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Herbal extract for antioxidant support

Herbal extract for antioxidant support

The antioxidant Herbal extract for antioxidant support of 44 selected medicinal herbs were evaluated atioxidant two methods, namely, DPPH free radical supporh and Herbal extract for antioxidant support based Subcutaneous fat composition screening assay [ 194748 ]. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Herbs are defined as non-wood plants whose stems are not completely lignified. Home Nutrition News What Should I Eat? Medicinal and antioxidant property: Used in the treatment of non-specific leucorrhoea Post IUD. Jump to: — What are antioxidants?

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Statements regarding dietary supplements have not been Herbql by the FDA and are Herbal extract for antioxidant support intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition.

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About this item GNC Herbal Plus Grape Seed Extract mg: Provides Antioxidant Support GNC Herbal Plus Grape Seed Extract mg capsules provide antioxidant support by protecting against free radical damage.

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High-Potency Resurrection Plant Extract for Antioxidant Support, Skin Revitalization Briefly, 50 antioxidxnt of sample and 50 μL of Herbal extract for antioxidant support reagent were uspport into an eppendorf tube. Arch Toxicol. Food Chem Toxicol — Very good product! Chinese herbs have been associated with the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, enabling their experimental use as therapeutic compounds against metabolism-related diseases Home Nutrition News What Should I Eat?
Antioxidants

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Amazon's Choice highlights highly rated, well-priced products available to ship immediately. Savings Get 4 for the price of 3 Shop items. Item Package Quantity: 1. Purchase options and add-ons. Item Form capsules Brand GNC Age Range Description Adult Material Feature Vegetarian, Gluten Free, Vegan Recommended Uses For Product Antioxidant Support.

About this item GNC Herbal Plus Grape Seed Extract mg: Provides Antioxidant Support GNC Herbal Plus Grape Seed Extract mg capsules provide antioxidant support by protecting against free radical damage.

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High-Potency Resurrection Plant Extract for Antioxidant Support, Skin Revitalization. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's tests for multiple pairwise comparisons, using the statistical package SPSS version Initially, the TPC of all the herb decoction extracts, that were supplied to us by Epirus local producers, was determined.

According to the results, the highest polyphenolic content was observed in the sage extract Salvia officinalis ; code John's wort Hypericum perforatum ; codes 4 and 19 , rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis ; code 45 , spearmint Mentha spicata , code 28 , hawthorn Crataegus monogyna , code 23 , garden thyme Thymus vulgaris ; code 40 , ironwort Sideritis scardica ; code 2 , lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora ; code 18 and pennyroyal Mentha pulegium , code 14 Table I.

Total phenolic content, IC50 and AU0. Among these, lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora ; code 18 , perforate St. John's wort Hypericum perforatum ; code 4 , and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis ; code 45 were also rich in phenol content, as described above. In the superoxide assay, the extract that was derived from sage Salvia officinalis ; code 13 displayed the highest efficacy 6.

Even though the sage extracts from different producers had a high polyphenolic content, their efficacy to scavenge superoxide anion was diminished.

Subsequently, basil Ocimum basilicum , The extract that exhibited the highest reducing power capacity was the one derived from lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora ; code 18, 3.

Subsequently, an increased reducing power was exerted by both garden thyme Thymus vulgaris ; 4 and 6. More specifically, the garden thyme extract with code 40 was one of the highly enriched in polyphenol extracts among the ones we tested.

All extracts that derived from oregano had robust reducing power capacity ranging from 5. Furthermore, three out of the four sage extracts and all three lemon balm Melissa officinalis ; codes 8, 21 and 22 extracts exhibited an almost similar reducing power capacity 6. Four of the extracts that displayed the highest cell-free antioxidant capacity in the methods tested were screened using the EA.

hy cells for cytotoxicity and antioxidant-related parameters. More specifically, oregano Origanum vulgare ; code 46 , sage Salvia officinalis ; code 13 , lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora ; code 18 and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis ; code 32 extracts were the ones that were selected for more elaborate analysis for the determination of their in vitro cell-based antioxidant ability.

Initially, the authors wished to examine whether these four extracts exerted any cytotoxic effects. For this purpose, XTT cell proliferation assay was performed using EA. hy cells. The Origanum vulgare decoction extract exhibited an IC 50 value of Finally, Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract had an IC 50 value of hy cells, as assessed using XTT assay.

All symbols indicate the concentrations of the Epirus herb decoction extracts. Subsequently, the present study examined whether sublethal concentrations of the herb decoction extracts were able to alter the intracellular levels of GSH and ROS, since they both play crucial roles in physiology, particularly in cells with a cancerous profile.

The sublethal concentrations of all four herbs decoction extracts were unable to affect the ROS levels as compared with the control group Figs.

On the contrary, three herb decoction extracts were able to decrease the GSH levels in the already intracellular distorted cancerous physiology in comparison with the control group. The same effect was evident in treatments with lemon beebrush decoction extracts Aloysia citrodora , in which all concentrations tested reduced the intracellular GSH levels significantly.

On the contrary, all concentrations tested from rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract did not affect the GSH levels. Effects of Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Aloysia citrodora and Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extracts on ROS levels in EA.

hy cells after 24 h. ROS, reactive oxygen species. Effects of Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Aloysia citrodora and Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extracts on GSH levels in EA.

GSH, glutathione. The present study aimed to determine the redox-related properties of well-known and routinely used herb decoctions derived from Epirus region, Greece, predominantly for their extensive use in everyday life, their integral part in human diet, and eventually for their potential exploitation as chemopreventive agents.

The results suggest the potent antioxidant activity of Epirus medicinal and aromatic herbs. The range of the TPC in the tested decoctions was from 0. These levels differ compared to those in previous studies 26 , 27 , a discrepancy that may be attributed to the different extraction protocols, solvents, different microenvironment and cultivation processes used.

Phenolic acids are a subclass of phenolic compounds, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. In the present study, considerable variation was detected in phenolic compounds content among the different herb species. The high level of diversity and complexity of the natural mixtures of phenolic compounds that are present in herb decoctions render difficult to characterize every compound, elucidate its structure, and attribute its activity.

Of note, further studies are required to identify the major groups and important aglycones of the phenolic compounds, allowing us to associate their presence with their enhanced activity like we have done in our previous study Nonetheless, several medical herbs have been studied and to some extent their phenolic chemistry is known The potent antioxidant potential that the polyphenolic compounds of the herb decoctions possess is a manifestation that has been already reported The chemical structure and type of the compounds, the level of substrate oxidation and the conditions of the oxidation process, constitute parameters that affect their activity These compounds consist of a hydroxyl group and play a major role in the antioxidant capacity because of their ability to release hydrogen and to form stable radical intermediates.

Moreover, the mechanism of their action mainly comprises neutralization of free radicals, enzyme induction and chelation of metal ions. The experiments performed in the present study clearly indicated that the extracts of Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis and Aloysia citrodora possessed a potent antioxidant potential and may be stronger radical scavengers than the other tested Epirus herbs.

Given the fact that the aforementioned assays use both organic and water-based solvents, they allow for the evaluation if the antioxidant effect of both lipophilic and hydrophilic polyphenols 32 , Even though the oregano Origanum vulgare decoction extract exhibited a potent scavenging ability against superoxide radical, the highest efficiency was achieved by the sage Salvia officinalis decoction extract.

Flavonoids contained in this herb extract have also been previously reported for their effectiveness against superoxide anions 34 , that have been proven to harm cellular components 35 , predominantly lipids, as they are involved in initiation of the lipid peroxidation process Lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora exhibitd the highest reducing power capacity among herbs tested, serving as a significant indicator of its potential antioxidant activity.

The reducing capacity composes a distinct mechanism by which antioxidants exert their activity together with chain initiation, decomposition of peroxides, reducing capacity and radical scavenging A previous study also suggested that the ability of plant-derived decoctions to act as reducing agents and free radical scavengers or as quenchers of singlet oxygen formation was probably attributed to their potent antioxidant effectiveness in vitro In consonance, some authors have ascertained the fact that phenolic compounds are able to chelate metal ions and report that intracellular binding of iron is responsible for the protection offered by flavonoids against H 2 O 2 -induced DNA damage DNA damage, as defined by strand breakage in response to oxidative stress, was most effectively inhibited with the rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract.

The results obtained herein correspond with those of other studies examining the antioxidant properties of the medicinal and aromatic herbs Origanum vulgare , Aloysia citrodora, Salvia officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis.

Taken together, their beneficial properties have been basically attributed to their major chemical compounds, such as carvacrol, thymol, diterpenes and carnosol In particular, Origanum vulgare extract exhibits antioxidant and antibacterial activities, mostly attributed to its carvacrol and thymol content 41 , Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of Aloysia citrodora was evaluated in several scientific studies that have demonstrated the strong activity of this plant 43 , Additionally, decoctions derived from organ shoots and hairy roots and undifferentiated cell and callus cultures of Salvia officinalis , as well as from shoots and roots of in vitro regenerated plants, as well its chemical components, were evaluated for their antioxidant properties using several in vitro models 45 , The beneficial effects of this plant herb have been attributed to its main chemical constituents, including diterpenes, carnosol and carnosic acid, as well as to its essential oil components In the global literature, there is a constant debate as to the plant herb biologically active substances that can affect the activity and metabolism of cells.

Cell-free methodologies are able to provide valuable preamble data concerning their efficacy; however, cell-based in vitro experiments are also used to minimize the mechanistic limitations of protocols using cell-free systems. Using cell lines integrates a spectrum of protective mechanisms represented by a shield of important cellular molecules against oxidants toxic effects that cell-free methodologies do not contain and examine.

Hence, in the present study, the four decoction extracts that exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity in cell-free methodologies Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Aloysia citrodora and Rosmarinus officinalis were examined for their redox-related properties using human endothelial EA.

The high energy demand of cancer cells, and concomitantly, their intense metabolic rates lead to abundant ROS production in the cellular environment, derived primarily from the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.

Albeit the continuous and elevated ROS levels can result in the death of normal cells, through the induction of oxidative stress, the high rate of ROS generation in cancer cells is compensated by the equally high activation of the respective antioxidant mechanisms Considering that the nuclear transcriptional factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 NRF2 , enhances cell survival under oxidative stress conditions, its overactivation enables cancer cells to take advantage over the normal ones In the case that the elevated levels of ROS cannot be alleviated, the cancer cells are vulnerable to cell death mediated by oxidative stress In this context, strategies related to intracellular ROS generation or target endogenous antioxidant mechanisms have been tested as potential anticancer therapies 50 , As regards the polyphenol activity, it is known that these molecules exert a biphasic effect; at low concentrations, they act as antioxidants, whereas at high concentrations, they promote elevated oxidation that results in cytotoxicity To address the above, the present study evaluated the cytotoxicity exerted by the four most potent decoction extracts in order to determine the effects of non-cytotoxic concentrations of these on the intracellular GSH and ROS levels.

The assessment of the effects of the extracts on the antioxidant capacity of endothelial cells was based on the measurement of the GSH and ROS levels using flow cytometry.

The regulation of intracellular GSH levels following extract treatment is crucial, since GSH is considered a significant endogenous antioxidant molecule in cells GSH can directly scavenge free radicals by donating one hydrogen atom from its sulfhydryl group or is used as substrate by antioxidant enzymes For endothelial cells in particular, GSH is important not only as an antioxidant, but also as a crucial regulator of cell signaling 54 , Endothelial cells as part of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment play a critical role in inflammatory processes, since the secretion of endothelial mitogens and chemotactic factors driven by endothelial cells, stimulates their proliferation and angiogenesis Endothelial cells release growth and survival factors such as IL-6 to protect tumor cells Consequently, the dependence of tumor growth and expansion to new blood vessels formed by proliferating endothelial cells warrants investigation.

The latter implies the need for the examination of strategies targeting the functions of tumor endothelial cells as key players in angiogenic processes Therefore, the assessment of the mechanisms through which medicinal herbs affect molecular pathways that regulate the GSH and ROS levels in the EA.

hy cell line may be of utmost importance. It has been previously described that carvacrol and thymol are the components considered responsible for the antioxidant activity of the essential oil of oregano 59 , It was reported that carvacrol increases ROS and depletes GSH levels in two distinct human cell lines.

In line with the above results, carvacrol has been reported to induce ROS levels in V79 cells 61 and to reduce the levels of antioxidant enzymes catalase CAT and superoxide dismutase SOD in HL human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and Jurkat human T lymphocyte cells cells It is possible that their antitumor activity does not rely on the increase of intracellular ROS levels, but on the elevation of the difference between the GSH and ROS levels 63 , rendering cells vulnerable to the already increased ROS levels due to their cancerous phenotype Salvia officinalis may exert its cytotoxic effect in a similar manner to oregano.

A previous study that investigated the effect of Salvia chloroleuca reported that was able to induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cells through a ROS-mediated pathway The results of the present study and the previous one 65 are contradictory to data from previous literature that reported that HepG2 cells pre-treated with the Salvia officinalis extract formed less oxidant-induced DNA lesions Although Kozics et al 66 proposed that the observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both the elevation of glutathione peroxidase GPx activity in the pre-treated cells, as well as to its well documented in vitro antioxidant activity, their finding of an elevated GPx activity may justify the decrease levels of GSH found in the present study.

Previously, Salvia officinalis was reported to decrease peripheral inflammation that may support blood brain barrier function and cerebral blood flow, contributing to longer-term benefits towards cognitive health in older adults In the present study, the Aloysia citrodora decoction extract also decreased the GSH levels in the EA.

Notably, Aloysia citrodora decoction extract has been previously linked to an increase in glutathione reductase GR levels accompanied by lower levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, as proposed by a double-blind study using human subjects Furthermore, Fitsiou et al 69 reported potent anticancer and antimicrobial properties accompanied by a weak direct antioxidant activity, as shown by comet assay in Jurkat cells.

Another study demonstrated results similar with to the data presented herein, attributing lemon beebrush leaf infusion as a source of compounds with significant free radical scavenger ability and antigenotoxic activity Even though Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract exhibited a potent antioxidant capacity, the present study failed to detect any changes in GSH and ROS levels.

As aforementioned, it has been demonstrated that the depletion of endogenous GSH levels is considered to increase the efficacy of therapeutic interventions 71 , Furthermore, it has been shown that Rosmarinus officinalis contains rosmarinic acid, and that its administration in a xenograft tumor model was able to suppress tumor growth Furthermore, rosmarinic acid can damage murine melanoma cells through a double-axis effect, namely the possible protection of healthy cells increased GSH and the concomitant damage of cancer cells depletion of GSH This phenomenon may compose a critical step for the selection of appropriate chemopreventive strategies based on appropriate configurations of the redox potential of cancer cells.

Chinese herbs have been associated with the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, enabling their experimental use as therapeutic compounds against metabolism-related diseases Αn uncertainty that the present study generates lies in the obvious discrepancy between results in decoctions examined in the authors' laboratory and originating from the same plant type, but have been provided by different producers.

This could relate to the fact that herb biological properties are dependent on differences in the exact geographical location and cultivation micro-environment conditions. Previously, Karydas et al 76 reported that even different land areas can modulate antioxidant potential and polyphenolic content.

More elaborately, the different land areas can be further fragmented into different habitats and the specific microclimate conditions that include altitude, soil composition, temperature variation, and watering during the day or night hours.

Furthermore, even though the in vitro cell-free methodologies rely on the ability of the extract to scavenge the generating radical, small differences in the methodology mechanisms can justify the differentiation of the efficacies that each extract exhibits.

This has been frequently reported in studies examining a series of protocol schemes Therefore, it is necessary not to rely on a single test or even the analyzed parameter These fluctuations in efficacies have not only been observed among experimental protocols applied, but also between herbs that were derived from different producers.

Nevertheless, it is clear that certain decoction extracts e. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the promising role of the tested decoctions as a source of antioxidant active compounds in follow-up in vivo studies, since they possess the ability to interfere with or modify the redox state of cells.

Nevertheless, antioxidant protection involves a variety of factors, such as the concentration of antioxidant compounds, the synergetic effect that they may possess and how they can modulate the different branches of cellular oxidative status. Therefore, the scientific community needs to remain alert and acknowledge the aforementioned limitations that do not allow us to reach a solid outcome, which is also dependent on the methodology used to examine the extracts.

Likewise, it is reasonable that the outcome in in vitro applications may differ from that in vivo due to advanced levels of complexity of the biological system. The need for further research focusing on the effects of medicinal and aromatic herbs in vivo is critical to corroborate the beneficial effects proposed by the present study.

Additionally, the cytotoxicity and bioactivity of the samples examined appears to be dependent on various factors, such as a plant's geographical location and cultivation process, parts of the plant used for decoction preparation and the extraction protocol solvent, temperature, time, etc.

However, clinical trials and primary prevention studies using high doses of such herbs in humans did not yield the expected beneficial outcome Conclusively, the generating trend of the use of herbs in order to exert beneficial effects on human health and well-being requires further exploration. The setting of prerequisites for the investigation of the interrelation between particular herb harvests and cultivation conditions may lead to new dimensions and complexities that the scientific community needs to focus their interest and shed light on.

Finally, the assessment of the polyphenol content in the decoction extracts that possess a higher efficacy and the identification of those molecules that may exert significant biological effects is of utmost importance.

The aforementioned should be followed with mechanistic in vitro and in vivo experimental models that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by the compounds. ZS, IDK, PV and FT analyzed and interpreted the data regarding the antioxidant activity of the herbs.

ZS, IDK and PV were major contributors to the writing of the manuscript. KA, NG and DK, were involved in the design and conception of the study, and also confirm the authenticity of all the raw data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

DK is an Editor of the journal, but had no personal involvement in the reviewing process, or any influence in terms of adjudicating on the final decision, for this article.

The other authors declare that they have no competing interests. GlobeNewswire by notified: Global Medicinal Herbs Market Size, Trends, Company Profiles, Growth Rate, Revenue, Demand and Forecast. GlobeNewswire, Inc. Joshi B, Sah GP, Basnet BB, Bhatt MR, Sharma D, Subedi K, Pandey J and Malla R: Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of different medicinal plants: Ocimum sanctum Tulsi , Eugenia caryophyllata Clove , Achyranthes bidentata Datiwan and Azadirachta indica Neem.

J Microbiol Antimicrob. World Health Organization WHO : WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy: WHO, Geneva, Garg AK, Faheem M and Singh S: Role of medicinal plant in human health disease.

Asian J Plant Sci Res. Galloway WRJD, Isidro-Llobet A and Spring DR: Diversity-oriented synthesis as a tool for the discovery of novel biologically active small molecules.

Nat Commun. Hopkins AL, Mason JS and Overington JP: Can we rationally design promiscuous drugs? Curr Opin Struct Biol. Ekor M: The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety.

Front Pharmacol.

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More specifically, oregano Origanum vulgare ; code 46 , sage Salvia officinalis ; code 13 , lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora ; code 18 and rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis ; code 32 extracts were the ones that were selected for more elaborate analysis for the determination of their in vitro cell-based antioxidant ability.

Initially, the authors wished to examine whether these four extracts exerted any cytotoxic effects. For this purpose, XTT cell proliferation assay was performed using EA.

hy cells. The Origanum vulgare decoction extract exhibited an IC 50 value of Finally, Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract had an IC 50 value of hy cells, as assessed using XTT assay.

All symbols indicate the concentrations of the Epirus herb decoction extracts. Subsequently, the present study examined whether sublethal concentrations of the herb decoction extracts were able to alter the intracellular levels of GSH and ROS, since they both play crucial roles in physiology, particularly in cells with a cancerous profile.

The sublethal concentrations of all four herbs decoction extracts were unable to affect the ROS levels as compared with the control group Figs. On the contrary, three herb decoction extracts were able to decrease the GSH levels in the already intracellular distorted cancerous physiology in comparison with the control group.

The same effect was evident in treatments with lemon beebrush decoction extracts Aloysia citrodora , in which all concentrations tested reduced the intracellular GSH levels significantly. On the contrary, all concentrations tested from rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract did not affect the GSH levels.

Effects of Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Aloysia citrodora and Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extracts on ROS levels in EA. hy cells after 24 h. ROS, reactive oxygen species.

Effects of Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Aloysia citrodora and Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extracts on GSH levels in EA. GSH, glutathione. The present study aimed to determine the redox-related properties of well-known and routinely used herb decoctions derived from Epirus region, Greece, predominantly for their extensive use in everyday life, their integral part in human diet, and eventually for their potential exploitation as chemopreventive agents.

The results suggest the potent antioxidant activity of Epirus medicinal and aromatic herbs. The range of the TPC in the tested decoctions was from 0. These levels differ compared to those in previous studies 26 , 27 , a discrepancy that may be attributed to the different extraction protocols, solvents, different microenvironment and cultivation processes used.

Phenolic acids are a subclass of phenolic compounds, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. In the present study, considerable variation was detected in phenolic compounds content among the different herb species. The high level of diversity and complexity of the natural mixtures of phenolic compounds that are present in herb decoctions render difficult to characterize every compound, elucidate its structure, and attribute its activity.

Of note, further studies are required to identify the major groups and important aglycones of the phenolic compounds, allowing us to associate their presence with their enhanced activity like we have done in our previous study Nonetheless, several medical herbs have been studied and to some extent their phenolic chemistry is known The potent antioxidant potential that the polyphenolic compounds of the herb decoctions possess is a manifestation that has been already reported The chemical structure and type of the compounds, the level of substrate oxidation and the conditions of the oxidation process, constitute parameters that affect their activity These compounds consist of a hydroxyl group and play a major role in the antioxidant capacity because of their ability to release hydrogen and to form stable radical intermediates.

Moreover, the mechanism of their action mainly comprises neutralization of free radicals, enzyme induction and chelation of metal ions. The experiments performed in the present study clearly indicated that the extracts of Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis and Aloysia citrodora possessed a potent antioxidant potential and may be stronger radical scavengers than the other tested Epirus herbs.

Given the fact that the aforementioned assays use both organic and water-based solvents, they allow for the evaluation if the antioxidant effect of both lipophilic and hydrophilic polyphenols 32 , Even though the oregano Origanum vulgare decoction extract exhibited a potent scavenging ability against superoxide radical, the highest efficiency was achieved by the sage Salvia officinalis decoction extract.

Flavonoids contained in this herb extract have also been previously reported for their effectiveness against superoxide anions 34 , that have been proven to harm cellular components 35 , predominantly lipids, as they are involved in initiation of the lipid peroxidation process Lemon beebrush Aloysia citrodora exhibitd the highest reducing power capacity among herbs tested, serving as a significant indicator of its potential antioxidant activity.

The reducing capacity composes a distinct mechanism by which antioxidants exert their activity together with chain initiation, decomposition of peroxides, reducing capacity and radical scavenging A previous study also suggested that the ability of plant-derived decoctions to act as reducing agents and free radical scavengers or as quenchers of singlet oxygen formation was probably attributed to their potent antioxidant effectiveness in vitro In consonance, some authors have ascertained the fact that phenolic compounds are able to chelate metal ions and report that intracellular binding of iron is responsible for the protection offered by flavonoids against H 2 O 2 -induced DNA damage DNA damage, as defined by strand breakage in response to oxidative stress, was most effectively inhibited with the rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract.

The results obtained herein correspond with those of other studies examining the antioxidant properties of the medicinal and aromatic herbs Origanum vulgare , Aloysia citrodora, Salvia officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis.

Taken together, their beneficial properties have been basically attributed to their major chemical compounds, such as carvacrol, thymol, diterpenes and carnosol In particular, Origanum vulgare extract exhibits antioxidant and antibacterial activities, mostly attributed to its carvacrol and thymol content 41 , Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of Aloysia citrodora was evaluated in several scientific studies that have demonstrated the strong activity of this plant 43 , Additionally, decoctions derived from organ shoots and hairy roots and undifferentiated cell and callus cultures of Salvia officinalis , as well as from shoots and roots of in vitro regenerated plants, as well its chemical components, were evaluated for their antioxidant properties using several in vitro models 45 , The beneficial effects of this plant herb have been attributed to its main chemical constituents, including diterpenes, carnosol and carnosic acid, as well as to its essential oil components In the global literature, there is a constant debate as to the plant herb biologically active substances that can affect the activity and metabolism of cells.

Cell-free methodologies are able to provide valuable preamble data concerning their efficacy; however, cell-based in vitro experiments are also used to minimize the mechanistic limitations of protocols using cell-free systems.

Using cell lines integrates a spectrum of protective mechanisms represented by a shield of important cellular molecules against oxidants toxic effects that cell-free methodologies do not contain and examine.

Hence, in the present study, the four decoction extracts that exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity in cell-free methodologies Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Aloysia citrodora and Rosmarinus officinalis were examined for their redox-related properties using human endothelial EA.

The high energy demand of cancer cells, and concomitantly, their intense metabolic rates lead to abundant ROS production in the cellular environment, derived primarily from the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.

Albeit the continuous and elevated ROS levels can result in the death of normal cells, through the induction of oxidative stress, the high rate of ROS generation in cancer cells is compensated by the equally high activation of the respective antioxidant mechanisms Considering that the nuclear transcriptional factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 NRF2 , enhances cell survival under oxidative stress conditions, its overactivation enables cancer cells to take advantage over the normal ones In the case that the elevated levels of ROS cannot be alleviated, the cancer cells are vulnerable to cell death mediated by oxidative stress In this context, strategies related to intracellular ROS generation or target endogenous antioxidant mechanisms have been tested as potential anticancer therapies 50 , As regards the polyphenol activity, it is known that these molecules exert a biphasic effect; at low concentrations, they act as antioxidants, whereas at high concentrations, they promote elevated oxidation that results in cytotoxicity To address the above, the present study evaluated the cytotoxicity exerted by the four most potent decoction extracts in order to determine the effects of non-cytotoxic concentrations of these on the intracellular GSH and ROS levels.

The assessment of the effects of the extracts on the antioxidant capacity of endothelial cells was based on the measurement of the GSH and ROS levels using flow cytometry.

The regulation of intracellular GSH levels following extract treatment is crucial, since GSH is considered a significant endogenous antioxidant molecule in cells GSH can directly scavenge free radicals by donating one hydrogen atom from its sulfhydryl group or is used as substrate by antioxidant enzymes For endothelial cells in particular, GSH is important not only as an antioxidant, but also as a crucial regulator of cell signaling 54 , Endothelial cells as part of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment play a critical role in inflammatory processes, since the secretion of endothelial mitogens and chemotactic factors driven by endothelial cells, stimulates their proliferation and angiogenesis Endothelial cells release growth and survival factors such as IL-6 to protect tumor cells Consequently, the dependence of tumor growth and expansion to new blood vessels formed by proliferating endothelial cells warrants investigation.

The latter implies the need for the examination of strategies targeting the functions of tumor endothelial cells as key players in angiogenic processes Therefore, the assessment of the mechanisms through which medicinal herbs affect molecular pathways that regulate the GSH and ROS levels in the EA.

hy cell line may be of utmost importance. It has been previously described that carvacrol and thymol are the components considered responsible for the antioxidant activity of the essential oil of oregano 59 , It was reported that carvacrol increases ROS and depletes GSH levels in two distinct human cell lines.

In line with the above results, carvacrol has been reported to induce ROS levels in V79 cells 61 and to reduce the levels of antioxidant enzymes catalase CAT and superoxide dismutase SOD in HL human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and Jurkat human T lymphocyte cells cells It is possible that their antitumor activity does not rely on the increase of intracellular ROS levels, but on the elevation of the difference between the GSH and ROS levels 63 , rendering cells vulnerable to the already increased ROS levels due to their cancerous phenotype Salvia officinalis may exert its cytotoxic effect in a similar manner to oregano.

A previous study that investigated the effect of Salvia chloroleuca reported that was able to induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cells through a ROS-mediated pathway The results of the present study and the previous one 65 are contradictory to data from previous literature that reported that HepG2 cells pre-treated with the Salvia officinalis extract formed less oxidant-induced DNA lesions Although Kozics et al 66 proposed that the observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both the elevation of glutathione peroxidase GPx activity in the pre-treated cells, as well as to its well documented in vitro antioxidant activity, their finding of an elevated GPx activity may justify the decrease levels of GSH found in the present study.

Previously, Salvia officinalis was reported to decrease peripheral inflammation that may support blood brain barrier function and cerebral blood flow, contributing to longer-term benefits towards cognitive health in older adults In the present study, the Aloysia citrodora decoction extract also decreased the GSH levels in the EA.

Notably, Aloysia citrodora decoction extract has been previously linked to an increase in glutathione reductase GR levels accompanied by lower levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, as proposed by a double-blind study using human subjects Furthermore, Fitsiou et al 69 reported potent anticancer and antimicrobial properties accompanied by a weak direct antioxidant activity, as shown by comet assay in Jurkat cells.

Another study demonstrated results similar with to the data presented herein, attributing lemon beebrush leaf infusion as a source of compounds with significant free radical scavenger ability and antigenotoxic activity Even though Rosmarinus officinalis decoction extract exhibited a potent antioxidant capacity, the present study failed to detect any changes in GSH and ROS levels.

As aforementioned, it has been demonstrated that the depletion of endogenous GSH levels is considered to increase the efficacy of therapeutic interventions 71 , Furthermore, it has been shown that Rosmarinus officinalis contains rosmarinic acid, and that its administration in a xenograft tumor model was able to suppress tumor growth Furthermore, rosmarinic acid can damage murine melanoma cells through a double-axis effect, namely the possible protection of healthy cells increased GSH and the concomitant damage of cancer cells depletion of GSH This phenomenon may compose a critical step for the selection of appropriate chemopreventive strategies based on appropriate configurations of the redox potential of cancer cells.

Chinese herbs have been associated with the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, enabling their experimental use as therapeutic compounds against metabolism-related diseases Αn uncertainty that the present study generates lies in the obvious discrepancy between results in decoctions examined in the authors' laboratory and originating from the same plant type, but have been provided by different producers.

This could relate to the fact that herb biological properties are dependent on differences in the exact geographical location and cultivation micro-environment conditions.

Previously, Karydas et al 76 reported that even different land areas can modulate antioxidant potential and polyphenolic content. More elaborately, the different land areas can be further fragmented into different habitats and the specific microclimate conditions that include altitude, soil composition, temperature variation, and watering during the day or night hours.

Furthermore, even though the in vitro cell-free methodologies rely on the ability of the extract to scavenge the generating radical, small differences in the methodology mechanisms can justify the differentiation of the efficacies that each extract exhibits.

This has been frequently reported in studies examining a series of protocol schemes Therefore, it is necessary not to rely on a single test or even the analyzed parameter These fluctuations in efficacies have not only been observed among experimental protocols applied, but also between herbs that were derived from different producers.

Nevertheless, it is clear that certain decoction extracts e. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the promising role of the tested decoctions as a source of antioxidant active compounds in follow-up in vivo studies, since they possess the ability to interfere with or modify the redox state of cells.

Nevertheless, antioxidant protection involves a variety of factors, such as the concentration of antioxidant compounds, the synergetic effect that they may possess and how they can modulate the different branches of cellular oxidative status.

Therefore, the scientific community needs to remain alert and acknowledge the aforementioned limitations that do not allow us to reach a solid outcome, which is also dependent on the methodology used to examine the extracts.

Likewise, it is reasonable that the outcome in in vitro applications may differ from that in vivo due to advanced levels of complexity of the biological system.

The need for further research focusing on the effects of medicinal and aromatic herbs in vivo is critical to corroborate the beneficial effects proposed by the present study.

Additionally, the cytotoxicity and bioactivity of the samples examined appears to be dependent on various factors, such as a plant's geographical location and cultivation process, parts of the plant used for decoction preparation and the extraction protocol solvent, temperature, time, etc.

However, clinical trials and primary prevention studies using high doses of such herbs in humans did not yield the expected beneficial outcome Conclusively, the generating trend of the use of herbs in order to exert beneficial effects on human health and well-being requires further exploration.

The setting of prerequisites for the investigation of the interrelation between particular herb harvests and cultivation conditions may lead to new dimensions and complexities that the scientific community needs to focus their interest and shed light on.

Finally, the assessment of the polyphenol content in the decoction extracts that possess a higher efficacy and the identification of those molecules that may exert significant biological effects is of utmost importance.

The aforementioned should be followed with mechanistic in vitro and in vivo experimental models that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by the compounds. ZS, IDK, PV and FT analyzed and interpreted the data regarding the antioxidant activity of the herbs.

ZS, IDK and PV were major contributors to the writing of the manuscript. KA, NG and DK, were involved in the design and conception of the study, and also confirm the authenticity of all the raw data.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. DK is an Editor of the journal, but had no personal involvement in the reviewing process, or any influence in terms of adjudicating on the final decision, for this article.

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Consequently, chemical composition and biological activity of herbs need to be analyzed to determine the functional properties of these herbs after consumption and use in producing plant-fortified functional food.

This study aimed to investigate the phenolic compound composition and antioxidant capacity of 10 different herbs, which are not yet commonly consumed but may be of great importance in maintaining and promoting human health and longevity.

Phenolic compounds occur in esters with carboxylic acids or glucose. In an acidic environment, these compounds may undergo hydrolysis, which breaks ester and glycosidic bonds, leading to an increase in the number of free compounds [ 14 ]. Therefore, the TP and TF contents, individual phenolic compounds, and AA were determined in herbal extracts not subjected to the hydrolysis process after alkaline hydrolysis phenolic compounds released from ester derivatives or acid hydrolysis phenolic compounds released from glycosidic derivatives to better understand the distribution of phenolic compounds in herbs as well as their potential bioactive properties.

The free and conjugated TP and TF contents determined in the extracts of tested herbs are presented in Fig. The TP concentration in herb samples ranged from 2.

The highest concentration of TP compounds was detected in sage leaves The free form of these compounds was dominant in five herbs and constituted However, TP compounds released from glycosidic derivatives dominated in Indian hemp and heartsease, and their percentage contributions were For phenolic compounds released from ester derivatives, their percentage contribution to the TP content was the highest in three herbs horsetail - Total phenolic content TP and total flavonoid content TF in tested herbs.

F - free forms of polyphenolic compounds; E - polyphenolic compounds released from ester bonds; G - polyphenolic compounds released from glucoside bonds. Significant differences were also found in the analyzed herb samples in terms of TF content Fig.

The TF content ranged from 0. The highest TF value was found in the sage leaves Moreover, it was noted that free flavonoids were the dominant compounds in most of the herbs studied.

Six herbs Indian hemp, horsetail, thyme, chamomile, corn silk, and pine buds had the highest contribution of the free form of flavonoid compounds.

Their percentage contribution ranged from Flavonoid compounds released from ester bonds dominated only in the bogbean leaves However, the flavonoids released from glycosidic bonds were dominant in heartsease In the available literature, researchers have mainly focused on determining the free form of TP and TF compounds.

However, the TP values obtained for the sage are comparable [ 15 , 16 ], although the data available for horsetail are higher than in the current study [ 17 ], and the data available for blessed thistle was lower [ 18 ].

In the case of TF content, the available data showed that the concentration of these compounds was almost three times higher than the results presented in the current study [ 19 ].

However, the data available for Indian hemp, thyme and blessed thistle are lower [ 18 , 20 , 21 ]. In comparison, the data available for heartsease thistle and horsetail was higher than the data obtained in the current study [ 17 ]. The result of such a significant difference in the TP and TF concentrations in herbs may be the influence of the variety, climatic and growing conditions [ 3 ].

Moreover, the extraction method is also crucial for the final level of bioactive compounds in the obtained extracts [ 22 , 23 ]. The antioxidant activity AA in the herb extracts determined by the ABTS method ranged from The sage leaves were characterized by the highest AA Moreover, it was observed that the AA determined by the ABTS method in the herb extracts after alkaline hydrolysis was the highest in six herbs Indian hemp, heartsease, horsetail, blessed thistle, pine buds and corn silk; Fig.

These values ranged from Moreover, in the bogbean leaves and the sage leaves, these values were the highest in the extracts subjected to acid hydrolysis However, in the thyme herb The high AA in the non-hydrolyzed extracts of these plants may be due to the presence of numerous volatile compounds [ 24 ].

Antioxidant activity AA determined by ABTS a and DPPH b assays in tested herbs. F — antioxidant activity determined in non-hydrolyzed extracts; E - antioxidant activity determined in extracts after alkaline hydrolysis; G - antioxidant activity determined in extracts after acid hydrolysis.

The AA of the examined extracts measured by the DPPH test ranged from The extract obtained from sage leaves However, the herb of the blessed thistle was characterized by the lowest values of AA Moreover, it was noted that the highest values of AA determined by the DPPH method were measured in herbal extracts subjected to the hydrolysis process except thyme herb.

This data may suggest that the tested herbs may show more significant biological activity in vivo than in vitro. As mentioned above, the highest values of AA in thyme were in the non-hydrolyzed extracts. The percentage contribution of AA determined in these extracts was Despite this, the highest values of AA found in extracts subjected to alkaline hydrolysis were observed in the bogbean leaves However, the other tested herbs Indian hemp, heartsease, horsetail, blessed thistle, corn silk, pine buds were characterized by the highest value of AA determined in the extracts subjected to acid hydrolysis.

Heartsease had the highest value of AA determined by the DPPH method among the extracts subjected to acid hydrolysis. In contrast, the lowest value was detected in the blessed thistle acid extracts. In other reports on the AA of the tested herbs, ambiguous values were observed. In a study by Mocan et al.

In contrast, Vicaș et al. Moreover, other studies presented lower AA DPPH assay values for Indian hemp, thyme herb, chamomile and corn silk than in our study [ 20 , 26 , 27 , 28 ]. Furthermore, lower ABTS values were observed for heartsease, thyme and corn silk [ 26 , 29 , 30 ].

The ambiguous findings presented in the current and previous studies may indicate that the AA of herbs depends not only on the presence of polyphenolic compounds but also on other phytochemicals with antioxidant potential. Additionally, the correlation coefficient r between the AA values and the TP and TF contents was determined.

The correlation coefficient between ABTS and TP was 0. The obtained values suggest that total phenolic compounds are more responsible for the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS and DPPH assays than the flavonoid compounds themselves.

The results of this study are consistent with those found in the literature [ 23 ]. In the tested material, 33 phenolic compounds were determined, of which 16 were phenolic acids, 9 were flavonoids, and eight were stilbenes Table S1.

As in the case of TP and TF contents, the available literature provides only data regarding the presence of the free form of individual phenolic compounds. The horsetail was characterized by the richest profile of free phenolic compounds 33 compounds ; while bogbean leaves were characterized by the poorest profile of these substances 16 compounds.

Six compounds naringenin, orientin, rutin, coutaric acid, caftaric acid and cinnamic acid were present in all tested non-hydrolyzed extracts. The results in Table S1 indicate that in the five tested herbs sage leaves, horsetail, blessed thistle, thyme and chamomile the major compound belonged to the phenolic acids.

Ferulic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and syringic acid were dominant compounds in horsetail thyme, chamomile, blessed thistle and sage leaves, respectively. However, in four non-hydrolyzed herb extracts the major compounds were flavonoids.

Apigenin was a major compound only in corn silk, while orientin was dominant in three herbs bogbean leaves, Indian hemp and pine buds. Moreover, only one non-hydrolyzed sample heartsease herb possessed the dominant compound from the stilbenes group E-resveratrol. Moreover, it was noted that flavonoids were the dominant group of phenols in most of the non-hydrolyzed extracts Fig.

In the non-hydrolyzed samples, the sum of phenolic compounds ranged from 0. The highest sum of phenolic compounds content in the present study was found in the chamomile flower 2. This value was over times higher than the total content of phenolic compounds in heartsease, blessed thistle and corn silk.

The sum of free phenolic compounds in these three herbs was the lowest 0. For extracts after the alkaline hydrolysis, the richest profile of phenolic compounds was found in bogbean leaves 33 compounds Table S3. This result is opposite to that obtained from non-hydrolyzed extracts of bogbean leaves, in which this herb was characterized by the lowest number of identified compounds 16 compounds.

However, the poorest profile of phenolic compounds was found in thyme 22 compounds. Compounds from the phenolic acids group were the main substances in six herbs sage leaves, heartsease, blessed thistle, thyme, chamomile and corn silk.

Ferulic acid was the dominant compound in two herbs chamomile and corn silk. Moreover, syringic acid was the primary phenolic acid in two herbs sage leaves and thyme. In contrast, the primary phenolic acids in the heartsease and blessed thistle were m -hydroxybenzoic and caffeic acids, respectively Table S2.

In addition, the phenolic acids were the dominant group of phenols in most of the extracts after alkaline hydrolysis Fig. However, compounds from the flavonoid group were dominant in three extracts after alkaline hydrolysis bogbean leaves, Indian hemp and horsetail.

Rutin dominated in Indian hemp, apigenin in the bogbean leaves and orientin in the horsetail. Similar to the case of the non-hydrolyzed samples, in only one herb was a compound from stilbenes dominant.

E-astringin was a major compound in the pine buds, with a Moreover, sage leaf was characterized by the highest sum of phenolic compound released from ester bonds. The content of the compounds determined in this herb was 2. On the other hand, the lowest content of phenolic compounds released from ester bonds was measured in corn silk 0.

As shown in Table S4 , the richest profile of phenolic compounds released from glycosidic bonds acid hydrolysis was detected in bogbean leaves 30 compounds. These data are similar to alkaline hydrolysis, which suggests that phenolic compounds in bogbean leaves are mostly present in glycosidic and ester bonds.

In contrast, the lowest number of phenolic compounds was determined in sage leaves, corn silk and pine buds 24 compounds each Table S4. Moreover, the number of detected compounds in the sample after acid hydrolysis was higher than the number of compounds found in the non-hydrolyzed extracts 16 compounds and in extracts after alkaline hydrolysis 22 compounds.

Furthermore, the dominant compound was represented by phenolic acids in 9 herbs Table S4 , while in only one herb corn silk was the major compound from flavonoids luteolin. As in the extracts after alkaline hydrolysis, phenolic acids were the dominant group of phenols in extracts after acid hydrolysis Fig.

The sum of phenolic compounds released from glycosidic bonds ranged from 0. The highest content of these compounds were found in sage leaf 0. Most studies dedicated to the phenolic compound profiles refer to their free form [ 18 , 25 , 31 , 32 ].

Roby et al. The dominant compound in the cited study was quercetin, whose share was In contrast, the current study showed that the percentage contribution of quercetin in the chamomile was at a lower level 0. In the case of sage, the phenolic compound profile consisted of phenolic compounds, i.

A study by Roby et al. However, in the current study, rosmarinic acid was not identified, and the content of ferulic acid was approximately four times lower than in the cited studies. In addition, Roby et al. Those authors found that the dominant phenolic compound was cinnamic acid, with a percentage contribution of For comparison, in our study, m -hydroxybenzoic acid and p -hydroxybenzoic acid A small number of phenolic compounds rutin, ferulic acid, p -coumaric acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were also found in horsetail by Čanadanović-Brunet et al.

Moreover, the results of a study by Oliva et al. In comparison, 15 out of 34 phenolic compounds detected by Oliva et al. As mentioned above, compounds from stilbenes dominated only in non-hydrolyzed extracts of heartsease.

A study conducted by Sadeghnia et al. In turn, Paun et al. Moreover, the dominant compound in the studies conducted by Paun et al. Furthermore, a small number of phenolic compounds caffeic acid, gallic acid and Z-resveratrol and E-resveratrol were also detected in corn silk [ 20 ], whose presence was also confirmed in this study.

As in the case of two other herbs bogbean leaves and Indian hemp , orientin had the highest percentage The four compounds present in this herb chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid and syringic acid were not detected. Moreover, pine buds and horsetail herb both contained all the stilbenes.

The different number of phenolic compounds identified in herbs may result from varietal diversity, the influence of vegetation season, climatic and cultivation conditions, and extraction and analytical methods [ 3 ]. However, the results obtained in the current study indicate that the tested herbs may be a valuable source of phenolic compounds with their own unique profiles.

This is the first study to present the composition of free and conjugated phenolic compounds in 10 different herbs. The study showed that each tested herb possesses its own fingerprint of phenolic compounds. The TP, TF and total content of individual compounds varied significantly among herbs.

Moreover, each hydrolysed and non-hydrolyzed herb extract was characterized by a specific level of phenolic compounds. The study also showed that the bioactive compounds in herbs are primarily present in bound forms rather than in free forms. In addition, each herb was characterized by a specific and unique antioxidant activity.

The results of the study indicated that the tested herbs are a valuable source of phenolic acids, flavonoids and stilbenes with high antioxidant activity.

Moreover, the phenolic compound profile characteristics and antioxidant activity of different herbs may encourage the wider use of these products in the food industry and the development of new functional foods.

Oliver Tusevski, Aneta Kostovska, … Sonja Gadzovska Simic. Zineb El Jabboury, Driss Ousaaid, … Lahsen El Ghadraoui. Asogwa IS, Ibrahim AN, Agbaka JI African baobab: its role in enhancing nutrition, health, and the environment.

Trees Forests People Shi YF, Wang ZR, Xu BX, Huo JQ, Hu R, Zhao Y, Zhang ZS Rainfall amount determines annual herb controls over soil seed bank and its similarity with vegetation in the Tengger Desert. Ecol Process Article Google Scholar.

Skrypnik L, Novikova A, Tokupova E Improvement of phenolic compounds, essential oil content and antioxidant properties of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L.

depending on type and concentration of selenium application. Plants Basel Vissi T, Zelkó R, Földesi R, Túri I Traditional application of sage Salvia in conductive education and its potential evidence—based background.

Heliyon 7:e Thakur L, Ghodasra U, Patel N, Dabhi M Novel approaches for stability improvement in natural medicines. Pharmacogn Rev — Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Hussain MI, González L, Souto C, Reigosa MJ Ecophysiological responses of three native herbs to phytotoxic potential of invasive Acacia melanoxylon R.

Br Agroforest Syst Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai A Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: an overview.

Medicines Article CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar. Amarowicz R, Pegg RB Chapter one — natural antioxidants of plants origin.

Herbal extract for antioxidant support

Herbal extract for antioxidant support -

Medicinal and antioxidant property: The crude drugs of asparagus roots are mainly used for increasing the secretion of milk and for improve the appetite in lactating women.

In unani system roots are used as laxatives, tonic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue and in disease of kidney and liver. Asparagus racem- osus are also used against jaundice.

It is widely used as antioxidant, anti-stress effect, anti-ulcer, and wound healing property Figures 2a and 2b.

Antioxidant properties of this plant have become a vast interest due to their possible uses as natural additives to substitute synthetic ones. Thus, the result obtained in the present study showed that the methonolic extract of the root of Asparagus racemosus contains the maximum antioxidant compound which can scavenge different Reactive Oxygen Species ROS and free radicals under in vitro conditions Chauhan M, ; Karuna DS, et al.

Glycyrrhiza glabra. Chemical constituents: The triterpene saponins are the major characteristic constituents of liquorice, being responsible for sweet taste. Glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhiric acid, yellow colour is due to flavonoid content such as flavanones, flavones, flavanonols, chalcones, isoflavans, isoflavenes, isoflavones and isoflavanones.

The major flavonoids are glucosides of liguiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin such as liquirtin, isoliquiritin, liquiritin apioside and licuraside. Some phenolic compounds are also present. Many volatile components are geraniol, pentanol, hexanol, teroinenol and α-terpineol.

glabra is also rich in propionic acid, benzoic acid, furfuraldehyde, 2,3-butanediol, furfuryl formate, maltol, 1-methylformylpyrrole and trimethylpyrazine Batiha GS, et al. Medicinal and antioxidant property: The extracts are used in food and pharmaceutical industries, also in the manufacture of functional foods and food supplements.

Used as food additives that is as flavors and sweetening agents and used as flavoring agent for American type tobacco, chewing gum, candies, baked goods, ice cream, and soft drinks. Chemical constituents: Tut fruits contain phenolics and flavonoids contents, vitamin, fat mainly linolic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and minerals, and its leaves have fixed oil, carbohydrate, protein, tannin, alkaloids, sterol, flavonoids, glycosides and saponin Chen CY, et al.

Medicinal and antioxidant property: Fruits, root and stem barks and leaves of Tut plant have been used in the treatment of inflammation, jaundice and hepatitis, cancer, diabetes, dislipidemia, diarrhea, dyspepsia, edema, fever, headache, hypertension, purgative, anthelminthic and wounds Figure 4.

Leaves of Tut plant have been reported to use in the treatment of depression, anxiety, cerebral ischemia, hepatic disease, cancer, diabetes, dislipidemia and ulcer. The extract was tested by studying the inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. It shows activity through free radical scavenging property Wang W, et al.

Synonym: Biancaea sappan L Flowers of India, ; India biodiversity, Chemical constituents: There are nine components isolated from heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. They are brazilein, t-lyoniresinol, stearic acid, stigmasterol, E-3,3-dimethyoxy-4,4-dihydroxystilbene, - -syfingaresinol, protosappanin A, and brazilide Zhao N, et al.

Medicinal and antioxidant property: Used in the treatment of non-specific leucorrhoea Post IUD. It helps in stopping bleeding following IUD insertions. It is a powerful astringent, haemostatic, healing properties which help in stopping bleeding in gums and use gives firmness and strength to the gums and hence, it is useful in mobile teeth, aphthous ulcers, and stomatitis and gum erosions.

It is used as constipating, sedative, astringent, frigerant, depurative. It is useful in witiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, leprosy, skin diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, epilepsy, convulsions, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, diabetes, haemoptysis, haemorrhages, stomatopathy and odontopathy.

It is used in blood vitalizing activity and used in the treatment of toxic side effects resulting from radiation and chemotherapy Figures 5a and 5b. It is used for disturbances of menstrual functions. It also acts as antimalarial and antianaemic, abortifacient. Their DPPH radical scavenging activity and Folin-Ciocalteau phenolic content were used to create an antioxidant profile.

The results revealed that alkaloid, tannin, and saponin were present in every section of the wood. Except for branch sapwood, triterpenoid and flavonoid were identified in all parts of the wood Zhao N, et al.

Medicinal and antioxidant property: It helps to reduce nausea, prevent nausea due to chemotheraoy, motion sickness, and surgery. Other uses are pain relief for arthritis, muscle soreness, chest pain, low back pain, stomach pain and menstrual pain; treat upper respiratory tract infections, cough, and bronchitis and anti-inflammatory agent, lowers blood pressure Figures 6a and 6b.

It also used in treatment of cold and flu. The anti-oxidant capabilities of ginger Zingiber officinale were assessed using three parameters: Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and phenolic acid identification in Water Extract WEG and Ethanol Extract EEG.

In all experiments, the data showed that EEG had higher antioxidant activity than WEG. This study clearly proved that ginger extracts have potent antioxidant activities, and that their consumption can help to prevent or delay the onset of diseases caused by oxidative stress in the absence of antioxidant supplements Mbaveng AT and Kuete V, ; Stoilova I, et al.

Synonym: Picochlorum oculate, Flagellaria gracilis stack house Wilson AJ and Critchley AT, ; Hussein HA, et al. From revitalizing energy boosters to soothing stress-relievers, this exclusive assortment offers a holistic approach to well-being.

Experience the magic of ancient wisdom combined with modern science as these herbs support your body and mind in their quest for optimal balance. Elevate your wellness journey today with the "Most Exceptional Herbs on Planet Earth" — where nature's finest herbs meet unparalleled quality.

If You're unhappy for any reason, simply send your order back and receive a full refund. High-Potency Resurrection Plant Extract for Antioxidant Support, Skin Revitalization. Shipping calculated at checkout. Experience the Miraculous Benefits of Resurrection Plant Extract Unlock the Power of Selaginella Lepidophylla Introducing our Resurrection Plant Extract, derived from the remarkable Selaginella lepidophylla, also known as the Resurrection Plant.

Resurrection Plant Extract a Rich in Bioactive Compound for Holistic Health Our extract taps into the plant's innate bioactive components, scientifically researched for their diverse health benefits: Antioxidant Support : As demonstrated in "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine," the Resurrection Plant's phenolic compounds offer potent antioxidant activity, essential for reducing oxidative stress and chronic disease risk.

Anti-inflammatory Properties : Highlighted in the "International Journal of Molecular Sciences," these extracts show significant anti-inflammatory activity, aiding in managing inflammation-related conditions.

Skin Hydration and Revitalization : Dermatological studies, such as those in the "Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology," reveal the plant's potential in enhancing skin hydration and barrier function for a youthful complexion. Neuroprotective Potential : Early research in "Phytotherapy Research" suggests neuroprotective properties, indicating possible benefits for neurodegenerative diseases.

Crafted for Maximum Potency and Purity We ensure meticulous processing of the Resurrection Plant Extract to preserve the highest quality of these bioactive compounds. Consultation with Healthcare Providers Please note, individual responses to Resurrection Plant Extract may vary.

Antioxidants: In Depth. Carlsen MH, Halvorsen BL, Holte K, Bøhn SK, Dragland S, Sampson L, Willey C, Senoo H, Umezono Y, Sanada C, Barikmo I. The total antioxidant content of more than foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

Nutrition journal. Semba RD, Ferrucci L, Bartali B, Urpí-Sarda M, Zamora-Ros R, Sun K, Cherubini A, Bandinelli S, Andres-Lacueva C. Resveratrol levels and all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling adults.

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Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators.

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Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial.

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, Stampfer M, Rosner B, Cook NR, Belanger C, LaMotte F, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM, Willett W.

Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease.

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The SU. MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, Zaharris E, MacFadyen J, Danielson E, Buring JE, Manson JE.

Marchese ME, Kumar R, Colangelo LA, Avila PC, Jacobs DR, Gross M, Sood A, Liu K, Cook-Mills JM. The vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol have opposite associations with spirometric parameters: the CARDIA study. Respiratory research. Berdnikovs S, Abdala-Valencia H, McCary C, Somand M, Cole R, Garcia A, Bryce P, Cook-Mills JM.

Isoforms of vitamin E have opposing immunoregulatory functions during inflammation by regulating leukocyte recruitment. The Journal of Immunology. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Combs GF, Slate EH, Fischbach LA, Marshall JR, Clark LC.

Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers.

Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no.

Archives of ophthalmology. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. Archives of Ophthalmology. Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L, Pulido J, Frankowski J, Rudy D, Pei K, Tsipursky M, Nyland J.

Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial.

Optometry-Journal of the American Optometric Association. Bartlett HE, Eperjesi F. Effect of lutein and antioxidant dietary supplementation on contrast sensitivity in age-related macular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

European journal of clinical nutrition. Chew EY, Clemons TE, SanGiovanni JP, Danis RP, Ferris FL, Elman MJ, Antoszyk AN, Ruby AJ, Orth D, Bressler SB, Fish GE.

JAMA ophthalmology. Evans JR, Lawrenson JG. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Gaziano JM, Darke AK, Crowley JJ, Goodman PJ, Lippman SM, Lad TE, Bearden JD, Goodman GE, Minasian LM. Age-related cataract in men in the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial eye endpoints study: a randomized clinical trial.

Kryscio RJ, Abner EL, Caban-Holt A, Lovell M, Goodman P, Darke AK, Yee M, Crowley J, Schmitt FA. JAMA neurology. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C.

Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane database of systematic reviews.

Often Herrbal Herbal extract for antioxidant support a marketing buzzword, learn about Heral role of antioxidants beyond the abtioxidant, and some of the research on wntioxidant and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are supporg Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy. Free radicals are also formed after exercising or exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations.

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