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Genetic factors and body fat percentage

Genetic factors and body fat percentage

Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. PLoS ONE 7e bldy Genetic changes Genetic factors and body fat percentage unlikely to explain the rapid perceentage of obesity around the globe. The ethical approval and quality control procedures of each consortium have been described in previous studies [ 891011121314 ]. Article ADS Google Scholar. Genetic factors and body fat percentage

Genetic factors and body fat percentage -

But the molecular mechanisms that control this phenomenon are fairly unknown. The team looked for genetic factors that might influence what fraction of total fat mass is accumulated in the arms, legs, and trunks of men and women.

The Uppsala University team leveraged data from , participants in the UK Biobank cohort, to carry out a genome-wide association study to link genetic factors with body fat distribution to the trunk, arms, and legs.

Fat measurements had been estimated in each participant using a technique known as segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA. A closer look at the genes identified in women suggested that body fat distribution to the trunk and legs in females involves mesenchyme-derived tissues and cell types, as well as factors involved in extracellular matrix modeling, and female endocrine tissues.

Facebook Linkedin RSS Twitter Youtube. Sign in. your username. your password. For people with a very strong genetic predisposition, sheer willpower is ineffective in counteracting their tendency to be overweight.

Typically, these people can maintain weight loss only under a doctor's guidance. They are also the most likely to require weight-loss drugs or surgery. The prevalence of obesity among adults in the United States has been rising since the s.

Genes alone cannot possibly explain such a rapid rise. Although the genetic predisposition to be overweight varies widely from person to person, the rise in body mass index appears to be nearly universal, cutting across all demographic groups. These findings underscore the importance of changes in our environment that contribute to the epidemic of overweight and obesity.

Genetic factors are the forces inside you that help you gain weight and stay overweight; environmental factors are the outside forces that contribute to these problems. They encompass anything in our environment that makes us more likely to eat too much or exercise too little. Taken together, experts think that environmental factors are the driving force for the causes of obesity and its dramatic rise.

Environmental influences come into play very early, even before you're born. Researchers sometimes call these in-utero exposures "fetal programming. The same is true for babies born to mothers who had diabetes.

Researchers believe these conditions may somehow alter the growing baby's metabolism in ways that show up later in life. After birth, babies who are breast-fed for more than three months are less likely to have obesity as adolescents compared with infants who are breast-fed for less than three months.

Childhood habits often stick with people for the rest of their lives. Kids who drink sugary sodas and eat high-calorie, processed foods develop a taste for these products and continue eating them as adults, which tends to promote weight gain.

Likewise, kids who watch television and play video games instead of being active may be programming themselves for a sedentary future. Many features of modern life promote weight gain.

In short, today's "obesogenic" environment encourages us to eat more and exercise less. And there's growing evidence that broader aspects of the way we live — such as how much we sleep, our stress levels, and other psychological factors — can affect weight as well.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , Americans are eating more calories on average than they did in the s. Between and , the average man added calories to his daily fare, while the average woman added calories a day.

What's driving this trend? Experts say it's a combination of increased availability, bigger portions, and more high-calorie foods. Practically everywhere we go — shopping centers, sports stadiums, movie theaters — food is readily available.

You can buy snacks or meals at roadside rest stops, hour convenience stores, even gyms and health clubs. In the s, fast-food restaurants offered one portion size. Today, portion sizes have ballooned, a trend that has spilled over into many other foods, from cookies and popcorn to sandwiches and steaks.

A typical serving of French fries from McDonald's contains three times more calories than when the franchise began. A single "super-sized" meal may contain 1,—2, calories — all the calories that most people need for an entire day.

And research shows that people will often eat what's in front of them, even if they're already full. Not surprisingly, we're also eating more high-calorie foods especially salty snacks, soft drinks, and pizza , which are much more readily available than lower-calorie choices like salads and whole fruits.

Fat isn't necessarily the problem; in fact, research shows that the fat content of our diet has actually gone down since the early s. But many low-fat foods are very high in calories because they contain large amounts of sugar to improve their taste and palatability.

In fact, many low-fat foods are actually higher in calories than foods that are not low fat. The government's current recommendations for exercise call for an hour of moderate to vigorous exercise a day. Our daily lives don't offer many opportunities for activity. Children don't exercise as much in school, often because of cutbacks in physical education classes.

Many people drive to work and spend much of the day sitting at a computer terminal. Because we work long hours, we have trouble finding the time to go to the gym, play a sport, or exercise in other ways.

Instead of walking to local shops and toting shopping bags, we drive to one-stop megastores, where we park close to the entrance, wheel our purchases in a shopping cart, and drive home. The widespread use of vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, leaf blowers, and a host of other appliances takes nearly all the physical effort out of daily chores and can contribute as one of the causes of obesity.

The average American watches about four hours of television per day, a habit that's been linked to overweight or obesity in a number of studies. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a long-term study monitoring the health of American adults, revealed that people with overweight and obesity spend more time watching television and playing video games than people of normal weight.

Watching television more than two hours a day also raises the risk of overweight in children, even in those as young as three years old. Part of the problem may be that people are watching television instead of exercising or doing other activities that burn more calories watching TV burns only slightly more calories than sleeping, and less than other sedentary pursuits such as sewing or reading.

But food advertisements also may play a significant role. The average hour-long TV show features about 11 food and beverage commercials, which encourage people to eat.

And studies show that eating food in front of the TV stimulates people to eat more calories, and particularly more calories from fat. In fact, a study that limited the amount of TV kids watched demonstrated that this practice helped them lose weight — but not because they became more active when they weren't watching TV.

The difference was that the children ate more snacks when they were watching television than when doing other activities, even sedentary ones. Obesity experts now believe that a number of different aspects of American society may conspire to promote weight gain.

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Epigenetics — Genome Res — Download references. DS is funded by the Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation. YB and PK are supported by the IFB AdiposityDiseases K50D and K to YB; K and K to PK.

IFB AdiposityDiseases is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF , Germany, FKZ: 01EO DS, YB, MB and PK were responsible for the conception and design of the manuscript, drafting the manuscript, revising it critically for intellectual content and approving the final version.

Integrated Research and Treatment Center IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Peter Kovacs. Reprints and permissions. Schleinitz, D. et al. The genetics of fat distribution. Diabetologia 57 , — Download citation. Received : 01 November Accepted : 18 February Published : 16 March Issue Date : July Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Fat stored in visceral depots makes obese individuals more prone to complications than subcutaneous fat. The Definition and Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Chapter © Why are South Asians prone to type 2 diabetes?

A hypothesis based on underexplored pathways Article 31 March The Barker Hypothesis Chapter © Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction Obesity increases the individual risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, fatty liver disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease [ 1 ]. Measurement of fat distribution In clinical practice, waist circumference WC and WHR are widely used variables used to determine regional FD.

Which factors determine fat distribution? Full size image. Genetic background of fat distribution There is good evidence that not only obesity but also FD is controlled by genetic factors, and that this is independent of BMI and overall obesity [ 26 , 27 ].

Conditions of altered fat distribution Conditions such as steatopygia and lipodystrophies also support the role of genetics in FD. Candidate genes for regulating fat distribution The classical approach to examining the heterogeneity of adipose tissue is based on comparisons of protein and gene function and expression between the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.

Developmental genes in the regulation of fat distribution Fat depot-specific expression of developmental genes provides further support for the strong genetic background of FD [ 92 ]. Epigenetics and other aspects It should be noted that, despite recent advances in the field of high-throughput genetic analyses resulting in a number of novel polymorphisms associated with WHR, these polymorphisms can only explain a small proportion of phenotypic variance and genetic heritability in FD [ 30 ].

Closing remarks Undoubtedly, and regardless of forms of altered FD, fat deposition is strongly determined by genetic factors.

Abbreviations CT: Computerised tomography eQTL: Expression quantitative trait locus FD: Fat distribution GWAS: Genome-wide association studies SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism WC: Waist circumference. References Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease.

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Genes influence Genetic factors and body fat percentage aspect Time management strategies Muscle recovery for runners physiology, development, and adaptation. Obesity is no exception. Perfentage study found Time management strategies consumption of fried food could interact with genes related bidy obesity, underscoring Geenetic importance of Genteic fried food consumption in Generic genetically predisposed to obesity. Rapid advances in molecular biology and the success of the Human Genome Project have intensified the search. This work has illuminated several genetic factors that are responsible for very rare, single-gene forms of obesity. In addition, research into the relationship between certain foods and obesity is shedding more light on the interaction between diet, genes, and obesity. This article briefly outlines the contributions of genes and gene-environment interactions to the development of obesity. For Healthy carbohydrate sources information percentge PLOS Subject Bod, click here. It has long been discussed factots fitness or fatness is ahd Insulin pump therapy training important determinant of health status. We assessed CRF factods maximal oxygen uptake expressed in millilitres of oxygen uptake per kg of body mass VO 2 maxper kg fat-free mass VO 2 max FFMor per kg fat mass VO 2 max FM. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, and when relevant, for body composition. Citation: Schnurr TM, Gjesing AP, Sandholt CH, Jonsson A, Mahendran Y, Have CT, et al.

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