Norman A. Caffeine metabolism in patients with chronic liver disease.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest. Nehlig A. Interindividual differences in caffeine metabolism and factors driving caffeine consumption. Pharmacol Rev.

Fredholm BB, Battig K, Holmen J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE. Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. CAS Google Scholar. Daly J. Mechanism of action of caffeine. Caffeine, Coffee, and Health. Pelligrino DA, Xu H-L, Vetri F.

Caffeine and the control of cerebral hemodynamics. J Alzheimers Dis. Higashi Y. Coffee and endothelial function: a coffee paradox? Belayneh A, Molla F.

The effect of coffee on pharmacokinetic properties of drugs: a review. BioMed Res Int. Pohanka M, Dobes P. Caffeine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, but not butyrylcholinesterase. Int J Mol Sci. Geraets L, Moonen HJ, Wouters EF, Bast A, Hageman GJ.

Caffeine metabolites are inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 at physiological concentrations. Biochem Pharmacol. Zulli A, Smith RM, Kubatka P, Novak J, Uehara Y, Loftus H, et al. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

Meeusen R, Roelands B, Spriet LL. Caffeine, exercise and the brain. Limits of human endurance. Basel: Karger Publishers; Guest NS, VanDusseldorp TA, Nelson MT, Grgic J, Schoenfeld BJ, Jenkins ND, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Biaggioni I, Paul S, Puckett A, Arzubiaga C. Caffeine and theophylline as adenosine receptor antagonists in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Harpaz E, Tamir S, Weinstein A, Weinstein Y.

The effect of caffeine on energy balance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. Barcelos RP, Lima FD, Carvalho NR, Bresciani G, Royes LFF. Caffeine effects on systemic metabolism, oxidative-inflammatory pathways, and exercise performance. Nutr Res. Chirasani VR, Pasek DA, Meissner G. J Biol Chem.

Nishida K, Qi XY, Wakili R, Comtois P, Chartier D, Harada M, et al. Mechanisms of atrial tachyarrhythmias associated with coronary artery occlusion in a chronic canine model. Vanattou-Saïfoudine N, McNamara R, Harkin A. Br J Pharmacol.

Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications.

Clin Pharmacokinet. Gunes A, Dahl M-L. Variation in CYP1A2 activity and its clinical implications: influence of environmental factors and genetic polymorphisms. Future Med. Gambaro SE, Moretti R, Tiribelli C, Gazzin S. Brain cytochrome p enzymes: a possible therapeutic targets for neurological diseases.

Ther Targets Neurol Dis. Kuban W, Daniel WA. Cytochrome P expression and regulation in the brain. Drug Metab Rev. McMillan DM, Tyndale RF. CYP-mediated drug metabolism in the brain impacts drug response. Pharmacol Ther. Gurley BJ, Steelman SC, Thomas SL.

Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy. Clin Ther. Morelli M, Simola N. Methylxanthines and drug dependence: a focus on interactions with substances of abuse.

In: Methylxanthines. Berlin: Springer; Chapter Google Scholar. Liu QS, Deng R, Fan Y, Li K, Meng F, Li X, et al. Low dose of caffeine enhances the efficacy of antidepressants in major depressive disorder and the underlying neural substrates. Mol Nutr Food Res. Ursing C, Wikner J, Brismar K, Röjdmark S.

Caffeine raises the serum melatonin level in healthy subjects: an indication of melatonin metabolism by cytochrome P CYP 1A2.

J Endocrinol Invest. Lipton RB, Diener H-C, Robbins MS, Garas SY, Patel K. Caffeine in the management of patients with headache.

J Headache Pain. Weiser T, Richter E, Hegewisch A, Muse D, Lange R. Efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of ibuprofen and caffeine in the management of moderate to severe dental pain after third molar extraction.

Eur J Pain. Smith AP, Nutt DJ. Effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses, ibuprofen and caffeine on reaction time and alertness. Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ, Ali A.

The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. Salinero JJ, Lara B, Del Coso J. Effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on team sports performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Sports Med.

Pickering C, Kiely J. Are low doses of caffeine as ergogenic as higher doses? A critical review highlighting the need for comparison with current best practice in caffeine research.

Grgic J, Pickering C, Del Coso J, Schoenfeld BJ, Mikulic P. CYP1A2 genotype and acute ergogenic effects of caffeine intake on exercise performance: a systematic review. Filip A, Wilk M, Krzysztofik M, Del Coso J. Inconsistency in the ergogenic effect of caffeine in athletes who regularly consume caffeine: is it due to the disparity in the criteria that defines habitual caffeine intake?

Lara B, Ruiz-Moreno C, Salinero JJ, Del Coso J. Time course of tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine. PLoS ONE. Goncalves LDS, Painelli VDS, Yamaguchi G, Oliveira LFD, Saunders B, da Silva RP, et al.

Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation. J Appl Physiol. Salinero JJ, Lara B, Jiménez-Ormeño E, Romero-Moraleda B, Giráldez-Costas V, Baltazar-Martins G, et al.

More research is necessary to establish the ergogenic effect of caffeine in female athletes. Gomez-Bruton A, Marin-Puyalto J, Muñiz-Pardos B, Matute-Llorente A, Del Coso J, Gomez-Cabello A, et al. Does acute caffeine supplementation improve physical performance in female team-sport athletes?

Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mielgo-Ayuso J, Marques-Jiménez D, Refoyo I, Del Coso J, León-Guereño P, Calleja-González J.

Effect of caffeine supplementation on sports performance based on differences between sexes: a systematic review.

Lara B, Gutiérrez-Hellín J, García-Bataller A, Rodríguez-Fernández P, Romero-Moraleda B, Del Coso J. Ergogenic effects of caffeine on peak aerobic cycling power during the menstrual cycle.

Spriet LL. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Ruxton C. The impact of caffeine on mood, cognitive function, performance and hydration: a review of benefits and risks.

Nutr Bull. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Smit HJ, Rogers PJ. Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in low and higher caffeine consumers. Smith A, Sturgess W, Gallagher J. Effects of a low dose of caffeine given in different drinks on mood and performance.

Hum Psychopharmacol-Clin Exp. Brice C, Smith A. The effects of caffeine on simulated driving, subjective alertness and sustained attention. Childs E, de Wit H. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users.

Durlac PJ, Edmunds R, Howard L, Tipper SP. A rapid effect of caffeinated beverages on two choice reaction time tasks. Nutr Neurosci. Lieberman HR. The effects of ginseng, ephedrine, and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and energy. Nutr Rev. Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance.

Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer? Irwin C, Khalesi S, Desbrow B, McCartney D. Effects of acute caffeine consumption following sleep loss on cognitive, physical, occupational and driving performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Loke WH, Hinrichs J, Ghoneim M. Caffeine and diazepam: separate and combined effects on mood, memory, and psychomotor performance. Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol. Fulton JL, Dinas PC, Carrillo AE, Edsall JR, Ryan EJ, Ryan EJ.

Impact of genetic variability on physiological responses to caffeine in humans: a systematic review. Lorenzo Calvo J, Fei X, Domínguez R, Pareja-Galeano H. Carswell AT, Howland K, Martinez-Gonzalez B, Baron P, Davison G.

The effect of caffeine on cognitive performance is influenced by CYP1A2 but not ADORA2A genotype, yet neither genotype affects exercise performance in healthy adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol. Huertas F, Blasco E, Moratal C, Lupiañez J. Caffeine intake modulates the functioning of the attentional networks depending on consumption habits and acute exercise demands.

Impey J, Bahdur K, Kramer M. Mediating effects of caffeine ingestion and post-activation performance enhancement on reactive dive times in goalkeepers.

Ann Appl Sport Sci. Bowsher CS, Tobin AM. Plant biochemistry. New York: Garland Science; Fraga CG, Croft KD, Kennedy DO, Tomás-Barberán FA. The effects of polyphenols and other bioactives on human health. Food Funct. Kim HS, Quon MJ, Kim JA. New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate.

Redox Biol. Monagas M, Khan N, Andres-Lacueva C, Casas R, Urpi-Sarda M, Llorach R, et al. Effect of cocoa powder on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

Am J Clin Nutr. Spencer JP. Flavonoids and brain health: multiple effects underpinned by common mechanisms. Genes Nutr. Williams RJ, Spencer JP. Flavonoids, cognition, and dementia: actions, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic utility for Alzheimer disease.

Free Radic Biol Med. Guarana side effects. Guarana contraindications. Guarana composition. This material is for informational purposes only. In case of doubt, consult the doctor. Medicinal plants Medicinal plants list. Plants components. Medicinal plants importance. History of medicinal plants.

Plant preparations. Special: Tea. Special: Sage. Special: Chamomille. Special: Rosemary. Natural medicine. Special: Cholesterol. Special: Obesity. Natural food. Vegetarian recipes. Mediterranean diet. Nutrition for children. Food rich in iron. Special: Apples. Special: Strawberry.

Special: Lemon. Special: Pear. Gardening tips. Scientific nouns of plants. Cultivation calendars. Growing vegetables. Close-up photography. Botanical significant places.

Study of plants.

We Culinary expertise cookies and similar technologies to provide the best experience on our website. Etract to our Extrxct Policy for more Perfoormance. Looking Culinary expertise increase your energy levels, boost athletic performance, and maintain a healthy weight? Look no further than Guarana Extract. This natural extract helps to block fat absorption, maintain a healthy brain, and promote cognitive function. Additionally, Guarana Extract aids libido and sexual health, while promoting a positive mood.

Video

STOP EATING IT! 99% of People Thinks is Medicine, But It Hurts You! Guarana Extract for Physical Performance

Author: Akinokinos

2 thoughts on “Guarana Extract for Physical Performance

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com